Chapter 2

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Theory

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118 Terms

1

Theory

A logical statement of ideas explaining observed facts or phenomena.

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2

Theory

Started as a hypothesis or group of hypotheses about an observed phenomenon and it is supported by data through experimentation

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3

Gender Development

Refers to the · process by which a person builds his or her sense of self wit hin the context of the gender norms expected by his or her community.

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4

Gender development

The process of how a person expresses their femininity or masculinity · as influenced by nature and nurture

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5

Gender norms

Are traits or behavior that are generally associated with either being a male or being a female.

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gender role

Gender norms dictate --

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7

Biological theories

Are the earliest approaches in explaining the physical and behavioral development of a man and a woman

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8

Biological theories, Chromosomes, Hormones

According to this theory, gender development begins at fertilization and is a result of biological processes mainly in two ways: -- and --.

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46, 23, 23

The human body has -- chromosomes typically arranged in -- pairs, wherein the --rd pair determines the biological sex as either female (XX chromosomes) or male (XY chromosomes).

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10

Y, X

The -- chromosome is fragile while the -- chromosome is sturdY:

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11

Biological theory

Posited that masculine and feminine traits are already coded in the chromosomes. These coded traits manifest in a person's looks and behavior that explain the physical and psychological differences between males and females.

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a typical sex chromosome

There are instances when chromosomes deviate from the usuaJ XX/ XY pairing. This condition is called --

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13

a typical sex chromosome

Means the person's body and behavior looks like a typical male or female, but their chromosomes do not align to their birth sex.

People with this have distinct physical and psychological manifestations

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Sex-determining Region Y

The -- gene in the Y chromosome carries the gene that causes the embryo t~ develop testes.

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15

Swyer syndrome

A condition when the Y chromosome does n.ot carry the SRY gene or that the SRY gene does not activate.

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16

80000

Swyer syndrome affects 1 in -- people.

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Swyer syndrome

People with -- have a typical female reproductive system but the gonads are underdeveloped.

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Swyer syndrome

They are · typically raised as females, and based on physical appearance their community would identify them as females. However, clinically, their chromosomes are X'i.

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19

500, 1000

Klinefelter’s syndrome affects 1 in -- to -- men.

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20

Klinefelter’s syndrome

The person is biologically male and has the physical appearance of a male.

However, this person carries an extra X chromosome in his chromosomalpairing, hence, XX'/.

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Klinefelter’s syndrome

Although physical appearance is male, the extra X chromosome causes less. body hair, underdeveloped genitals, and ~hows breast development.

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22

Klinefelter’s syndrome

As babies and all the way to adulthood, men with XX'/ chromosomes are described as having a mild temperament, passive, and cooperative.

Researchers assert that these characteristics in XX'/ males suggest that aggression level has a biological component.

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23

Biological theory

-- claims that hormones determine howgirls and boys behave.

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Androgen

In most cultures, males are more aggressive in their behavior than females. This phenomenon, according to biological views, is explained by studies linking aggressive behavior to -- in males.

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Androgen

A hormone present in both men and women.

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Androgen

Is typically assigned as a male. hormone because it is present in much higher levels in men and significantly factor in male traits such as aggression, competitiveness, spatial ability, and higher sexual drive.

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androgen

Some clinical findings also claimed that a female child exposed to high levels of -- while in her mother's womb tend to be as physically active as boys

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testosterone, estrogen

Hormones believed to highly influence gender development are -- and --

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testosterone

A major androgen hormone in males.

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testosterone

Produced predominantly by males (females produce it but at much lower levels than males).

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testosterone

Controls the development of male sex organs.

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testosterone

Claimed to influence specific areas in brain development associated with . masculine. behavior such as competitiveness, spatial skills, and aggressiveness among others.

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testosterone

Some studies claimed that when an XX chromosome was expos'rd to high levels of prenatal --, the female child prevalently developed into a female adult who generally did not identify with the female · gender and whose sexual · orientation was towards other females. •

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estrogen

Primarily a female hormone (males produce it too but at a much .lower level than females).

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estrogen

Determines fema:le sexual characteristics

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estrogen

Linked in the development of feminine body shapes and facial features.

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estrogen

Found to enhance feelings of intimacy, attachment, and the desire to have more children.

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estrogen

A study found that women with higher -- levels also desired having more children

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Chromosomes, hormones

-- and -- influence gender development.

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40

Natural selection

The process by which organisms that can adapt to the environment tend to survive and produce offspring

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Psychodynamic theory

Explains that human behavior is the result of a person's unconscious psychological processes, and that the adult personality is crucially shaped by childhood experiences

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Sigmund Freud

Psychodynamic.theory js closely associated to Austrian psychoanalyst -- and his psychoanalytic approach.

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libido

Generally, -- means "sexual drive" or "sexual activity".

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libido

Energy that comes from drives or instincts that direct behavior

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Drive

An instinctual need that compels ~he person to act or behave in a certain way.

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Drive, Death

Freud further differentiated two kinds of drives: the life -- andthe -- drive.

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life

The -- drive refers to feelings of love or affectiion. These are impulses that drive us to connect to other people.

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death

The -- drive controls risky behaviors such as aggression.

