biopsych exam 2 (5-7)

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What makes drugs addictive?

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What makes drugs addictive?

Their effect on the brain.

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gaba

most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter

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Psychoactive Drugs

Medicine or substances that changes body's functioning with psychological effects.

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Agonists

Mimic/enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter.

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ndma receptor agonists

-inhibit glutamate

-dissociation

-ketamine (special k), phencyclidine (pcp, angel dust, crystal)

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Antagonists

occupy a receptor without activating it or decrease availability of neurotransmitter.

-Relies on an addict’s motivation to quit and willingness to comply with a regimen of a medication that provides no pleasure

-naltrexone & naloxone.

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Addiction

preoccupation with obtaining a drug, compulsive use of it in spite of adverse consequences, and high tendency to relapse after quitting.

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Withdrawal

negative reaction when drug is stopped; due to NS's adaptation to drug. Typically has opposite effects to drug.

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Dependence

need to keep taking a drug to avoid withdrawal; physical and psychological dependence have physiological basis.

-Physical dependence: symptoms like headache, difficulty breathing, and racing heart
-Psychological dependence: symptoms like anxiety, depression, and insomnia

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Tolerance

person becomes less responsive to drug and requires more of drug to get same effects; compensatory adaptation.

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Opiates

drugs derived from opium poppy;

-analgesic (remove pain),

-hypnotic (induce sleep),

-euphoric (sense of ecstasy) effects.

-opium

-morphine (still used today)

-codeine

-paregoric and laudanum

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Opioids

not directly derived from opium but have same endogenous receptors.

-Oxycodone/OxyContin

-heroin (from morphine)

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Heroin

Highly soluble in lipids; passes blood brain barrier easily. This increases addictive potential (3x more addicitve than morphine)

  • high likelihood of relapse (lifelong condition)

  • overdose likely

  • relaxation, chills, positive mood

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heroin withdrawal

  • bad flu

  • agitation, fever, depression

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ectothermic

-snakes, lizards

-behavior to adjust temp

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endothermic

-mammals, birds

-energy to adjust temp

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ventral tegmental area

part of midbrain, source of dopamine neurons in mesolimbic pathway

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Conditioned tolerance

associated with the person's drug-taking surroundings/circumstances. Taking a normal dose in diff. neighborhood can result in overdose.

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Endogenous Endorphins

body's own neurotransmitters for receptors opioid drugs act on; our own opioids.

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Depressants

drugs that reduce CNS activity; sedatives (calming), anxiolytic (reduce anxiety), and hypnotic substances.

-alcohol

-barbiturates

-benzodiazepines

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Alcohol

most commonly abused; aka ethanol. acts at brain sites to produce euphoria, anxiety reduction, sedation, motor incoordination, cog. impairment.

-moderate use gives social benefits (disinhibitor).

-moderate to high doses amygdala cant tell diff between threat and neutral stimuli

-blunt activity of amygdala; reduced glutamate and increased GABA.

-bac 0.08 cant drive

-bac 0.30-0.40 life threatening

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stimulating these induce drinking in seconds

-sfo

-ovlt

-mnpo

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4 areas in our hypothalamus control our
metabolism and our eating/fasting behavior:

ARC, LH, PVN, VMH

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Delirium Tremors

severe reaction to alcohol withdrawal that results in hallucinations, delusions, confusion, and seizures & possible death.

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Characterized by intellectual impairment, hyperactivity, lack of focus, low weight/height, facial abnormalities in children of mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy.

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Barbiturates

drugs that in small amount act selectively on higher cortical centers. Frequently used to treat insomnia and prevent seizures.

-low doses produce talkativeness and high social interaction.

-high doses are sedative and hypnotic.
- tolerance lead to increase dosage; trigger addictive symptoms.

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Benzodiazepines

drugs that act at benzodiazepine receptor on GABA. ex: Valium, Klonopin, Xanax, Rohypnol.

-lower anxiety and reduce stress.

-produce sedation and muscle reaction.

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GABA Receptor Complex

Inhibitory; 5 receptor sites (alcohol, steroids, barbiturates, & benzodiazepines). Very dangerous to mix alcohol with barb. & benz.

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Stimulants

drugs that activate CNS to produce arousal, increased, alertness and elevated mood.

-cocaine

-amphetamines

-nicotine

-caffeine

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Cocaine

euphoria, decreases appetite, increases alertness, and relieves fatigue. ex: powder, pure smoked (freebase), and crack (smoked vapor).

-blocks serotonin and dopamine

produces reuptake euphoria & excitement.
- removes inhibition of cortex lower structures.
- dampens fetus' eventual IQ, language development, focus

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Amphetamines

group of synthetic drugs that produce euphoria and increase concentration. cant tell difference between this and cocaine.

