AP GOV Unit 2 Vocab (copy)

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“advice and consent”

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107 Terms

1

“advice and consent”

terms in the Constitution describing the US Senate’s power to review and approve treaties and presidential appointments

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2

“necessary and proper” clause

Congress shall have power to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers

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3

“one person, one vote”

expresses the principle of equal representation in voting

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4

16th amendment

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

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5

17th amendment

the direct election of U.S. senators by the voters of the states.

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6

27th amendment

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened

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7

appropriation

the passage by Congress of a spending bill specifying the amount of authorized funds that actually will be allocated for an agency’s use

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8

appropriations bill

legislation to appropriate federal funds to specific federal government departments, agencies and programs. The money provides funding for operations, personnel, equipment and activities.

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9

Article I

"The Legislative Branch" The U.S. Congress makes the laws for the United States. Congress has two parts called "Houses" the House of Representatives and the Senate. Congress also has the power to borrow money for the nation, declare war and raise a military

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10

Authorization

a formal declaration by a legislative committee that a certain amount of funding may be available to an agency. Some authorizations terminate in a year; others are renewable automatically, without further congressional action

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11

Baker v Carr

helped establish the “one person-one vote” principle that greatly expanded democratic participation and the voting rights of minorities; as a result, all states had to redraw legislative boundaries b/c each person’s vote had to be weighed equally

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12

bicameralism (bicameral)

the division of a legislature into two separate assemblies

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13

bill

a legislative proposal that if passed by both the House and Senate and approved by the President becomes law

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14

casework

personal work for constituenets by members of Congress

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15

caucus

a meeting of party members designed to select candidates and propose policies

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16

census

An official count or survey of a population, typically recording various details of individuals.

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17

closed primary

a type of primary in which the voter is limited to choosing candidates of the party of which he or she is a member

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18

closed rule

A procedural rule in the House of Representatives that prohibits any amendments to bills or provides that only members of the committee reporting the bill may offer amendments

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19

cloture

enabled/required a 2/3 supermajority to stop debate (filibuster) on a bill, and allowing for a vote

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20

coalition building

the process by which parties (individuals, organizations, or nations) come together to form a coalition

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21

committee chairperson

the member of congress responsible for running a committee, who can have great influence over the committee agenda and, by extension, the legislative process

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22

committee of the Whole

includes but does not require all representatives; allows for longer debate among fewer ppl and to allow members to vote as a group rather than in an individual roll call

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23

Conference committee

a special joint committee appointed to reconcile differences when bills pass the two chambers of Congress in different forms

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24

Confirmation power

the authority given by the U.S. Constitution to the Senate to ratify treaties and confirm presidential cabinet, ambassadorial, and judicial appointments

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25

Congressional Budget Office

provides the Congress with objective, nonpartisan, and timely information, analyses, and estimates related to federal economic and budgetary decisions

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26

Constituency service

the assistance given to constituents by members of Congress in non-legislative areas

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27

Constituent (Constituency)

one of the persons represented by a legislator or elected or appointed official

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28

Continuing resolution

a temporary funding law that Congress passes when an appropriations bill has not been decided by the beginning of the new fiscal year on October 1

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29

cracking

where states will dilute the voting power of the opposing party’s supporters across districts

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30

debate

is a structured way for adversaries to intellectually engage each other, for the benefit of an audience.

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31

deficit

difference b/w spending and revenue

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32

direct primary

an intraparty election in which the voters select the candidates who will run on a party’s ticket in the subsequent general election

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33

discharge petition

a procedure by which a bill in the House of Representatives may be forced out of a committee that has refused to report it for consideration by the House. The petition must be signed by an absolute majority (218) of representatives and is used only on rare occasions

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34

divided government

a situation in which one major political party controls the presidency and the other controls the chambers of Congress, or in which one party controls a state governorship and the other controls the state legislature

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35

earmarks

funding appropriations that are specifically designated for a named project in a member’s state or district

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36

entitlements

gov’t services Congress has promised by law to citizens-that are major contributors to both annual deficits and the overall debt

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37

enumerated powers

a power specifically granted to the nat’l gov’t by the Constitution

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38

executive budget

the budget prepared and submitted by the president to Congress

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39

expenditures

the action of spending funds

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40

federal budget

A bill that specifies how much money can be spent on a given federal program.

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41

filibuster

the use of the Senate’s tradition of unlimited debate as a delaying tactic to block a bill

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42

fiscal year (FY)

a 12-month period that is used for bookkeeping or accounting purposes; does not coincide w/ the calendar year

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43

franking

a policy that enables members of Congress to send materials through the mail by substituting their facsimile signature for postage

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44

gerrymandering

drawing of legislature district boundary lines to obtain partisan or factional advantage; district is this when its shape is manipulated by dominant party in state legislature to maximize electoral strength at the expense of the minority party

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45

gridlock

the congestion of opposing forces that prevents ideas from moving forward

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46

hearings and investigations

Hearings - is a meeting or session of a Senate, House, joint, or special committee of Congress, usually open to the public, to obtain information and opinions on proposed legislation; Investigations - conducted to gather information on the need for future legislation, to test the effectiveness of laws already passed

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47

hold

a measure to stall a bill (instead of filibuster)

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48

house Majority Leader

The legislative leader elected by the party members holding the majority of seats in the House of Representatives

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49

House Minority Leader

responsible for leading the minority party in the U.S. House of Representatives.

