UNITS 7,8,9 AP WORLD MATCHING TEST FULL QUIZLET-MNHS

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Algeria

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105 Terms

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Photosynthesis

Algeria

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Brazil

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China

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Congo/Zaire

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Cuba

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Egypt

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France

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Germany

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Ghana

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India

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Indonesia

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Iran

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Israel

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Japan

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Kenya

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Koreas

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Mexico

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Nigeria

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Pakistan

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Philippines

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Russia

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Rwanda

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Saudi Arabia

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Senegal

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Singapore

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South Africa

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Sudan

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Taiwan

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Turkey

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United Kingdom

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United States

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Vietnam

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African National Congress

South African political party established in 1912 by elite Africans who sought to win full acceptance in colonial society; it only gradually became a popular movement that came to control the government in 1994

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blitzkrieg

German term meaning "lightning war," used to describe Germany's novel military tactics in World War II, which

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involved the rapid movement of infantry, tanks, and airpower over large areas.

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Bolsheviks

Russian revolutionary party led by Vladimir Lenin and later renamed the Communist Party

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Castro, Fidel

Revolutionary leader of Cuba from 1959 to 2008 who gradually turned to Soviet communism and engendered some of the worst crises of the cold war

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Chinese Revolution

Long revolutionary process in the period 1912-1949 that began with the overthrow of the Chinese imperial

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system and ended with the triumph of the Communist Party under the leadership of Mao Zedong.

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collectivization

Process of rural reform undertaken by the communist leadership of both the USSR and China in which private

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property rights were abolished and peasants were forced onto larger and more industrialized farms to work and share the proceeds as a community rather than as individuals.

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Cultural Revolution

Massive campaign launched by Mao Zedong in the

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mid-1960s to combat the capitalist tendencies that he believed reached into even the highest ranks of the Communist Party; the campaign threw China into chaos

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Deng Xiaoping

Leader of China from 1976 to 1997 whose reforms essentially dismantled the communist elements of the Chinese economy

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fascism

Political ideology marked by its intense nationalism and authoritarianism; its name is derived from the fasces that were the symbol of magistrates in ancient Rome.

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Franz Ferdinand, Archduke

Heir to the Austrian throne whose assassination by a Serbian nationalist on June 28, 1914, was the spark that ignited World War I.

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Gandhi, Mohandas K.

Political leader and the undoubted spiritual leader of the Indian drive for independence from Great Britain.

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Glasnost

Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of "openness," which allowed greater cultural and intellectual freedom and ended most censorship of the media; the result was a burst of awareness of the problems and corruption of the Soviet system

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Gorbachev, Mikhail

Leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991 whose efforts to reform the USSR led to its collapse

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Great Leap Forward

Major Chinese initiative (1958-1960) led by Mao Zedong that was intended to promote small-scale industrialization and increase knowledge of technology; in reality, it caused a major crisis and exacerbated the impact of a devastating famine

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Great Purges

Also called the Terror; massive attempt to cleanse the Soviet Union of supposed "enemies of the people"; nearly a million people were executed between 1936 and 1941, and 4 million or 5 million more were sentenced to forced labor in the gulag

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Guomindang

The Chinese Nationalist Party led by Chiang Kai-shek from 1928 until its overthrow by the communists in 1949

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Indian National Congress

Organization established in 1885 by Western-educated elite Indians in an effort to win a voice in the governance of India; over time, it became a major popular movement that won India's independence from Britain

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Jinnah, Muhammad Ali

Leader of India's All-India Muslim League and first president of the breakaway state of Pakistan (1876-1948)

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Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruholla

Important Shia ayattolah (advanced scholar of Islamic law and religion) who became the leader of Iran's Islamic revolution and ruled Iran from 1979 until his death in 1989

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Khrushchev, Nikita

Leader of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964

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Kristallnacht

Literally, "crystal night"; name given to the night of November 9, 1938, when Nazi-led gangs smashed and looted Jewish shops throughout Germany

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Lenin

Adopted name of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (1870-1924), the main leader of Russia's communist revolution and head of the Soviet state from 1917 until his death

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Mandela, Nelson

South African nationalist (b. 1918) and leader of the African National Congress who was imprisoned for twenty-seven years on charges of treason, sabotage, and conspiracy to overthrow the apartheid government of South Africa; he was elected president of South Africa in 1994, four years after he was finally released from prison.

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Mao Zedong

Chairman of China's Communist Party and de facto ruler of China from 1949 until his death in 1976

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Marshall Plan

Huge U.S. government initiative to aid in the post-World War II restoration of Europe that was masterminded by U.S. secretary of state George Marshall and put into effect in 1947

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McCarthyism

Wave of anticommunist fear and persecution that took place in the United States in the 1950s

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Mussolini, Benito

Charismatic leader of the Italian fascist party (1883-1945) who came to power in 1922

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Nanjing, Rape of

The Japanese army's systematic killing, mutilation, and rape of the Chinese civilian population in 1938

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Nehru, Jawaharlal

The first prime minister of independent India (1889-1964)

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New Deal

A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression

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North/South gap

Growing disparity between the Global North and the Global South that appears to be exacerbated by current world trade practices

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Nuremberg Laws

Series of laws passed by the Nazi-dominated German parliament in 1935 that forbade sexual relations between Jews and other Germans and mandated that Jews identify themselves in public by wearing the Star of David

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Perestroika

Bold economic program launched in 1987 by Mikhail Gorbachev with the intention of freeing up Soviet industry and businesses

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Satyagraha

Literally, "truth force"; Mahatma Gandhi's political philosophy, which advocated confrontational but nonviolent political action

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second-wave feminism

Women's rights movement that revived in the 1960s with a different agenda than earlier women's suffrage movements; members demanded equal rights for women in employment and education, women's right to control their own bodies, and the end of patriarchal domination

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Stalin

Name assumed by Joseph Vissarionovich Jugashvili (1878-1953), leader of the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death; means "made of steel"

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Treaty of Versailles

1919 treaty that officially ended World War I; the immense penalties it placed on Germany are regarded as one of the causes of World War II

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Triple Alliance

An alliance consisting of Germany, Austria, and Italy that was one of the two rival European alliances on the eve of World War I

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Triple Entente

An alliance consisting of Russia, France, and Britain that was one of the two rival European alliances on the eve of World War I

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United Nations

International peacekeeping organization and forum for international opinion, established in 1945

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Warsaw Pact

Military alliance of the USSR and the communist states of Eastern Europe during the cold war

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Wilson, Woodrow

President of the United States from 1913 to 1921 who was especially noted for his idealistic approach to the end of World War I, which included advocacy of his Fourteen Points intended to regulate future international dealings and a League of Nations to enforce a new international order

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zaibatsu

The huge industrial enterprises that dominated the Japanese economy in the period leading up to World War II

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ASEAN

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COMECON

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European Union

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Mercosur

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NAFTA

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OPEC

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World War I

1914-1918

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Russian Revolution

1917

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World War II

1939-1945

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The collapse of Soviet Union

1991

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Cold War

1946-1991

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End of Apartheid

1994

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Cairo

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Copenhagen

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Djakarta

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Helsinki

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Hong Kong

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Lagos

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Los Angeles

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Mexico City

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Moscow

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