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The idea that living organisms are modified descendants of common ancestors
-refers to how collective properties arise from the properties of parts.
the whole is more than just the sum of its parts
Scientific Method Order
Observation 2. Hypothesis 3. Prediction 4. Experiment 5. Evaluate
What you expect to see when you test your hypothesis
Testable explanation for observation based on available data
Broad explanation with significant support
Statement of what always happens
The __________ away e- is from nucleus (+) the more potential energy e- posseses
The __________ away e- is from nucleus (+) the less potential energy e- posseses
compounds with two or more atoms
the tendency of an atom to attract an electron
Transfer of electrons
-Sharing of electrons
-Strongest bond in bio
Van der Walls interactions
Weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that result from partial charges.
-Really strong dipole-dipole interactions
-Hold water molecules together
4 Emergent properties of water
Cohesive/adhesive 2. Moderates temperature 3. Expansion upon freezing 4. Polarity
water sticks to itself
water sticks to other things
Carboxylic Acid (-COOH)
Organic Phosphate (-PO4H2)
96% of life us made up of ?
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons therefore different weight
Is a hydrocarbon polar or nonpolar?
Are non polar molecules hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
All functional groups are polar except ?
All functional groups are Hydrophilic except ?
which functional groups are acids ?
Carboxyl Group because Hydrogen is easily released, Phosphate group, and methyl group
Which functional groups act as bases?
Which functional group act as neither ?
Hydroxyl group, Carbonyl group, and sulfhydryl group
1000s of atoms made up of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
What are polymers?
Many identical/similar monomers are linked together. Such as carbs, proteins and nucleic acids NOT lipids
Polymers go through two different reactions, what are they?
Dehydration reaction & Hydrolysis
polymers formed by getting rid of H2O
polymers broken by adding
simple sugars that all have a C6H12O6 chem formula
two sugars linked via condensation through covalent and glycosidic bonds
linking two sugar molecules
Polysaccharides are either used as
Storage or structural
source of energy including starch (found in plants) and glycogen (animals)
Polysaccharide storages are which glucose subunit
Polysaccharide Structurals are which glucose subunit
cellulose (plants) and chitin (fungi)
Proteins are made up of
amino acids (20) (monomer)
Amino acids are made up of
alpha carbon bonds
Amino acid characteristics are
non-polar, polar, electrically charged and essential AA dependant on R-Groups
Proteins are formed by
linking amino acids via covalent bond (peptide bonds)
Carbohydrates end in
-ose & -saccharides
What is the monomer of nucleic acids?
What are the classes of Nucleic Acids?
DNA & RNA
What is the function of Nucleic Acids?
Transmit hereditary info, blueprint of life
Carbohydrates create what kind of linkages ?
proteins create what kind of linkages ?
lipids create what kind of linkages ?
hydrophobic fats that store energy
fats that are solid at room temperature & have all Carbons filled with Hydrogens
liquid at room temperature and some carbons are Double bonded
Fats consist of
glycerol and 3 fatty acids
amphipathic molecules found in cell membranes
4 fused carbon rings
Chemical evolution hypothesis
life developed from non-living matter
spontaneous formation of small organic molecules
what are the 4 requirements of abiotic synthesis
low free oxygen 2. Source of energy(crazy earth energy) 3. Chemical building blocks (water/inorganic molecules/ATM) 4. Time
Oxidation is known as
the breaking of bonds
Reduction is known as
making of bonds
Oparin and Haldane hypothesis
the conditions of early earth favored spontaneous organic molecule formation. The area near earths surface we expect to see life being formed because of the craziness.
OH Hypothesis tested by Miller & Urey by
creating a closed system to simulate early earth conditions. Made sure there were organic chemicals and an electrode (crazy earth)
What did the environment created by Miller & Urey create after constant repetition
were able to create all amino acids, nucleic acids, lipids, sugars
fluid filled compartment surrounded by a membrane
first cell, combination of abiotically produced organic polymers and exhibits living cell characteristics (electrical potential)
to transfer water either inside or outside of the vesicle
How are the external and internal environments in protocells?
they are not equal
Do protocols transmit heredity ?
1st genetic material
-A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.