MSK midterm feb 14

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Neuroscience

202 Terms

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biomechanics

the application of mechanics to the study of the structure and function of biological systems

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human biomechanics

how forces act on the musculoskeletal system to produce posture and movement, and how tissues react to these forces

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3 kind of mechanics

rigid body mechanics, deformable body mechanics, fluid mechanics

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rigid body mechanics

cannot be deformed, but realistically some deformation may occur i.e bones and limb segments

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2 subdivisons of rigid body mechanics

statics and dynamics

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static

forces acting on bodies that are at rest or static equilibrium

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dynamic

study of bodies in motion, subdivided into kinematics and kinetics

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which laws defines static equilibrium?

newtons first and third law

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newtons first law (inertia)

rigid body will remain at rest unless an unbalanced net force acts on it

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newtons third law

every action has an equal and opposite reaction

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which law defines dynamics?

newtons second law

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newtons second law

acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass of the body

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kinematics

study of motion without analyzing the forces causing the motion

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motion

analyzed by displacement, velocity, and time

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3 classifications of motion

translational, rotational, general

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translational motion

straight or curved lines

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rotational motion

circular motion around an axis of rotation

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general motion

any combination of rotational or translational motion

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kinetics

study of forces that cause or affect the motion of a body

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2 classifications of forces

internal and external

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external forces

applied to an object and act in contact with the object

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internal forces

exist within the object and act to hold the object together in the presence of external forces

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kinetic chain

combination or series of joint movements that make up a larger movement

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2 types of kinetic chains

open and closed

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force

  • newtons second law

  • contact forces or field forces

    • represented by vectors (magnitude, direction, position/point of application)

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moment

  • bending or turning action created when a force is applied to the lever arm and one end of the lever arm is fixed

    • m = force x perpendicular distance between line direction of force and axis of rotation

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torque

  • type of moment that results in twisting or rotation

  • created by single force or pair of parallel forces acting on a body in opposite directions

  • m = force x perpendicular distance between line direction of force and axis of rotation

  • m = force x perpendicular distance between 2 forces

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forces can be classified into 2 categories

orientation or effect

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orientation forces

  • normal

  • tangential

  • moment

  • torque

  • coplanar

  • colinear

  • concurrent

    • parallel, force couple

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effect forces

  • tensile

  • compressive

  • shear

  • friction

  • bending

    • torsion

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normal force

  • perpendicular to contact surface

  • includes gravitational force

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tangential force

acts on an object in the direction of a tangent to the shape or path of the object

  • ie shear

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friction force

  • resists motion between 2 bodies in contact and sliding against one another

  • amount of friction depends on surface quality and finish

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bending and tension

  • moment creates bending if the applied force is great enough

  • torque creates torsion

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coplanar forces

forces occurring in the same 2d plane but not along the same line

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colinear forces

2 or more forces acting along the same line

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concurrent forces

2 or more forces that act or intersect at a single common point but in tensile or compressive directions

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parallel forces

2 or more forces that run in a parallel direction to each other

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parallel: force couple

variation or parallel force where 2 equal but opposite forces cause only rotation around an axis

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levers

rigid structure or body part that pivots at a fulcrum and converts linear force into rotation

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fulcrum

axis of rotation

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moment arm

perpendicular distance between axis of rotation and direction of force

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first class lever

fulcrum lies between effort force and load

  • ie seesaw

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second class lever

fulcrum lies at one end, load lies between effort force and fulcrum

  • ie ankle

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third class lever

fulcrum lies at one end, load lies at the other with effort force between them

  • ie shovel

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lever arm

rigid structure or body part that pivots at a fulcrum and when force is transmitted through the lever, rotation occurs at the fulcrum

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moment arm

perpendicular distance from axis of rotation and the line of direction of applied force

