PB 200 final exam

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Traits of fungi

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143 Terms

1

Traits of fungi

eukaryotic, filamentous or unicellular, spores, heterotrophic, chitin cell wall, glycogen storage

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2

Vegetative structure

unicellular, hyphae become mycelia

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3

Spores

single cells involved in reproduction, carried on wind

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4

Fungi nutrition

extracellular digestion (decaying)

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5

Fungi metabolism

aerobic, facultative anaerobic, causes human diseases

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6

Myxomycota (slime molds)

not true fungi

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7

Plasmodial slime molds

mass of protoplasm, engulf food like an amoeba, forms sporangia and spores

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8

Cellular slime molds

unicellular amoeba, coalesce into sporangium and disperse spores

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9

Eumycota

true fungi

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10

Chytridiomycota

causes amphibian diseases and decays in aquatic environments, has flagellate spores

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11

Glomeromycota

arbuscular mycorrhizal associations (grows into the roots)

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12

Zygomycota

coenocytic hyphae (not divided into compartments), reproduction: sporangiospores are asexual structures, zygosporangium are sexual structures

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13

Ascomycota

hyphae are septate, asexual spores (budding in yeasts), sexual repro in the ascocarp which has asci

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14

Products of ascomycota

yeast products, cheeses, penicillin

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15

Diseases from ascomycota

dutch elm disease, powdery mildews, ergot of rye (Salem witch trials)

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16

Basidiomycota

mushrooms/rusts, cells are septate, uni or binucleate cells

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Basidiomycota vegetative growth

spores germinate to form primary hypha, fuses with compatible hypha, forms binucleate cell and a secondary hypha

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18

Basidiocarp

fruiting body of a basidiomycete

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19

Mushroom

cap on a stalk (stipe), gills or pores under cap where basidia forms

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20

Products of basidiomycota

edible mushrooms

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21

Dangers of basidiomycota

poisonous/hallucinogenic mushrooms (Death cap, Death angel, Amanita), plant diseases

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22

Deuteromycota

catch-all, no known sexual stages

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23

Lichen

mutualistic relationships, reproduce asexually, slow-growing, nutrient cycling, sensitive to pollution (indicators)

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24

Algae traits

can be prokaryotes or eukaryotes, most photosynthetic, aquatic and terrestrials

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25

Algae are classified by

pigments, cell wall, etc.

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26

Unicellular

single-celled, flagellate or non-flagellate

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Colonial

unicells that form groups

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Filamentous

chains of cells

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29

Siphonous/Coenocytic

large cell with lots of nuclei

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30

Thalloid

flattened sheets

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31

Cyanobacteria

blue-green algae, prokaryotic, photosynthetic (use chlorophyll a and phycocyanin), almost every habitat, used as a food source and for rice farming

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32

Oomycota

flagellated unicells to coenocytes, most aquatic, parasites to saprobes, plant diseases

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33

Dinoflagellates

unicellular, 2 flagella, cellulose cell walls, chlorophylls a and c, carotenoids, many heterotrophs, produce neurotoxins, bioluminescence, red tide

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34

Zooxanthellae

dinoflagellates that live with coral, coral expel zooxanthellae when temps rise, coral bleaching

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35

Bacillariophyta

diatoms, cell wall of glass, fossil cell walls used as filters

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36

Phaeophyceae

brown algae, multicellular, cellulose cell walls, chlorophyll a and c, asexual reproduction by spores, sexual reproduction by alternation of generations, most are marine (cold, shallow waters)

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37

Uses for phaeophyceae

used for filters, cattle feed, Laminaria used for human food

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38

Rhodophyta

red algae

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39

Uses for rhodophyta

used for nori/sushi, agar, carrageenan

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40

Chlorophyta

widest variability (can be unicell, multicell, colonial, etc), cellulose cell wall, all habitats, sexual and asexual reproduction

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41

Uses for chlorophyta

used for food, lichen

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42

Endosymbiotic theory

chloroplast is a bacterial endosymbiont in the protozoan cell

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43

Alternation of phases

alternating between multicell haploid stage and multicell diploid stage

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44

Meiosis produces

spores

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45

Fern life cycle

gametophyte produces sperm and eggs → fertilization → forms zygote → undergoes mitosis → forms sporophyte → undergoes meiosis → produces spores → spores germinate → form gametophyte

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46

Sporophyte

diploid, forms spores in sporangia by meiosis

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47

Gametophyte

haploid, forms gamete by mitosis

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48

Archegonia

produces egg

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49

Antheridia

produces sperm

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50

Life cycle of moss

sporophyte forms sporangium → meiosis occurs → operculum comes off and peristome produces spores → forms male or female gametophyte → gametophyte produces sperm and eggs → fertilization → forms zygote

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51

Bryophytes

nonvascular land plants, second largest group of plants, mosses/liverworts/hornworts

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52

Not mosses

spanish moss, pond moss, club moss, reindeer moss

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53

Mosses

gametophyte, green, leafy stems, rhizoids, leaves are 1 cell thick

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54

Rhizoids

multicellular, trichomelike, rootlike functions

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55

Bryophyte metabolism and ecology

small size and lack of vascular system limits their growth, grows in high moisture environments, can go dormant if dry

