Neuro-Ch 3/4

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What makes up the CNS

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1

What makes up the CNS

brain and spinal cord

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2

What makes up the PNS

cranial nerves, spinal nerves, sensory organs (eyes, tongue, nose)

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3

Neurons are the ___________ of the nervous system

functional unit

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4

What is the function of neuron dendrites

receive electrical signals

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5

What is neuron soma and its job

body of neurons- responsible for the health of the neuron

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6

What is the job of neuron axons

longest part of the neuron- carries signal

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7

What is the function of neuron myelin sheaths

layer of fat that wraps axon, protects and speeds up signal

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8

What is the function of neuron axon terminals

make synaptic connections with another cell of effector cell

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9

In the brain, fiber types can be classified based on

where they go

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10

What fibers pass from one hemisphere to the other via the corpus callosum

commissural fibers

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11

What fibers pass from one lobe to another lobe in the same hemisphere

associative fibers- arcuate or U shaped fibers

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12

What fibers descend from the cerebral hemispheres to other areas of the CNS (mostly in internal capsule)

projection fibers

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13

After passing through the upper part of the brain stem, these fibers fan out and extend to the cerebral cortex

projection fibers

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14

What cells in the nervous system are capable of transmitting an impulse

neurons

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15

What cells in the nervous system are NOT capable of transmitting an impulse

neuroglial cells

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16

What are examples of neuroglial cells

astrocytes oligodendrocytes microglia

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17

What is an example of non-neuroglial cells that are not capable of transmitting an impulse

ependyma

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18

Glial cells support what

neuronal function- there are 10 for every neuron in the brain

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19

What role do microglia cells play

phagocytic/ scavenger

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20

What are the 3 main types of macroglia

astrocytes oligodendrocytes ependymal cells

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21

What is the function of astrocytes

metabolic support- scaffold for growing axons and BBB

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22

What is the function of oligodendrocytes

make myeline (1 can myelinate dozens of axons)

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23

What is the function of ependymal cells

produce CSF in the ventricles

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24

Schwann cells make myelin in what nervous system

PNS

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25

Oligodendrocytes make myelin in what nervous system

CNS

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26

Astrocytes as always attached to what

blood vessels

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27

Neurons are named based on the number of axons- what are the four main types of neurons

unipolar, bipolar, multipolar, and pseudounipolar

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28

Unipolar neurons have no dendrites and are found where

in glands for secretion and smooth muscle

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29

Bipolar neurons process like a dendrite and bring information into the cell body down the axon- they are found where

retina, somatic sensory (smell, touch)

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30

Most of the neurons in the body are

multipolar

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31

pseudounipolar neurons are typically found where

ANS, some cranial nerves

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32

PNS nerves can be classified as

motor, sensory, mixed, autonomic

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33

Nuclei are housed where

CNS- grey matter of the brain

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34

Ganglia are housed where

PNS- plexuses

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35

Connective tissue has three layers that are interconnected and contain free nerve endings that can be a source of pain- what are the layers

epineurium perineurium endoneurium

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36

What is the role of epineurium

surrounds, protects and enhances gliding between fasiculi

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37

What is the role of perineurium

pressurized container that surrounds the individual fascicles- selective barrier to diffusion, controls movement of fluid and ions

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38

What is the role of endoneurium

surrounds each nerve fiber and maintains fluid pressure (pressure increases with compression)

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39

Nerves are regularly _______ and _______ during movement

compressed and elongated

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40

Decreasing the diameter of intrinsic blood vessels does what

increases intraneural pressure decreases blood flow within the nerve

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41

20-30mmHg adversely affects intraneural blood flow resulting in a

numb feeling

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42

50-70mmHg blood flow ceases resulting in

permanent myelin and axon damage

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43

peripheral nerves are surrounded by_______ making them vulnerable to microtrauma

bone, fascia, and muscle

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44

Compression commonly occurs in locations where nerves pass through what

narrow anatomical openings (osseous tunnels, fibro-osseous tunnels, soft tissue tunnels)

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45

Compression injuries result in what

increased intraneural pressure, decreased blood flow, and increased neural ischemia

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46

What is carpal tunnel syndrome

compression of the median nerve between the carpal ligament and other tunnel tissues

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47

Carpal tunnel syndrome results in

pain, burning, paresthesia- digits 1-3 and forearm weakness/atrophy of thenar eminence

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48

Radial nerve mononeuropathy results in

transient paresthesia, numbness, wrist drop (C6), decreased finger extension

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49

Nerve injuries are generally characterized by

demyelination or axonal loss

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50

What is a crush injury

acute traumatic nerve compression from a blunt object that does not result in nerve transection