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50

House Rules Committee

Acts as a "gatekeeper" for all legislation that is scheduled to reach the floor of the House for debate and a vote; comes up with "rules" governing the time that each side of the bill has for debate; determines whether any amendment can be introduced; Majority party controls legislative agenda

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51

House Ways and Means Committee

a committee exclusive to the House that determines tax policy; first to outline details when proposals are put forward to raise or lower income taxes

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52

implied powers

powers not specifically listed in the Constitution but deriving from the elastic clause

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53

income tax

shares of individual wages and corporate revenues collected by the government

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54

incumbency advantage

ability to use all the tools of the presidency to support candidacy for a second term

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55

incumbents

The current holder of the elected office

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56

inherent powers

power of the president derived from the statements in the Constitution that “the executive Power shall be vested in a President” and that the pres should “take care that the laws be faithfully executed;” defined thru practice rather than thru law

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57

institutions of government

The Congress, the Presidency, the Bureaucracy, and the Federal Courts.

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58

instructed delegate

legislator who is an agent of the voters who elected him or her who votes according to the views of constituents regardless of personal beliefs

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59

joint committee

a legislative committee composed of members from both chambers of Congress

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60

joint resolution

requires the approval of both Chambers in identical form and the president's signature to become law; generally used for continuing or emergency appropriations

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61

justiciable question

a question that may be raised and reviewed in court

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62

lawmaking

the process of establishing the legal rules that govern society

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63

legislative oversight

Congress reviews/monitors actions of the executive branch and executive agencies

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64

congressional oversight

essentially a check and balance on the agencies themselves and competes w/ the president for influence over them

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65

oversight

the process by which Congress follows up on laws it has enacted to ensure that they are being enforced and administered in the way Congress intended

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66

logrolling

an arrangement in which two or more members of Congress agree in advance to support each other’s bills

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67

Majority Whip

is the third-highest ranking individual in the majority party (the party with the most seats)

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68

Marginal Seat

or swing seat is a constituency held with a small majority in a legislative election

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69

Midterm Elections

federal elections that occur midway through a president’s term

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70

Minority Whip

is the second highest-ranking individual in the minority party

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71

open primary

a primary in which any registered voter can vote (but must vote for candidates of only one party)

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72

open rule

A procedural rule in the House of Representatives that permits floor amendments within the overall time allocated to the bill

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73

packing

where one concentrates the opposing party’s voting power in one district to reduce their voting power in another district

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74

Partisan Gerrymandering

which refers to redistricting that favors one political party

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75

partisanship

strong allegiance to one's own political party, often leading to unwillingness to compromise with members of the opposing party

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76

policy agenda

a set of issues that are significant to people involved in policymaking

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77

politico model of representation

holds that representatives can alternately fulfill the role of trustee or delegate depending on the issue

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78

pork

special projects or appropriations that are intended to benefit a member’s district or state; slang term for earmarks

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79

Pork Barrel legislation

funds earmarked for specific purposes in legislator’s district

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80

President of the Senate

VP; votes if there’s a 50/50 tie; a ceremonial role

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81

President Pro Tempore

the temporary presiding officer of the Senate in the absence of the vice president

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82

Quorum

the minimum number of members who must be present to permit a legislative body to take official action

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83

Racial Gerrymandering

intentional drawing of legislative districts on the basis of race has also been the subject of scrutiny for conflicting reasons

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84

Ranking member

a member of a congressional committee or legislative committee who is the second in command, or is perhaps the leader of the minority in the committee

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85

ratification of treaties

The Constitution gives the President the power to commit the United States to treaties - but only with the advice and consent of two-thirds of the US Senate, and only if the agreement does not contravene the Constitution.

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86

Reapportionment

the allocation of seats in the House of Representatives to each state after each census

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87

redistricting

the redrawing of the boundaries of the congressional districts within each state

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88

representation

the function of members of Congress as elected officials representing the views of their constituents

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89

revenue

the financial resources of the federal government. The individual income tax and social security tax are two major sources

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90

Reynolds v Sims

upholds the idea that districts should contain similar or equal population numbers, effectively making sure that everyone is represented equally and fairly (uses Equal Protection Clause)

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91

rules

the proposal by the Rules Committee of the House that states the conditions for debate for one piece of legislation

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92

safe seat

a district that returns to legislator with 55% of the vote or more

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93

select committee

a temporary legislative committee established for a limited time period and for a special purpose

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94

Senate

is based on equal representation meaning each state has two senators; every two years, 1/3 representatives up for reelection

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95

Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

Holds confirmation hearings for secretary of state and ambassadors

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96

Senate Judiciary Committee

Considers legislation dealing with civil liberties, constitutional amendments, federal courts and judges, immigration, civil and criminal laws

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97

Senate Majority Leader

chief spokesperson of the majority part in the Senate, who directs the legislative program and party strategy

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98

Senate Minority Leader

party officer in the Senate who commands the minority party’s opposition to the policies of the majority party and directs the legislative program and strategy of his or her party

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99

Seniority System

a custom followed in both chambers specifying that the member of the majority party w/ longest term will be given preference when a committee chairperson is selected

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100

Shaw v Reno

court’s decision in the case shows that using only race as factor for creating districts does not align w/ the 14th Amendment

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