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56

Peat moss

buildup of plant matter in a marshy environment, used for fuel, can preserve things because of the acidity and amount of tannins

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57

Bryophyte fossils

sparse, date back to Ordovician, could be earliest plants on land

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58

Liverworts

Hepaticae, can be leafy or thallose, grow in wet places, no cuticle, pores are always open

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59

Moss sexual reproduction

meiosis → spores → protonema → leafy gametophyte → archegonium/antheridium produces eggs/sperm by mitosis → fertilization → sporophyte → operculum opens and capsule releases spores → meiosis (sporophyte remains dependent on gametophyte)

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60

In moss, sperm transfer requires

water

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61

Seedless vascular plants

ferns and fern allies, reproduce by spores, independent sporophyte and gametophytes, vascular system (xylem and phloem)

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Homospory

spores all one size

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63

Heterospory

specialization in spores, like megaspores (female) and microspores (male)

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64

Green algae

progenitors of land plants (early vascular land plants)

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65

Early vascular land plants

no true stems/roots/leaves and instead had axes, homosporous, sporangia were at the tips or sides of the axes, central vascular bundle

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66

Pteridophyta ferns

has true stems/roots/leaves, can have huge fronds, no secondary tissues, circinate vernation, can be homosporous or heterosporous, can be upright or have horizontal rhizome

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Fern sporangia

on the underside of leaves, make spores

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68

Annulus

thicker-walled cells bent over the sporangium

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69

Fern gametophyte

no vascular tissue, haploid phase, heart or variously shaped

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70

Fern antheridium

produces sperm, rounded

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71

Fern archegonium

produces egg, vase-shaped

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72

Psilotophyta

whisk ferns, axes only, fused lateral sporangia, underground gametophyte

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73

Lycophyta

small and herbaceous, dichotomously branching stems

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74

Lycophyta sporangia

on upper leaf surface, heterosporous and homosporous, some in cones, used in flash powder

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75

Equisetophyta

true leaves/stems/roots, stems are photosynthetic, herbaceous, homosporous spores, sporangia in the cones at the tips of the stems

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76

Pennsylvanian Period

tall tree-like equisetophytes and lycopods

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77

Vascular cryptograms

used in floral decoration and house plants, weeds (like water ferns)

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78

Gymnosperms

seed plants but seeds not enclosed in carpel, all are woody, independent sporophyte with dependent megagametophyte

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Progymnosperms

Devonian period, fernlike reproduction conifer-like wood, how seeds evolved

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80

Early seeds

seeds used to be in a cupule, surrounding axes become seed coat, pollen enters seed, seed seals off to create fertilization environment and allow seed to travel

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81

Gymnosperm reproduction

female cone (megagametophyte) bears ovules, male cone (microgametophyte) produces spores through meiosis, pollen grains enter ovule, meiosis occurs to produce female gametophyte, pollen grows tube to egg and releases sperm, fertilization occurs, zygote develops into embryo, ovule becomes seed, seed falls and germinates, embryo grows into tree

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82

Pinophyta

conifers, long shoots or short shorts, most are evergreen, leaves can be scales/needles/flattened, compact wood

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83

Ovulate cones

compound, has scales, central axis with branches

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84

Economic uses of gymnosperms

wood and wood products, resin products, erosion control and planting, food (like pine nuts)

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85

Cycadophyta

cycads/sago palms, short stems, crown of pinnate leaves, tropical, dioecious, cones, some insect pollinated, earliest cycads are probably Permian, good Mesozoic record

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86

Guam dementia

cycads produce BMAA, BMAA blocks brain cell communication, due to eating bats that eat cycad seeds

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87

Ginkgopsida

one living species (Ginkgo biloba), tall tees, multiflagellate sperm (largest sperm), fan-shaped leaves, dioecious, pollen produced in cones, true living fossil, widely cultivated and used in herbal medicine

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88

Gnetophyta

vessels in their wood (like angiosperms), monoecious or dioecious, cones with bracts underlying pollen-forming structure or ovule, not much of a fossil record

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89

Ephedra

xeric environments, shrubs, photosynthetic branches

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90

Gnetum

leafy tree or vine, tropical forests, laminate leaves

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91

Welwitschia

unusual morphology, cuplike stem

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92

Seed ferns

shrubs to trees, fern-like foliage, seeds and pollen organs on leaves, diverse, later seed ferns show critical early evidence of continental drift

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93

Angiosperms

largest group of plants on earth, seed plants, flower has the carpel which produces the fruit, pollen lands on stigma, double fertilization

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94

Angiosperm life cycle

3 components are the flower/fruit/seed

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95

Flower

modified stem tip with modified leaves, sexual reproduction organ

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96

Receptible

base of the flower

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97

Sepals

"tiny petals", protect the flower bud

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98

Pistil

carpel is the basic unit, consists of stigma, style, ovary, ovule, develops into the fruit

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99

Petals

attracts pollinators

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100

Gynoecium

female flower reproductive parts

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