Chapter 2

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Theory

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118 Terms
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Theory

A logical statement of ideas explaining observed facts or phenomena.

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Theory

Started as a hypothesis or group of hypotheses about an observed phenomenon and it is supported by data through experimentation

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Gender Development

Refers to the · process by which a person builds his or her sense of self wit hin the context of the gender norms expected by his or her community.

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Gender development

The process of how a person expresses their femininity or masculinity · as influenced by nature and nurture

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Gender norms

Are traits or behavior that are generally associated with either being a male or being a female.

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gender role

Gender norms dictate --

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Biological theories

Are the earliest approaches in explaining the physical and behavioral development of a man and a woman

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Biological theories, Chromosomes, Hormones

According to this theory, gender development begins at fertilization and is a result of biological processes mainly in two ways: -- and --.

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46, 23, 23

The human body has -- chromosomes typically arranged in -- pairs, wherein the --rd pair determines the biological sex as either female (XX chromosomes) or male (XY chromosomes).

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Y, X

The -- chromosome is fragile while the -- chromosome is sturdY:

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Biological theory

Posited that masculine and feminine traits are already coded in the chromosomes. These coded traits manifest in a person's looks and behavior that explain the physical and psychological differences between males and females.

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a typical sex chromosome

There are instances when chromosomes deviate from the usuaJ XX/ XY pairing. This condition is called --

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a typical sex chromosome

Means the person's body and behavior looks like a typical male or female, but their chromosomes do not align to their birth sex.

People with this have distinct physical and psychological manifestations

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Sex-determining Region Y

The -- gene in the Y chromosome carries the gene that causes the embryo t~ develop testes.

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Swyer syndrome

A condition when the Y chromosome does n.ot carry the SRY gene or that the SRY gene does not activate.

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80000

Swyer syndrome affects 1 in -- people.

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Swyer syndrome

People with -- have a typical female reproductive system but the gonads are underdeveloped.

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Swyer syndrome

They are · typically raised as females, and based on physical appearance their community would identify them as females. However, clinically, their chromosomes are X'i.

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500, 1000

Klinefelter’s syndrome affects 1 in -- to -- men.

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Klinefelter’s syndrome

The person is biologically male and has the physical appearance of a male.

However, this person carries an extra X chromosome in his chromosomalpairing, hence, XX'/.

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Klinefelter’s syndrome

Although physical appearance is male, the extra X chromosome causes less. body hair, underdeveloped genitals, and ~hows breast development.

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Klinefelter’s syndrome

As babies and all the way to adulthood, men with XX'/ chromosomes are described as having a mild temperament, passive, and cooperative.

Researchers assert that these characteristics in XX'/ males suggest that aggression level has a biological component.

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Biological theory

-- claims that hormones determine howgirls and boys behave.

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Androgen

In most cultures, males are more aggressive in their behavior than females. This phenomenon, according to biological views, is explained by studies linking aggressive behavior to -- in males.

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Androgen

A hormone present in both men and women.

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Androgen

Is typically assigned as a male. hormone because it is present in much higher levels in men and significantly factor in male traits such as aggression, competitiveness, spatial ability, and higher sexual drive.

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androgen

Some clinical findings also claimed that a female child exposed to high levels of -- while in her mother's womb tend to be as physically active as boys

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testosterone, estrogen

Hormones believed to highly influence gender development are -- and --

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testosterone

A major androgen hormone in males.

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testosterone

Produced predominantly by males (females produce it but at much lower levels than males).

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testosterone

Controls the development of male sex organs.

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testosterone

Claimed to influence specific areas in brain development associated with . masculine. behavior such as competitiveness, spatial skills, and aggressiveness among others.

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testosterone

Some studies claimed that when an XX chromosome was expos'rd to high levels of prenatal --, the female child prevalently developed into a female adult who generally did not identify with the female · gender and whose sexual · orientation was towards other females. •

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estrogen

Primarily a female hormone (males produce it too but at a much .lower level than females).

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estrogen

Determines fema:le sexual characteristics

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estrogen

Linked in the development of feminine body shapes and facial features.

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estrogen

Found to enhance feelings of intimacy, attachment, and the desire to have more children.

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estrogen

A study found that women with higher -- levels also desired having more children

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Chromosomes, hormones

-- and -- influence gender development.

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Natural selection

The process by which organisms that can adapt to the environment tend to survive and produce offspring

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Psychodynamic theory

Explains that human behavior is the result of a person's unconscious psychological processes, and that the adult personality is crucially shaped by childhood experiences

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Sigmund Freud

Psychodynamic.theory js closely associated to Austrian psychoanalyst -- and his psychoanalytic approach.

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libido

Generally, -- means "sexual drive" or "sexual activity".

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libido

Energy that comes from drives or instincts that direct behavior

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Drive

An instinctual need that compels ~he person to act or behave in a certain way.

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Drive, Death

Freud further differentiated two kinds of drives: the life -- andthe -- drive.

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life

The -- drive refers to feelings of love or affectiion. These are impulses that drive us to connect to other people.

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death

The -- drive controls risky behaviors such as aggression.

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Fixation

-- is a result of either frustration or over-indulgence (it could also be both) in the early phases of development wherein some part of a person's libido was stuck at a particular phase.

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frustration

Freud claimed . that caregivers, such as the parent, who cannot meet the child's needs, would create --.

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over indulgence

Over-satisfying the child's needs wo-uld hinder the child from moving to the next phase and thus creating --.

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Psychodynamic theory

Describes the interactions of various parts of the mind

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Psychoanalysis

The application of the theory of psychodynamics is called --. This is a form of psychotherapy.

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id, superego

Are mainly the unconscious mind

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ego

conscious mind

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A

From birth to 18 months.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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A

Libido is centered in the mouth.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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A

Relies on adtiits to feed them:

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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A

Is crucial in developing trust:

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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A

If needs are not fulfilled, · it could result to lingering issues · of trust and dependency later in life.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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B

From 18 months to three years.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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B

Libido is focused on the anus

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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B

The child works on potty training.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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B

Lack of resolution at this stage could lead to the inability to manage finances or daily tasks later in life,

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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anal-retentive

Harsh potty-training could lead to an -- personality later in. life who obsesses about neatness and cleanliness.

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anal-explosive

Tolerant or over-indulgent potty training could lead to -- personality or a tremendously messy person later in life.

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C

From three to six years old,

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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C

Plea.sure point is concentrated on the child's genitals.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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C

Boys develop Oedipus complex and girls develop Electra complex

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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C

Gender development is solidified when the child identifies or adopts the characteristics of the same-sex parent to resolve their inner conflict.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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Oedipus complex

Is the unconscious desire of the son to his mother and feels his father is his rival,

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Electra complex

Is the unconscious .desire of the daughter towards her father and feels that her mother is her competition for the father's love and affection.

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D

From six years old to puberty.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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D

The libido is dormant.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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D

Sexual impulses are repressed.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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D

Sexual energy is channeled to schoolwork, hobbies, and friendship.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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D

Energy is de;oted to developing new skills and play is largely with the same gender.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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E

Begins at puberty.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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E

Time for adolescent sexual experimentation.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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E

Becomes sexually mature and marries someone within their age group.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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E

Relationship is heterosexual.

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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E

Unresolved issues in the early stages that created fixations and conflict would result to sexual perversions at this stage

A. Oral

B. Anal

C. Phallic

D. Latency

E. Gential

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Cognitive Developmental theory

Approach to gender development was. first proposed by-American psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg

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Lawrence Kohlberg

Heralded as the first to theorize that a child's gender development is driven by their cognitive understanding of gender.

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