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Methamphetamines

among the most powerful of these; aka meth, speed, crank, crystal, ice (freebase).

  • dull appetite, reduce fatigue, increase alertness (popular w/ students).

  • chronic use increase risk of psychotic symptoms.
    - long term use reduces gray matter, limbic tissue, & hippocampus tissue

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Bath Salts

deceptive labeling used to disguise designer drug. Causes psychosis, delirium, violence, and lethal physical effects.

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Nicotine

primary psychoactive & addictive agent in tobacco. Ingested by smoking, chewing, inhaling.

  • stimulating effect by activating nACh receptors.

  • withdrawal=anxiety, headache, drowsiness, lightheadedness

  • leading preventable cause of death

  • relaxing, tranquilizing sensation; receptors are desensitized.

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Caffeine

produces arousal, increased alertness, and decreased sleepiness. Most widely consumed psychoactive in the world 85% of ppl

  • may be lethal if consumed at high rates 72 cups

  • withdrawal-headache, fatigue, anxiety, shakiness, craving

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Psychedelics

compounds that cause perceptual distortions in the user; used to expand senses & alter consciousness.

-LSD, psilocybin/psilocin, DMT, peyote

-many are designer drugs

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Designer Drugs

synthetic drugs which are created from chemicals rather than derived natural ingredients - makes production hard to illegalize.

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Serotonergic Psychedelics

stimulate serotonin receptors to produce sensory distortions, repetitive geometric shapes, intense colors, and hallucinations.

-lsd, psilocybin, dmt

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Catecholaminergic Psychedelics

resemble neurotransmitters such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine; has amphetamine-like properties and psychedelic effects.

-mescaline, ecstacy/molly, 2c-b

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effects of mdma

  • psychomotor stimulant (high energy, sociability & sexual arousal).

  • cause hyperactivity and hyperthermia

  • hallucinatory effects.

  • high use can be toxic to serotonergic neurons.

  • crash later

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NMDA Receptor Agonists

inhibit the nmda type of glutamate receptor; produces disorientation and hallucinations.

  • similar symptoms to schizophrenia.

  • ex: ketamine, phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust).

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Marijuana (THC)

of the plant cannabis; usually consumed by smoking or mixing into food. Is a cannabinoid (2-AG).

  • impaired cognitive function (time sense, perception, memory, motor skills).

  • smaller hippocampus and amygdala

  • chronic use diminishes dopaminergic activity.

  • impaired white matter connectivity.

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Reward

positive effect an object/condition has on user; causes pleasure & repeated behavior.

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Mesolimbic Pathway

important reward circuit; dopamine releasing neurons. originates in ventral tegmental area and connects to nucleus accumbens.

-nucleus accumbens

-ventral tegmental area

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Nucleus Accumbens

target of mesolimbic pathway reward circuit; combines judgements from MDS to determine drug-seeking behavior.

-all addictive drugs increase dopamine here

-similar to effects of food, water, sex

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Brain Stimulation Reward

electrical activation of Mesolimbic Pathway replicated in experimental setting; will seek this kind of electrical stimulation.

-all addictivevdrugs end in stimulation of the nucleus accumbens and increased dopamine
transmission

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Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine System

consists of VTA and brain regions receiving dopamine projections.

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MDS in Brain Structures

  • nucleus accumbens: judgments.

  • prefrontal cortex: goals and values.
    - hippocampus: memories of drug use.
    - amygdala: conditioned associations/emotional info.

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Hypofrontality

reduced activity in frontal regions; control working memory, behavioral inhibition, & response to environment.

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Detoxification

allowing body to cleanse itself of drug residues; 1st step in quitting drug use.

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Agonist Treatment

replace addicting drug with another drug that has similar effect. ex: methadone.

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Aversive Treatments

cause a negative reaction when person takes the drug; taste bad or ill.

-antabuse, silver nitrate

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Antidrug Vaccines

stimulate immune system to make antibodies that degrade drug.

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Comorbidity

addiction often appears in combo w/mental or emotional disorders; can complicate rehab.

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Type 1 Alcoholic

late onset; begin after 25; nonviolent; feel guilt.

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Type 2 Alcoholic

early onset; begin at early age; violent; don't feel guilt; majority male.

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Motivation

set of factors that initiate, sustain, & direct behaviors.

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Instinct

complex behavior; automatic, unlearned, unmodifiable.

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Drive Theory

body maintains a condition of homeostasis (drive - an aroused cond.)

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Homeostasis

A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state.

