midterm 1 gen bio

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Evolution

1 / 216

Tags and Description

217 Terms

1

Evolution

The idea that living organisms are modified descendants of common ancestors

New cards
2

Emergence

-refers to how collective properties arise from the properties of parts.

New cards
3
  • the whole is more than just the sum of its parts

New cards
4

Scientific Method Order

  1. Observation 2. Hypothesis 3. Prediction 4. Experiment 5. Evaluate

New cards
5

Prediction

What you expect to see when you test your hypothesis

New cards
6

Hypothesis

Testable explanation for observation based on available data

New cards
7

Theory

Broad explanation with significant support

New cards
8

Law

Statement of what always happens

New cards
9

The __________ away e- is from nucleus (+) the more potential energy e- posseses

further

New cards
10

The __________ away e- is from nucleus (+) the less potential energy e- posseses

closer

New cards
11

Molecules

compounds with two or more atoms

New cards
12

Electronegativity

the tendency of an atom to attract an electron

New cards
13

Ionic Bond

Transfer of electrons

New cards
14

Covalent Bond

-Sharing of electrons

New cards
15

-Strongest bond in bio

New cards
16

Van der Walls interactions

Weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that result from partial charges.

New cards
17

Hydrogen Bonds

-Really strong dipole-dipole interactions

New cards
18

-Hold water molecules together

New cards
19

4 Emergent properties of water

  1. Cohesive/adhesive 2. Moderates temperature 3. Expansion upon freezing 4. Polarity

New cards
20

Cohesion

water sticks to itself

New cards
21

Adhesion

water sticks to other things

New cards
22

Hydroxyl Group

Alcohol (-OH)

New cards
23

carbonyl group

Carboxylic Acid (-COOH)

New cards
24

Amino Group

Amines (-NH2)

New cards
25

sulfhydryl group

Thiols (-SH)

New cards
26

Phosphate Group

Organic Phosphate (-PO4H2)

New cards
27

methyl group

-CH3

New cards
28

96% of life us made up of ?

CHON

New cards
29

Isotopes

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons therefore different weight

New cards
30

Is a hydrocarbon polar or nonpolar?

nonpolar

New cards
31

Are non polar molecules hydrophobic or hydrophilic?

hydrophobic

New cards
32

All functional groups are polar except ?

Methyl Group

New cards
33

All functional groups are Hydrophilic except ?

Methyl Group

New cards
34

which functional groups are acids ?

Carboxyl Group because Hydrogen is easily released, Phosphate group, and methyl group

New cards
35

Which functional groups act as bases?

New cards
36

Which functional group act as neither ?

Hydroxyl group, Carbonyl group, and sulfhydryl group

New cards
37

Macromolecules are

1000s of atoms made up of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

New cards
38

What are polymers?

Many identical/similar monomers are linked together. Such as carbs, proteins and nucleic acids NOT lipids

New cards
39

Polymers go through two different reactions, what are they?

Dehydration reaction & Hydrolysis

New cards
40

Dehydration (condensation)

polymers formed by getting rid of H2O

New cards
41

Hydrolysis

polymers broken by adding

New cards
42

monosaccarides are

simple sugars that all have a C6H12O6 chem formula

New cards
43

Disaccharides are

two sugars linked via condensation through covalent and glycosidic bonds

New cards
44

Glycosidic bond

linking two sugar molecules

New cards
45

Polysaccharides are

many sugars

New cards
46

Polysaccharides are either used as

Storage or structural

New cards
47

Storage Polysaccharides

source of energy including starch (found in plants) and glycogen (animals)

New cards
48

Polysaccharide storages are which glucose subunit

alpha

New cards
49

Polysaccharide Structurals are which glucose subunit

beta

New cards
50

Structural Polysaccarides

cellulose (plants) and chitin (fungi)

New cards
51

Proteins are made up of

amino acids (20) (monomer)

New cards
52

Amino acids are made up of

alpha carbon bonds

New cards
53

Amino acid characteristics are

non-polar, polar, electrically charged and essential AA dependant on R-Groups

New cards
54

Proteins are formed by

linking amino acids via covalent bond (peptide bonds)

New cards
55

Carbohydrates end in

-ose & -saccharides

New cards
56

What is the monomer of nucleic acids?

nucleotides

New cards
57

What are the classes of Nucleic Acids?

