SciOly - Cell Biology

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Cells

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1

Cells

What contains highly organized molecular and biochemical systems that are used to store information? We have over 100 trillion in our body.

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energy

Cells use ____ to function?

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3

capable

Cells are (capable/uncapable) of movement

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4

True

T/F Cells sense environmental changes

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5

True

T/F Cells can duplicate (transfer genetic information to offspring)

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6

True

T/F Cells are capable of self regulation

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7

Prokaryotic

(Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?) single cell

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8

Prokaryotic

(Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?) nuclear material but no nuclear membrane or membrane bound organelles

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9

Eukaryotic

(Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?) includes most cells

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10

Eukaryotic

(Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?) organized nucleus and membrane bound organelles

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11

cell membrane

What organelle: -regulates which molecules enter/exit cell through its selective permeability

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12

Mitochondria

What organelle: -produces ATP -site of Cell Respiration and ETC

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13

mitochondria

What organelle: -inner and outer membrane -folds of inner membrane creates cristae -fluid called the matrix

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14

cell membrane

What organelle: -made up of a phospholipid bilayer, covered w/ cholesterol and proteins.

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15

centrioles

What organelle: -9 triplets of microtubules

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centrioles

What organelle: -form spindle fibers to separate chromosomes during cell division

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17

vacuoles

What organelle: -store food or nutrients a cell needs to survive -can store waste products -in plants AND animals (larger in plants)

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18

vacuoles

What organelle: -membrane bound sacs within the cytoplasm of a cell

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19

lysosomes

What organelle: -contain acid hydrolase enzymes that break down waste materials and cellular debris -"stomach of the cell" -digest excess/worn out organelles, food particules, + engulfed viruses/bacteria

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20

nuclear envelope

What organelle: -double layered membrane -separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm and provides structural framework

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21

nucleus

nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin, nuclear pore are the four parts of the _____?

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22

nucleolus

What organelle: -round body located inside the nucleus of eukaryotic cell -no membrane

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23

nucleolus

What organelle: -makes RNA

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24

chromatin

What organelle: -made of DNA and histones

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25

nuclear pore

What organelle: -allow the transport of molecules across the nuclear envelope

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26

nucleus

What organelle: -directs all activity of the cell

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27

ribosomes

What organelle: -creates proteins -translates RNA -bound to endoplasmic reticulum

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28

golgi

What organelle: -gathers simple sugars and combines them to make complex molecules, package them into vesicles, and stores them/sends them out of the cell through the ER

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29

microfilaments

What organelle: -long, thin, stringy proteins -form cytoskeleton -form stucture that allow cell to hold its shape, move and move organelles

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30

microtubules

What organelle: -thick, strong spirals of 1000s of subunits proteins -made of tubulin -form cytoskeleton

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rough ER

What organelle: -coated with ribosomes (bumpy) -consists of stacks of flattened sacs

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32

rough ER

What organelle: -produces and exports proteins, glycoproteins, and hormones out of the cell

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33

smooth ER

What organelle: -doesnt have ribosomes -creates and stores lipids and steroids

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34

cytoplasm

What organelle: -fluid in cell -contains all organelles and cell parts -contains enzymes responsible for metabolic activity

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35

support

What are these organelles' function: cell wall, cell membrane, cytoskeleton, and microtubles

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36

controls material entering and leaving

What are these organelles' function: cell membrane, pores

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37

internal transport system

What are these organelles' function: endoplasmic reticulum

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38

energy

What are these organelles' function: mitochondria

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39

control

What are these organelles' function: nucleus, organelle DNA for mitochondria and chloroplast

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40

production

What are these organelles' function: ribosomes, ER, chloroplasts

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41

packaging

What are these organelles' function: golgi apparatus, ER

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42

storage

What are these organelles' function: vacuole, vesicles, plastids

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43

recycling

What are these organelles' function: lysosomes, perixosomes

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44

photosynthesis

What are these organelles' function: chloroplast

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45

cell division

What are these organelles' function: nuclear DNA, centrioles, cell wall

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46

nuclesosomes

What part of chromosomes' structure is?: -core of DNA wrapped around 8 histone proteins plus linkerDNA

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47

solenoid

What part of chromosomes' structure is?: -coiling of nucleosomes like phone cord

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48

chromatin fiber

What part of chromosomes' structure is?: -series of nucleosomes

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49

intermediate filaments

what part of the cytoskeleton is?: -more permanent than microtubles and microfilaments, provide tensile strength for the cell