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51

What is a stretch injury

significant traction placed on the nerve usually during higher velocity trauma

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52

What are transection injuries

lacerations due to fractures or knife, gunshot, or shard wounds

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53

What are the two classifications of nerve injuries

Seddon Sunderland

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54

What is neuropraxia

focal demyelination without damage to the axon or connective tissue mild nerve compression/traction, compression of blood vessels

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55

Neuropraxia is characterized by

transient weakness/paresthesia complete recovery expected

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56

What is axonotmesis

demyelination and axon damage due to stretch, crush, or contusion injury

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57

Wallerian Degeneration occurs with axonotmesis both proximal and distal to at least

1-2 nodes of ranvier

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58

Axonotmesis is characterized by

motor, sensory, or automatic dysfunction connective tissue intact regeneration may occur at 1mm/day

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59

What is neurotmesis

complete transection of a peripheral nerve due to trauma resulting in sensory and motor deficits

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60

Schwann cells and endoneurial tubes can remain viable for how long post injury

18-24 months- surgery needed regrowth occurs at 1mm/day

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61

What are the positive prognostic factors for neurotmesis

young age, distal nerve injury, end to end repair, early repair

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62

UMN testing for neurovascular entrapment will show what

hyperreflexia, hyporeflexia, spasticity, hypotonia

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63

Functional recovery post peripheral nerve injury is often suboptimal as patients with peripheral nerve injuries experience.

increased risk of long term disability decreased functional capacity

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64

Why is electrical stimulation not appropriate for denervated muscle

could further damage sensation

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65

Why does axon regeneration not occur in the CNS

limited by inhibitory influences of glial cells- glial scar debris not cleared away quickly

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66

Why is repair limited in the CNS

no schwann cells astrocytes

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67

Only the _____ can repair itself (nerve part)

axon

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68

How fast does a peripheral nerve grow

1mm/day

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69

Neurons have a resting potential that varies between

-40mV and -90mV

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70

A stronger stimulus gives rise to more APs but what is always the same

amplitude

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71

What occurs during an action potential

stimulus applied, Na goes in changing membrane potential, Na channels close, K channels open (repolarization)

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72

Neurotransmitters can do what two things

excite inhibit

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73

What is the synapse processing

AP, Ca channels open, ACh released diffuse across synaptic cleft binds to postsynaptic membrane

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74

What is temporal summation

several impulses from one neuron over time single neuron generates AP- less efficient

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75

What is spatial summation

sensory summation involving adding stimulus from various spatially separated neurons multiple neurons generate AP

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76

What is EPSP

excitatory post synaptic potential- exciting environment, easy to fire AP Na channels open glutamate

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77

What is IPSP

inhibitory post synaptic potential- low potential of firing AP chloride channels open GABA

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78

Where do you measure post-synaptic potentials

axon hillock

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79

Acetylcholine is excitatory, it helps with

muscle contraction, cortical neuroplasticity, hormone secretion, short term memory, learning

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80

Epinephrine/norepinephrine are excitatory, they help with

fight/flight: blood vessel constriction, increased HR, attentiveness, emotions, sleeping

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81

Dopamine is excitatory and inhibitory, it helps with

movement and posture control, mood, cognition, working memory, reward/reinforcement

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82

Serotonin is excitatory and inhibitory, it helps with

body temperature, sleep, mood, appetite, pain

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83

Neurons that use ACh as a transmitter are called

cholinergic neurons- arousal, sleep wake cycle, learning and memory

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84

Widespread loss of cholinergic neurons is associated with

Alzheimer's disease

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85

ACh is located in the post synaptic membrane of what

neuromuscular junction of straited muscles visceral motor system

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86

glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter that effects what

learning and memory Site of action- brain

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87

Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in

spinal cord low amounts lead to increased spasticity

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88

GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that effects what

sedation, antianxiety, antiseizure, sleep induction low amounts lead to seizures, spasticity, anxiety

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89

Where is GABA site of action

entire CNS

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90

Where is dopamine located in the brain

substantia nigra

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91

Many drugs that affect dopamine synapses also affect what

noradrenergic synapses (norepi/epi)

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92

preganglionic sympathetic neurons are called what

cholinergic- use ACh to facilitate nerve transmission

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93

Postganglionic sympathetic neurons are called what

andrenergic- secrete norepi as their neurotransmitter

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94

pre and postganglionic neurons are called

cholinergic- secrete ACh as their neurotransmitter

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95

The nervous system develops from part of the ectoderm called the

neural plate

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96

The neural plate forms the

neural tube- walls= CNS, cavity=ventricular system

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97

What produces the CSF

choroid plexus- ependymal cells

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98

There are two ends of the neural tube (neuropores) that need to close at precisely the right time to prevent what

anencephaly spina bifida

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99

What is myelomeningocele

cord and nerves develop outside of the body- spina bifida

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100

What is meningocele

meninges and CSF outside the body, doesn't affect neuro- spina bifida

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