DNA & RNA

New cards
58

What is the function of Nucleic Acids?

Transmit hereditary info, blueprint of life

New cards
59

Carbohydrates create what kind of linkages ?

Glycosidic linkages

New cards
60

proteins create what kind of linkages ?

peptide linkages

New cards
61

lipids create what kind of linkages ?

ester linkages

New cards
62

Lipids are

hydrophobic fats that store energy

New cards
63

Saturated fats

fats that are solid at room temperature & have all Carbons filled with Hydrogens

New cards
64

Unsaturated fats

liquid at room temperature and some carbons are Double bonded

New cards
65

Fats consist of

glycerol and 3 fatty acids

New cards
66

Phospholipids are

amphipathic molecules found in cell membranes

New cards
67

Steroids are

4 fused carbon rings

New cards
68

Chemical evolution hypothesis

life developed from non-living matter

New cards
69

abiotic synthesis

spontaneous formation of small organic molecules

New cards
70

what are the 4 requirements of abiotic synthesis

  1. low free oxygen 2. Source of energy(crazy earth energy) 3. Chemical building blocks (water/inorganic molecules/ATM) 4. Time

New cards
71

Oxidation is known as

the breaking of bonds

New cards
72

Reduction is known as

making of bonds

New cards
73

Oparin and Haldane hypothesis

the conditions of early earth favored spontaneous organic molecule formation. The area near earths surface we expect to see life being formed because of the craziness.

New cards
74

OH Hypothesis tested by Miller & Urey by

creating a closed system to simulate early earth conditions. Made sure there were organic chemicals and an electrode (crazy earth)

New cards
75

What did the environment created by Miller & Urey create after constant repetition

were able to create all amino acids, nucleic acids, lipids, sugars

New cards
76

vesicle

fluid filled compartment surrounded by a membrane

New cards
77

protocell

first cell, combination of abiotically produced organic polymers and exhibits living cell characteristics (electrical potential)

New cards
78

Abiotic

Non-living

New cards
79

osmosis

to transfer water either inside or outside of the vesicle

New cards
80

How are the external and internal environments in protocells?

they are not equal

New cards
81

Do protocols transmit heredity ?

no

New cards
82

RNA

single-stranded

New cards
83

1st genetic material

New cards
84

DNA

-A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.

New cards
85

-More stable than RNA, better info storage

New cards
86

-Evolved from RNA

New cards
87

Prokaryotes

-Cells that do not contain nuclei

New cards
88

-1st cells

New cards
89

How do heterotrophs obtain energy?

-obtains its energy from organic molecules from its environment for energy.

New cards
90

-through fermentation from anaerobic breakdown of compounds

New cards
91

Anaerobic

involves less energy but produces less energy

New cards
92

no O2 involved

New cards
93

aerobic

involves more energy and produces more energy

New cards
94

O2 needed

New cards
95

Photosynthetic autotrophs

2nd prokaryotes to form

New cards
96

-use sunlight energy to produce its own food

New cards
97

Cynobacteria

take sunlight to break down H2O drastically releasing oxygen into the environment

New cards
98

Autotrophs

use sunlight to break down H2S for energy, releasing sulfur

New cards
99

Eukaryotes have

a nucleus and came to be because a smaller prokaryote was injested by a bigger prokaryote

New cards
100

Endosymbiosis

a mutually beneficial relationship in which one organism lives within another

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3423 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(25)
note Note
studied byStudied by 54 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 110 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5121 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(41)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 178 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard53 terms
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 1285 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 141 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(7)