biopsych exam 2 (5-7)

studied byStudied by 1 Person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What makes drugs addictive?

1/112

Studying Progress

New cards
112
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
112 Terms
New cards

What makes drugs addictive?

Their effect on the brain.

New cards
New cards

gaba

most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter

New cards
New cards

Psychoactive Drugs

Medicine or substances that changes body's functioning with psychological effects.

New cards
New cards

Agonists

Mimic/enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter.

New cards
New cards

ndma receptor agonists

-inhibit glutamate

-dissociation

-ketamine (special k), phencyclidine (pcp, angel dust, crystal)

New cards
New cards

Antagonists

occupy a receptor without activating it or decrease availability of neurotransmitter.

-Relies on an addict’s motivation to quit and willingness to comply with a regimen of a medication that provides no pleasure

-naltrexone & naloxone.

New cards
New cards

Addiction

preoccupation with obtaining a drug, compulsive use of it in spite of adverse consequences, and high tendency to relapse after quitting.

New cards
New cards

Withdrawal

negative reaction when drug is stopped; due to NS's adaptation to drug. Typically has opposite effects to drug.

New cards
New cards

Dependence

need to keep taking a drug to avoid withdrawal; physical and psychological dependence have physiological basis.

-Physical dependence: symptoms like headache, difficulty breathing, and racing heart
-Psychological dependence: symptoms like anxiety, depression, and insomnia

New cards
New cards

Tolerance

person becomes less responsive to drug and requires more of drug to get same effects; compensatory adaptation.

New cards
New cards

Opiates

drugs derived from opium poppy;

-analgesic (remove pain),

-hypnotic (induce sleep),

-euphoric (sense of ecstasy) effects.

-opium

-morphine (still used today)

-codeine

-paregoric and laudanum

New cards
New cards

Opioids

not directly derived from opium but have same endogenous receptors.

-Oxycodone/OxyContin

-heroin (from morphine)

New cards
New cards

Heroin

Highly soluble in lipids; passes blood brain barrier easily. This increases addictive potential (3x more addicitve than morphine)

  • high likelihood of relapse (lifelong condition)

  • overdose likely

  • relaxation, chills, positive mood

New cards
New cards

heroin withdrawal

  • bad flu

  • agitation, fever, depression

New cards
New cards

ectothermic

-snakes, lizards

-behavior to adjust temp

New cards
New cards

endothermic

-mammals, birds

-energy to adjust temp

New cards
New cards

ventral tegmental area

part of midbrain, source of dopamine neurons in mesolimbic pathway

New cards
New cards

Conditioned tolerance

associated with the person's drug-taking surroundings/circumstances. Taking a normal dose in diff. neighborhood can result in overdose.

New cards
New cards

Endogenous Endorphins

body's own neurotransmitters for receptors opioid drugs act on; our own opioids.

New cards
New cards

Depressants

drugs that reduce CNS activity; sedatives (calming), anxiolytic (reduce anxiety), and hypnotic substances.

-alcohol

-barbiturates

-benzodiazepines

New cards
New cards

Alcohol

most commonly abused; aka ethanol. acts at brain sites to produce euphoria, anxiety reduction, sedation, motor incoordination, cog. impairment.

-moderate use gives social benefits (disinhibitor).

-moderate to high doses amygdala cant tell diff between threat and neutral stimuli

-blunt activity of amygdala; reduced glutamate and increased GABA.

-bac 0.08 cant drive

-bac 0.30-0.40 life threatening

New cards
New cards

stimulating these induce drinking in seconds

-sfo

-ovlt

-mnpo

New cards
New cards

4 areas in our hypothalamus control our
metabolism and our eating/fasting behavior:

ARC, LH, PVN, VMH

New cards
New cards

Delirium Tremors

severe reaction to alcohol withdrawal that results in hallucinations, delusions, confusion, and seizures & possible death.

New cards
New cards

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Characterized by intellectual impairment, hyperactivity, lack of focus, low weight/height, facial abnormalities in children of mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy.

New cards
New cards

Barbiturates

drugs that in small amount act selectively on higher cortical centers. Frequently used to treat insomnia and prevent seizures.

-low doses produce talkativeness and high social interaction.

-high doses are sedative and hypnotic.
- tolerance lead to increase dosage; trigger addictive symptoms.

New cards
New cards

Benzodiazepines

drugs that act at benzodiazepine receptor on GABA. ex: Valium, Klonopin, Xanax, Rohypnol.

-lower anxiety and reduce stress.

