Nutrition Final Exam

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Nutrition-Related causes of death

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Nutrition

113 Terms

1

Nutrition-Related causes of death

heart disease, cancer, strokes, type 2 diabetes

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2

Six Classes of nutrients

Carbs, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals, water

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3

Essential Nutrients

Our body cannot make on its own; we must consume through food

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4

Case Study

Observation of one person; may not apply to everyone;

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5

Epidemiological Study

lacks ability to completely control for confounding factors; large populations

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6

Intervention Study

Often relies on surrogate risk factors instead of disease; often in small group of individuals; alter eating habits and study effects

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7

Laboratory Study

Experiments done on animals that may or may not apply to humans; tight condition

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8

How can you trust nutrition in the media?

many problems with who is delivering the information; overstating the results; sensationalized headlines and language; conflicts of interest, and lack of research

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9

Recommended Dietary Allowances

meet needs and prevent deficiencies; nutrients with strong evidence; goal nutrient intake

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10

Adequate Intake

meet needs and prevent deficiencies; nutrients with weak evidence; goal nutrient intake

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11

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels

ceiling for safe supplement use

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12

Estimated Average Requirements

fit 50% of population; used for research and policy design

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13

AMDR

acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges; energy yielding nutrients

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14

Daily Values

Based on a single serving of food; individual on 2000 calorie diet; highest amount of nutrient need among all subgroups

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15

Nutrition Facts Panel

servings are larger and bold; larger calories; added sugar; actual amounts declared

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16

Nutrient Claims

Describe the nutrient levels in food; specific criteria; regulated by FDA

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17

Nutrient Claims Example

Fat Free, Less Sodium

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18

Health Claims

link food components with a disease or health condition; looser regulations

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19

Health Claim Example

Calcium reduces risk of osteoporosis

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20

Structure Function Claim

effect of a food component on the structure or function of the body; no approval

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21

Structure Function Example

Healthy Joints

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22

Phytochemicals

Non-nutrient components of plants

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23

Anti-oxidants

protect DNA from oxidative damage by free radicals

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24

Mechanical Digestion

involves physical movements that make food smaller or move it through the digestive tract (chewing, peristalsis, churning)

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25

Chemical Digestion

involves the chemical breakdown of food (digestive juices)

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26

Hormones

chemical messengers; secreted directly to blood by glands; stimulate organs to take action

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27

Stomach

digests proteins, turns food into chyme

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28

Gall Bladder

releases bile

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29

Pancreas

juices to neutralize stomach acid

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30

Small Intestine

Absorbs nutrients

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31

Large Intestine

Absorbs water and fiber

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32

Monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

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33

Disaccharides

lactose (glucose and galactose), maltose (glucose and glucose), Sucrose (glucose and fructose)

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34

Polysacchrides

starch, glycogen, and fiber

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35

Starch

storage form of glucose in PLANTS; most abundant type of carb; readily digested by humans (grains, potatoes)

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36

Glycogen

storage form of glucose in ANIMALS; not abundant in diet

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37

Fiber

Supporting structures of PLANTS, humans cannot break glycosidic bonds

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38

Carbs functions

energy source, stored energy through glycogen, and cell-to-cell communication

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39

Sources of Fiber

whole grains, fruit, legumes, non-starchy vegetables, and nuts and seeds

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40

Fiber Health Benefits

Alleviate constipation, lower risk of colorectal cancer, foods often nutrient dense and feel full

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41

Carbs AMDR

45-65% of total calories

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42

Carbs digestion and absorption

mechanical digestion is chewing and peristalsis through the GI tract and stomach; chemical digestion starts with mouth enzymes breaking down starch in te mouth; digestion continues in the small intestine

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43

Blood Glucose Regulation

Hypoglycemia
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44

Type 1 Diabetes

autoimmune disorder; pancreas loses ability to produce insulin; external insulin required

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45

Type 2 Diabetes

insulin resistance; factors include age, physical inactivity, genetic inheritance, and obesity

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46

Whole Grain Foods

oats, whole wheat bread, quinoa, brown rice, whole wheat pasta

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47

Digestion and Absorption of Fats

small intestine; bile from gallbladder can mix fat into water for enzymes to break down

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48

Bile's role

allows fat to mix into water

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49

Transport of Fat

chylomicrons transport triglycerides to be stored; travel through the lymph into the bloodstream

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50

Fat AMDR

20-35% of total calories

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51

Saturated Fat Reccomendation

less than 10% of total calories

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52

How can we change our fat intake to help lower LDL cholesterol?