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Fixation

-- is a result of either frustration or over-indulgence (it could also be both) in the early phases of development wherein some part of a person's libido was stuck at a particular phase.

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frustration

Freud claimed . that caregivers, such as the parent, who cannot meet the child's needs, would create --.

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over indulgence

Over-satisfying the child's needs wo-uld hinder the child from moving to the next phase and thus creating --.

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Psychodynamic theory

Describes the interactions of various parts of the mind

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Psychoanalysis

The application of the theory of psychodynamics is called --. This is a form of psychotherapy.

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id, superego

Are mainly the unconscious mind

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ego

conscious mind

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A

From birth to 18 months.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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A

Libido is centered in the mouth.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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A

Relies on adtiits to feed them:

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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A

Is crucial in developing trust:

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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A

If needs are not fulfilled, · it could result to lingering issues · of trust and dependency later in life.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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B

From 18 months to three years.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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B

Libido is focused on the anus

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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B

The child works on potty training.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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B

Lack of resolution at this stage could lead to the inability to manage finances or daily tasks later in life,

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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anal-retentive

Harsh potty-training could lead to an -- personality later in. life who obsesses about neatness and cleanliness.

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anal-explosive

Tolerant or over-indulgent potty training could lead to -- personality or a tremendously messy person later in life.

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C

From three to six years old,

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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C

Plea.sure point is concentrated on the child's genitals.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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69

C

Boys develop Oedipus complex and girls develop Electra complex

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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C

Gender development is solidified when the child identifies or adopts the characteristics of the same-sex parent to resolve their inner conflict.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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Oedipus complex

Is the unconscious desire of the son to his mother and feels his father is his rival,

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Electra complex

Is the unconscious .desire of the daughter towards her father and feels that her mother is her competition for the father's love and affection.

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D

From six years old to puberty.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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D

The libido is dormant.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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D

Sexual impulses are repressed.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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76

D

Sexual energy is channeled to schoolwork, hobbies, and friendship.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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D

Energy is de;oted to developing new skills and play is largely with the same gender.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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E

Begins at puberty.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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E

Time for adolescent sexual experimentation.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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80

E

Becomes sexually mature and marries someone within their age group.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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E

Relationship is heterosexual.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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E

Unresolved issues in the early stages that created fixations and conflict would result to sexual perversions at this stage

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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83

Cognitive Developmental theory

Approach to gender development was. first proposed by-American psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg

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Lawrence Kohlberg

Heralded as the first to theorize that a child's gender development is driven by their cognitive understanding of gender.

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Cognitive Developmental theory

Stressed that a child develops an understanding of gender as he or she actively seeks information from his or her environment and organizes gathered information based still on his or her cognitive understanding of gender group

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86

A

Starting at three years old

A. Stage 1 Gender labelling/gender identity

B. Stage 2 Gender stability

C. Stage 3 Gender consistency

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87

A

The child can identify the self as well as other,people .as a girl or a boy

A. Stage 1 Gender labelling/gender identity

B. Stage 2 Gender stability

C. Stage 3 Gender consistency

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A

Gender is based on physical appearance and not seen as constant.

A. Stage 1 Gender labelling/gender identity

B. Stage 2 Gender stability

C. Stage 3 Gender consistency

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89

B

The child can somewhat identify that gender stays ·as the person grows older

A. Stage 1 Gender labelling/gender identity

B. Stage 2 Gender stability

C. Stage 3 Gender consistency

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90

B

Starting at five years old

A. Stage 1 Gender labelling/gender identity

B. Stage 2 Gender stability

C. Stage 3 Gender consistency

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91

B

Starting at five years oldThe child still does not fullyappreciate that gender is constant even when physical appearances change

A. Stage 1 Gender labelling/gender identity

B. Stage 2 Gender stability

C. Stage 3 Gender consistency

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92

C

At around six or seven years old

A. Stage 1 Gender labelling/gender identity

B. Stage 2 Gender stability

C. Stage 3 Gender consistency

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C

The child now has full appreciation that gender is constant through time and appearances, and across situations

A. Stage 1 Gender labelling/gender identity

B. Stage 2 Gender stability

C. Stage 3 Gender consistency

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94

A

Label gender-but only based on appearance.

A. Stage 1 Gender labelling/gender identity

B. Stage 2 Gender stability

C. Stage 3 Gender consistency

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B

Gender is consistent over time but cant generalise this to others.

A. Stage 1 Gender labelling/gender identity

B. Stage 2 Gender stability

C. Stage 3 Gender consistency

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B

Appearance is still a factor

A. Stage 1 Gender labelling/gender identity

B. Stage 2 Gender stability

C. Stage 3 Gender consistency

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C

Gender is constant across time and situations.

A. Stage 1 Gender labelling/gender identity

B. Stage 2 Gender stability

C. Stage 3 Gender consistency

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98

C

Gender appropriate behavior.

A. Stage 1 Gender labelling/gender identity

B. Stage 2 Gender stability

C. Stage 3 Gender consistency

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99

Socialization theory

This theory posits that socialization is responsible for gender development, and not.biological influences

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100

gender schema

American psychologist Sandia Bern's -- children learn about male and female roles from the culture that· they are part of, and that children align their behavior with their culture's gender norms right at the earliest stages of their development

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