-produce sedation and muscle reaction.

New cards
New cards

GABA Receptor Complex

Inhibitory; 5 receptor sites (alcohol, steroids, barbiturates, & benzodiazepines). Very dangerous to mix alcohol with barb. & benz.

New cards
New cards

Stimulants

drugs that activate CNS to produce arousal, increased, alertness and elevated mood.

-cocaine

-amphetamines

-nicotine

-caffeine

New cards
New cards

Cocaine

euphoria, decreases appetite, increases alertness, and relieves fatigue. ex: powder, pure smoked (freebase), and crack (smoked vapor).

-blocks serotonin and dopamine

produces reuptake euphoria & excitement.
- removes inhibition of cortex lower structures.
- dampens fetus' eventual IQ, language development, focus

New cards
New cards

Amphetamines

group of synthetic drugs that produce euphoria and increase concentration. cant tell difference between this and cocaine.

New cards
New cards

Methamphetamines

among the most powerful of these; aka meth, speed, crank, crystal, ice (freebase).

  • dull appetite, reduce fatigue, increase alertness (popular w/ students).

  • chronic use increase risk of psychotic symptoms.
    - long term use reduces gray matter, limbic tissue, & hippocampus tissue

New cards
New cards

Bath Salts

deceptive labeling used to disguise designer drug. Causes psychosis, delirium, violence, and lethal physical effects.

New cards
New cards

Nicotine

primary psychoactive & addictive agent in tobacco. Ingested by smoking, chewing, inhaling.

  • stimulating effect by activating nACh receptors.

  • withdrawal=anxiety, headache, drowsiness, lightheadedness

  • leading preventable cause of death

  • relaxing, tranquilizing sensation; receptors are desensitized.

New cards
New cards

Caffeine

produces arousal, increased alertness, and decreased sleepiness. Most widely consumed psychoactive in the world 85% of ppl

  • may be lethal if consumed at high rates 72 cups

  • withdrawal-headache, fatigue, anxiety, shakiness, craving

New cards
New cards

Psychedelics

compounds that cause perceptual distortions in the user; used to expand senses & alter consciousness.

-LSD, psilocybin/psilocin, DMT, peyote

-many are designer drugs

New cards
New cards

Designer Drugs

synthetic drugs which are created from chemicals rather than derived natural ingredients - makes production hard to illegalize.

New cards
New cards

Serotonergic Psychedelics

stimulate serotonin receptors to produce sensory distortions, repetitive geometric shapes, intense colors, and hallucinations.

-lsd, psilocybin, dmt

New cards
New cards

Catecholaminergic Psychedelics

resemble neurotransmitters such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine; has amphetamine-like properties and psychedelic effects.

-mescaline, ecstacy/molly, 2c-b

New cards
New cards

effects of mdma

  • psychomotor stimulant (high energy, sociability & sexual arousal).

  • cause hyperactivity and hyperthermia

  • hallucinatory effects.

  • high use can be toxic to serotonergic neurons.

  • crash later

New cards
New cards

NMDA Receptor Agonists

inhibit the nmda type of glutamate receptor; produces disorientation and hallucinations.

  • similar symptoms to schizophrenia.

  • ex: ketamine, phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust).

New cards
New cards

Marijuana (THC)

of the plant cannabis; usually consumed by smoking or mixing into food. Is a cannabinoid (2-AG).

  • impaired cognitive function (time sense, perception, memory, motor skills).

  • smaller hippocampus and amygdala

  • chronic use diminishes dopaminergic activity.

  • impaired white matter connectivity.

New cards
New cards

Reward

positive effect an object/condition has on user; causes pleasure & repeated behavior.

New cards
New cards

Mesolimbic Pathway

important reward circuit; dopamine releasing neurons. originates in ventral tegmental area and connects to nucleus accumbens.

-nucleus accumbens

-ventral tegmental area

New cards
New cards

Nucleus Accumbens

target of mesolimbic pathway reward circuit; combines judgements from MDS to determine drug-seeking behavior.

-all addictive drugs increase dopamine here

-similar to effects of food, water, sex

New cards
New cards

Brain Stimulation Reward

electrical activation of Mesolimbic Pathway replicated in experimental setting; will seek this kind of electrical stimulation.

-all addictivevdrugs end in stimulation of the nucleus accumbens and increased dopamine
transmission

New cards
New cards

Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine System

consists of VTA and brain regions receiving dopamine projections.

New cards
New cards

MDS in Brain Structures

  • nucleus accumbens: judgments.