replace saturated fats with MUFAS and PUFAS

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53

EPA and DHA

Found in fatty fish, synthesized from linolenic acid but conversion is poor; anti-inflammatory; improved heart health, brain function and development

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54

LDL

Low-Density-Lipoprotein; narrows arteries; lead to heart disease and stroke; keep low

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55

HDL

high density lipoprotein; takes LDL away from arteries to the liver to be processed

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56

Saturated Fats:

solid at room temp, increases LDL and risk of heart disease

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57

Unsaturated Fat

liquid at room temp

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58

Sources of Saturated Fat

butter, lard, dairy, coconut oil, baked and fried goods

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59

Sources of MUFAS

Olives, Avocado, almonds

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60

Sources of PUFAS

vegetable oils, salmon, walnuts, flaxseed

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61

Essential amino acids

cannot be made by the body in sufficient amounts

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62

Non-essential amino acids

can be made by the body

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63

Conditionally Essential Amino Acids

essential under special conditions

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64

Digestion and Absorption of Protein

Food arrives in the stomach, hydrochloric acid denatures the protein strands and an enzyme breaks down to polypeptides, Enzymes on the surface of the small intestine split into amino acids and intestinal cells absorb and transfer amino acids to the bloodstream which transports amino acids to the liver (STOMACH AND SMALL INTESTINE)

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65

Protein RDA

0.8 g/kg minimum based on weight

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66

Protein AMDR

10-35% of total calories

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67

Plant-based protein

soy products and legumes, nuts and seeds

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68

Complete Proteins

Provide all 9 essential amino acids (meat, dairy, eggs, soy)

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69

Incomplete proteins

missing one or more amino acids (plant foods)

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70

Complementary Proteins

2+ incomplete proteins eaten in combination (grains and legumes)

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71

Groups for More Protein

infants, children, pregnant, athletes, older adults, critically ill

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72

Fat Soluble Vitamins

Absorbed like fats (lymph into blood); must travel with protein carriers; stored in liver and fatty tissues; Not readily excreted; tend to build up in the tissues; toxicities are likely from supplements but occur rarely from food; needed in periodic doses because the body can draw on its stores

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73

Water Soluble Vitamins

Absorbed directly into the blood; travel freely in watery fluids; most are not stored in the body; readily excreted in the urine; toxicities are unlikely but possible with high doses from supplements; needed in frequent doses because the body does not store most of them to any extent

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74

Vitamin A Deficiency

Night blindness, keratin accumulation, growth abnormalities

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75

Vitamin D Deficiency

Rickets (bowed legs) and Osteomalacia (weak, soft, and flexible bones)

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76

Vitamin C Deficiency

Scurvy (weakness, inflamed gums, pinpoint hemmorages)

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77

Thiamine Deficincy

Beriberi (difficulty walking, tingling in hands and feet, mental confusion, changes in heart function)

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78

Niacin Deficiency

Pellagra (diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death)

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79

B-12 Deficiency

Anemia, Nerve-Cell Damage, mental impairment

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80

Folate Deficiency

Anemia, neural tube defects

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81

B General Functions

co-enzymes in metabolism; help convert carbs, protein, and lipids from diet into energy, help body use amino acids to build protein

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82

Vitamin A function

sustains eyesight and regulation of gene expression;

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83

Vitamin D function

Calcium regulation and bone integrity

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84

Vitamin E function

antioxidant

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85

Vitamin K Function

Blood Clotting

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86

Function of Water in the Body

Carries nutrients throughout the body; serves as a solvent, cleanses blood and tissues, maintenance of body temperature

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87

Calcium Function

99% stored in bones and teeth; assist in bone structure and calcium reserve

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88

Calcium deficiency

skeleton serves as a calcium bank; bones lose density as we age; deficiency leads to ospeoporosis

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89

Calcium Food Sources

Cheese, milk, tofu, yogurt, turnip greens

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90

Calcium RDA

1000 MG per day

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91

Sodium Function

fluid and electrolyte balance; acid-base balance

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92

Sodium Toxicity

2300 mg; diets high in sodium are correlated with high rates of heart disease and stroke

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93

Sodium AI

1500 mg/day

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94

Ways to Decrease sodium intake

dash diet

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95

Potassium Function

fluid and electrolyte balance; heartbeat

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96

Potassium Food Sources

bananas, avocado, orange juice, baked potatoes, salmon

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97

Iodine function

thyroxine

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98

Iodine deficiency

Goiter (enlarged thyroid) and cretinism (mental retardation)

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99

Iodine food sources

Iodized salt, seafood, dairy

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100

Iron Function

carry oxygen, make new cells, amino acids, hormones and neurotransmitters

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