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Incentive Theory

motivation by external stimuli, not just internal.

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Arousal Theory

people behave in ways that keep them at preferred level of stimulation.

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Set Point

point of homeostasis to which system returns (body temp, fluid levels, energy reserves).

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Preoptic Area

in hypothalamus; contains warmth/cold-sensitive cells (either temp. of blood flow or input). ex: panting, sweat, shivering, changing blood flow, building fat reserves.

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Hypovolemic Thirst

occurs when blood volume drops bc of loss of extracellular water; occurs w/osmotic.

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Osmotic Thirst

occurs when fluid content decreases in body's cells; can occur independently.

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Subfornical Organ (SFO) & Organum Vasculosum (OVLT)

  • regulates internal water balance.

  • osmoreceptor

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Median Preoptic Nucleus (MnPO)

integrates info from SFO and OVLT.

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Satiety

satisfaction of appetite.

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Taste Primaries

sour, sweet, bitter, salty, umami

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Sensory-Specific Satiety

behavioral pattern that more a person eats of specific item, the less appealing it becomes.

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Learned Taste Aversion

avoidance of foods associated w/ illness or poor nutrition.

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Digestive Process

  • begins in mouth; food is broken down w/saliva & teeth.

  • stomach mixes food w/gastric juices.

  • food releases to intestine.

  • duodenum breaks food down to absorb.

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Area Postrema

outside of blood brain barrier; induces vomiting of toxins.

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Absorption Phase

few hours after meal; body lives off nutrients arriving from digestive sys; glucose levels rise; insulin released; glycogen is made.

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Fasting Phase

blood glucose drops and body falls back on its energy stores; stop secreting insulin; start secreting glucagon (glycogen-->glucose).

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Arcuate Nucleus (ARC)

hypothalamic center for food intake control; info abt nutrient levels.

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Lateral Hypothalamus (LH)

initiates eating & controls aspects of feeding behavior and metabolic responses.

-Controls chewing and swallowing, salivation,
gastric juice secretion, insulin production, and
cortical arousal

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Paraventricular Nucleus (PVN)

regulates eating and metabolic processes.

Body temperature, fat storable, cellular
metabolism

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Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH)

produces satiety and increases metabolism.

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Ghrelin

hunger hormone; synthesized in stomach & released into bloodstream during fasting; anticipatory; stim. growth hormone release.

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Cholecystokinin (CCK)

peptide hormone; satiety signal; released by stomach/small intestine as food passes into duodenum; limits meal size.

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Peptide YY3-36 (PYY)

released in intestine in response to food, suppresses appetite over long period of time.

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Leptin

secreted by fat cells that inhibits eating; reduces meal size & total daily intake.

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Obesity

causes: diet & activity levels, sleep deprivation, genetic influences.

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Anorexia Nervosa

starving disease; individual restricts food intake to maintain weight at threatening low level. consists of restrictors and binge-purgers.

  • loss of ovulation, lost muscle mass, heart damage, reduced bone density.

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Bulimia Nervosa

involves weight control, but behavior is limited to binging & purging.

  • normal weight or overweight body type.

  • heart problems, diabetes, damage to esophagus, gums, teeth, electrolyte deletion, dehydration.

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Binge-Eating Disorder

individual frequently eat large amount of food during a short period of time; feel they cannot control what/how much they eat.

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Sex as a Motivation

  • ensures survival of species, not individual.

  • arousal & satiation.

  • entensive hormonal involvement.

  • control linked to spec. brain structures.

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Excitement Phase

phase 1; period of arousal/preparation for intercourse (increased heart rate, respiration rate, low blood pressure, muscle tension).

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Plateau Phase

increase in sexual arousal levels off.

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Orgasm

brief, but intense experience of pleasure.

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Resolution

period of quiet after return to homeostasis w/other drives (muscles relax, drop in blood pressure & excitement).

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Androgens

class of hormones responsible for a number of male characteristics and functions.

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Testosterone

type of androgen; serves as the major sex hormone in males; females produce small amounts as well.

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Estrogen

class of hormones responsible for a number of female characteristics and functions; males produce small amounts as well.

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Progesterone

made in adrenal glands & testes of males; makes testosterone for men; controls reproduction (receptivity & desire) for women.

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Oxytocin

in hypothalamus, released by pituitary; promotes sexual arousal, social bonding, and intensity of pleasure (smooth muscle contractions of orgasm & milk ejection during breastfeeding).

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Castration

removal of gonads; results in loss of sexual motivation and functioning.

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Hypogonadism

disorder where little or no hormones are produced by ovaries or testes; reduced sexual behaviors.

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