  • prefrontal cortex: goals and values.
    - hippocampus: memories of drug use.
    - amygdala: conditioned associations/emotional info.

New cards
New cards

Hypofrontality

reduced activity in frontal regions; control working memory, behavioral inhibition, & response to environment.

New cards
New cards

Detoxification

allowing body to cleanse itself of drug residues; 1st step in quitting drug use.

New cards
New cards

Agonist Treatment

replace addicting drug with another drug that has similar effect. ex: methadone.

New cards
New cards

Aversive Treatments

cause a negative reaction when person takes the drug; taste bad or ill.

-antabuse, silver nitrate

New cards
New cards

Antidrug Vaccines

stimulate immune system to make antibodies that degrade drug.

New cards
New cards

Comorbidity

addiction often appears in combo w/mental or emotional disorders; can complicate rehab.

New cards
New cards

Type 1 Alcoholic

late onset; begin after 25; nonviolent; feel guilt.

New cards
New cards

Type 2 Alcoholic

early onset; begin at early age; violent; don't feel guilt; majority male.

New cards
New cards

Motivation

set of factors that initiate, sustain, & direct behaviors.

New cards
New cards

Instinct

complex behavior; automatic, unlearned, unmodifiable.

New cards
New cards

Drive Theory

body maintains a condition of homeostasis (drive - an aroused cond.)

New cards
New cards

Homeostasis

A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state.

New cards
New cards

Incentive Theory

motivation by external stimuli, not just internal.

New cards
New cards

Arousal Theory

people behave in ways that keep them at preferred level of stimulation.

New cards
New cards

Set Point

point of homeostasis to which system returns (body temp, fluid levels, energy reserves).

New cards
New cards

Preoptic Area

in hypothalamus; contains warmth/cold-sensitive cells (either temp. of blood flow or input). ex: panting, sweat, shivering, changing blood flow, building fat reserves.

New cards
New cards

Hypovolemic Thirst

occurs when blood volume drops bc of loss of extracellular water; occurs w/osmotic.

New cards
New cards

Osmotic Thirst

occurs when fluid content decreases in body's cells; can occur independently.

New cards
New cards

Subfornical Organ (SFO) & Organum Vasculosum (OVLT)

  • regulates internal water balance.

  • osmoreceptor

New cards
New cards

Median Preoptic Nucleus (MnPO)

integrates info from SFO and OVLT.

New cards
New cards

Satiety

satisfaction of appetite.

New cards
New cards

Taste Primaries

sour, sweet, bitter, salty, umami

New cards
New cards

Sensory-Specific Satiety

behavioral pattern that more a person eats of specific item, the less appealing it becomes.

New cards
New cards

Learned Taste Aversion

avoidance of foods associated w/ illness or poor nutrition.

New cards
New cards

Digestive Process

  • begins in mouth; food is broken down w/saliva & teeth.

  • stomach mixes food w/gastric juices.

  • food releases to intestine.

  • duodenum breaks food down to absorb.

New cards
New cards

Area Postrema

outside of blood brain barrier; induces vomiting of toxins.

New cards
New cards

Absorption Phase

few hours after meal; body lives off nutrients arriving from digestive sys; glucose levels rise; insulin released; glycogen is made.

New cards
New cards

Fasting Phase

blood glucose drops and body falls back on its energy stores; stop secreting insulin; start secreting glucagon (glycogen-->glucose).

New cards
New cards

Arcuate Nucleus (ARC)

hypothalamic center for food intake control; info abt nutrient levels.

New cards
New cards

Lateral Hypothalamus (LH)

initiates eating & controls aspects of feeding behavior and metabolic responses.

-Controls chewing and swallowing, salivation,
gastric juice secretion, insulin production, and
cortical arousal

New cards
New cards

Paraventricular Nucleus (PVN)

regulates eating and metabolic processes.

Body temperature, fat storable, cellular
metabolism

New cards
New cards

Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH)

produces satiety and increases metabolism.

New cards
New cards

Ghrelin

hunger hormone; synthesized in stomach & released into bloodstream during fasting; anticipatory; stim. growth hormone release.

New cards
New cards

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

peptide hormone; satiety signal; released by stomach/small intestine as food passes into duodenum; limits meal size.

New cards
New cards

Peptide YY3-36 (PYY)

released in intestine in response to food, suppresses appetite over long period of time.

New cards
New cards

Leptin

secreted by fat cells that inhibits eating; reduces meal size & total daily intake.

New cards