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moment and torque are

vectors because they have magnitude and direction

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magnitude of torque depends on

amount of force applied, length of moment arm, angle of force applied

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center of gravity

point around which the body or body segment is balanced in every direction

  • for solid objects, average position of all points in the object

  • for the body, is about the belly button anterior to s2

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rear wheel placement of wheelchairs affects

cog, propulsion efficiency, and rear stability of the frame

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increase stability by

enlarging base of support

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greater surface area contact =

lower pressure per square unit

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4 types of body tissues

epithelial, muscular, nervous, connective

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connective tissue

  • supports and binds tissues and organs in their location

  • diverse and varies in structure and function

  • extracellular matrix and a few cells

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types of connective tissue

  • specialized (bone and cartilage)

  • proper (regular dense, irregular dense, and loose)

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fibroblasts

connect tissue

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chondrocytes

cartilage

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osteoblasts

bone growth cells

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osteocytes

  • majority of bone cells

  • imprisoned in lacunae

  • mechanoreceptor

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osteoclasts

bone resorbing cells

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3 kinds of extracellular matrix

ground substance, macromolecules, fibers

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ground substance

  • gel like

  • resists compression and absorbs shock

  • medium for molecular substances to travel between capillaries and cells

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2 types of macromolecules

proteoglycans and glycoproteins

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proteoglycans

structural integrity

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glycoproteins

binding and adhesion

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3 types of fibers

collagen, elastin, reticulum

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collagen

  • provides tensile strength

  • resists longitudinal stress, shear and other forces

  • most common

  • triple helix structure

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elastin

  • elastic like properties

  • found in skin, lungs, BV

  • resists deformational forces with elastic recoil and stretch

  • made by fibroblasts

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reticulum

inelastic

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cartilage

  • withstands compressive forces

  • collagen and high proteoglycan

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bone and tendon

  • resist tensile forces

  • high collagen fiber and low proteoglycan

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dermis

  • resists tensile forces

  • moderate compression

  • accommodates stretching

  • collagen and elastin fiber content and low proteoglycan

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proteoglycans are made of

glycosaminoglycan (gag) and protein

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gag and protein

hydrate matrix, stabilize collagen, resist compressive forces

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hyaluronic acid

not technically a proteoglycan but is hydrophilic and abundant in loose hydrated connective tissue

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type i collagen

  • 80-90% of all collagen

  • includes skin, tendon, bone, vasculature, and organs

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type ii collagen

cartilage

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fibroblasts

collagen is made by

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loose ct

  • largely proteoglycans

  • few collagen and elastin

    • loose arrangement

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dense ct in fascia, capsule, and dermis

  • woven network

  • mostly collagen and some elastin

  • impact resistant

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dense ct in tendons and ligaments

  • parallel fibers

  • mostly collagen and some elastin

    • powerfully resistant to axial loading

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edema

  • excessive accumulation of fluid within interstitial spaces

  • problem with fluid distribution, not an excess of fluid

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3 types of edema

localized, generalized, dependent

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localized edema

limited to site of injury

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generalized edema

uniform distribution of fluid in interstitial spaces

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dependent edema

fluid accumulates in gravity dependent areas (ie pitting)

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hydrostatic pressure and osmosis

how does water move between tissues?

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hydrostatic pressure

  • generated by pressure of fluid within or outside capillary

  • usually water flows out of capillaries

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osmosis

  • generated by protein in blood plasma or interstitial fluid

  • usually water flows into capillaries

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hydrostatic pressure

caused by increased BP, vascular malfunction

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oncotic pressure

caused by acute injury, inflammation, or malnutrition

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bone shapes

flat, short, irregular, long

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long bones are composed of

diaphysis, metaphasis, epiphysis, and epiphyseal plate

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2 types of bone

compact and spongy

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compact bone

  • 85% of skeleton

  • typically exterior

  • haversian system

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spongy bone

  • 15% of skeleton

  • typically interior and ends

  • contains bone marrow

  • less complex, lamellae lay in plates or bars called trabeculae

  • more porous

  • larger SA

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periosteum

double layered ct surrounding all bone

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haversian system

  • compact bone

  • highly organized into units called osteons that have a central canal surrounded by concentrically arranged lamellae

  • solid and strong

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