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50

microtubules

what part of the cytoskeleton is?: -composed of tubulin -acts as a scaffold to determine cell shape -provide a set of tracks for cell organelles and vesicles to move on -form spindle fibers for separating chromosomes during mitosis

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51

microfilaments

what part of the cytoskeleton is?: -composed of actin -microfilaments association with the protein myosin is responsible for muscle contraction -carry out cellular movements including gliding, contraction, and cytokinesis

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52

cell wall

what part of the Plant Cellis for: protection and support

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53

chloroplast

what part of the Plant Cellis for: photosynthesis

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54

large central vacuole

what part of the Plant Cellis for: storage and increase surface area

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55

protein phospholipid

cell membrane: the composition is mainly _____ and ______; some proteins extend through membrane

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56

receptors stucture

cell membrane: protein function: _, transport in and out of cells, _

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57

lipids

cell membrane: _____: in membrane can move laterally at about 2um/sec

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58

saturated

cell membrane: ______ fatty acids: in phosopholipids make membrane more rigid

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unsaturated

cell membrane: ______ fatty acids: increase fluidity of membrane

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60

decreases

as temperature (increases/decreases) , organisms put more unsaturated fatty acids in membrane

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61

diffusion

what process is when molecules move from high to low concentration? concentration = #molecules / volume

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62

osmosis

what process is the diffusion of water across a selective membrane; amount of water is opposite of numbers molecules- if water is high, solute (molecules) is low?

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facilitative diffusion

what process is the diffusion (high to low) but a protein carrier is involved?

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hypertonic

osmosis: high solute concentration relative to another solution (hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic?)

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hypotonic

osmosis: low solute concentration relative to another solution (hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic?)

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isotonic

osmosis: solute concentration is the same as that of another solution (hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic?)

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67

turgor pressure

what is the effect of plant cell being placed in distilled water, cell stiffens but generally retains shape is called?

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68

plasmolysis

what is the effect of plant cell being placed in concentrated salt solution, cell body shrinks and pulls away from cell wall called?

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69

burst

what happens when animal cells are placed in distilled water? they ____

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70

shrink

what happens when cells are placed in concentrated salt solution? Cells ___

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71

passive transport

what is the transportation of molecules with no energy used called? -simple diffusion (reg transportation through membrane, or channel) -faciliated diffusion (carrier molecules (uniport))

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72

active transport

what is the transportation of molecules that uses energy called? -carrier molecules that use energy -coupled transport (transporting ions) -symport (two -same direction) -antiport (two - different directions)

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73

endocytosis exocytosis

-food particle taken in (called ________) -fusion form secondary lysosome -food particles digested -waste removed from cell

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74

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, high energy compounds

5 Types of organic compounds in body?

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75

monosaccharides

monomer of carbohydrates

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76

glycerol and fatty acids

monomers of lipids

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77

amino acids

monomers of proteins

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78

nucleotides

monomers of nucleic acids

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79

nucleotides and phosphate groups

monomers of high energy compounds

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80

polysaccharides

polymer of carbohydrates

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81

triglycerides

polymer of lipids

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82

polypeptides

polymer of proteins

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83

ATP

polymer of high energy compounds

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84

carbohydrates

what are these an example of: -starch -cellulose -glycogen (animal)

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85

proteins

what are these an example of: -hair -enzymes -hemoglobin -insulin

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86

nucleic acids

what are these an example of: -DNA -RNA

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87

lipids

what are these an example of: -cooking oil -butter

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88

neutral

What does a pH of 7 indicate?

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89

basic

what does a pH of 8-14 indicate?

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90

acidic

what does a pH of 6-0 indicate?

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91

hydrogen ion concentration

what does pH scale represent?

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92

buffers

how is pH regulated in cells?

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93

acid

what is a substance that can take up an electron pair to form a covalent bond called?

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94

base

what is a substance that can donate an electron pair to form a covalent bond called?

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95

condensation reaction

when two molecules are combined into one molecules with the release of one water molecule A+B=C + H2O ((ie 2 amino acids form dipeptide)) called?

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96

hydrolysis reaction

when one molecule is broken into two molecules with the addition of water molecule C +H2O=A+B ((ie. disaccharide maltose +water = 2 glucose molecules)) called?

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97

enzymes

what can be defined as: -catalysts -made of protein -may have non-protein parts -lowers activation energy -not changed during reaction

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98

enzyme substrate compelx

what is the key and lock fit of an enzyme + substrate called??

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99

competitive

when enzyme inhibitors bind at active site called?

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100

noncompetitive

when enzyme inhibitors bind at a site other than the active site called?

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