PHL 255 final

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Siddhartha Gautama

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108 Terms

1

Siddhartha Gautama

  • Founder of Buddhism

  • Also known as the Buddha

  • Born in Nepal in 563 BCE

  • Left his privileged life to seek enlightenment

  • Achieved enlightenment under a bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya

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The Four Sights

  • Four sights that Siddhartha Gautama saw on a journey outside his palace

  • Old age, sickness, death, and a wandering ascetic

  • Led to his decision to leave his privileged life and seek enlightenment

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Pure Land Buddhism

  • A form of Mahayana Buddhism

  • Emphasizes the importance of devotion to Amitabha Buddha

  • Believes in a pure land or paradise called the Western Pure Land, where followers can be reborn after death

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The Four Noble Truths

  • Core teachings of Buddhism

1 Life is suffering

2 Suffering arises from craving and attachment

3 Suffering can be overcome

4 The path to the end of suffering is the Eightfold Path

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Bodhidharma

  • Buddhist monk who brought Chan (Zen) Buddhism to China

  • Also known as Da Mo

  • Famous for sitting in meditation facing a wall for nine years in a cave

  • Considered the first patriarch of Chan/Zen Buddhism

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The Noble Eightfold Path

  • Eightfold path to end suffering and achieve enlightenment

  • Right understanding, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration

  • Practiced by followers of Buddhism

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Chan/Zen Buddhism

  • Branch of Mahayana Buddhism

  • Emphasizes meditation and direct experience of ultimate reality

  • Traces its lineage back to Bodhidharma, the first patriarch of Chan/Zen

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The Middle Way

  • Concept in Buddhism

  • Rejects extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification

  • Advocates for a balanced approach to life

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zazen

  • Seated meditation practice in Zen Buddhism

  • Involves sitting in a specific posture and focusing on the breath

  • Goal is to develop concentration, mindfulness, and insight

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The Three Marks of Existence

  • Core teachings in Buddhism

  • Impermanence (anicca/anitya)

  • Suffering (dukkha)

  • No-self (anatman)

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Koan

  • Riddle or paradoxical statement used in Zen Buddhism

  • Designed to provoke enlightenment or realization in the student

  • Often begins with the question, "What is the sound of one hand clapping?"

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Dukkha

  • Pali term for suffering or unsatisfactoriness

  • One of the Three Marks of Existence

  • Can be caused by desire, attachment, and ignorance

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Tibetan Buddhism

  • Branch of Mahayana Buddhism

  • Emphasizes meditation, compassion, and the importance of a teacher

  • Believes in the reincarnation of lamas, such as the Dalai Lama

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Anatman

  • Sanskrit term for no-self or non-self

  • One of the Three Marks of Existence

  • Rejects the idea of a permanent, unchanging self or soul

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Dalai Lama

  • Leader of Tibetan Buddhism

  • Spiritual and political leader of the Tibetan people

  • Believed to be the reincarnation of the previous Dalai Lama

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Anicca/Anitya

  • Pali/Sanskrit term for impermanence

  • One of the Three Marks of Existence

  • Refers to the idea that all things are constantly changing and in flux

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Nirvana

  • Buddhist concept of ultimate liberation and enlightenment

  • Escape from the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth (samsara)

  • Achieved through the elimination of craving and attachment

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Tathata “Suchness”

  • Buddhist concept that emphasizes the true nature of reality

  • Everything is as it is, without any added interpretation or judgment

  • Also known as "thusness" or "thatness"

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samsara

  • Concept in Buddhism

  • The cycle of birth, death, and rebirth

  • Governed by karma, the law of cause and effect

  • Samsara can be escaped through enlightenment or Nirvana

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karuna

  • Sanskrit term for compassion

  • One of the Four Immeasurables in Buddhism

  • The wish for all beings to be free from suffering

  • Practiced by followers of Buddhism

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trishna/tanha

  • Sanskrit/Pali term for craving or thirst

  • One of the Three Poisons in Buddhism

  • Associated with suffering and attachment

  • Can be overcome through the Eightfold Path

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the three jewels

  • Core components of Buddhism

  • Buddha (the teacher)

  • Dharma (the teachings)

  • Sangha (the community of practitioners)

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Dharma

  • Buddhist term for the teachings of the Buddha

  • Includes the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path, and other Buddhist teachings

  • Considered one of the Three Jewels of Buddhism

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Sangha

  • Buddhist term for the community of practitioners

  • Includes monks, nuns, and laypeople

  • Considered one of the Three Jewels of Buddhism

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Buddha

  • Sanskrit term for "awakened one"

  • Refers to Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism

  • Also used as a title for other enlightened beings

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Theravada

  • Oldest surviving branch of Buddhism

  • Emphasizes personal liberation through insight meditation

  • Found primarily in Southeast Asia

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Mahayana

  • Branch of Buddhism that developed later than Theravada

  • Emphasizes compassion and the idea of the bodhisattva, who seeks enlightenment for the benefit of all beings

  • Found primarily in East Asia and Tibet.

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arhat

  • In Theravada Buddhism, an individual who has attained enlightenment

  • Has achieved Nirvana and will not be reborn

  • Focuses on personal liberation

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bodhisattva

  • In Mahayana Buddhism, an individual who seeks enlightenment for the benefit of all beings

  • Delays their own enlightenment until all beings are liberated

  • Emphasizes compassion and altruism

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Pali Canon

  • The primary scripture of Theravada Buddhism

  • Contains the teachings of the Buddha as preserved in the Pali language

  • Consists of three sections: the Vinaya Pitaka, the Sutta Pitaka, and the Abhidhamma Pitaka

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Three Unwholesome Roots

  • In Buddhism, the three negative mental states that lead to unwholesome actions

  • Greed or craving (lobha)

  • Hatred or anger (dosa)

  • Delusion or ignorance (moha)

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Emperor Ashoka

  • Mauryan emperor who ruled over much of India in the 3rd century BCE

  • Converted to Buddhism and promoted its spread

  • Responsible for the spread of Buddhism throughout much of Asia

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parinirvana

  • The final Nirvana, achieved at the end of an arhat's life

  • The ultimate release from the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth

  • Associated with the death of the Buddha

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transcendental immanence

  • A concept in Mahayana Buddhism that reconciles the apparent duality of samsara and Nirvana

  • Emphasizes the interdependent nature of all phenomena

  • All things are ultimately empty of inherent existence

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mandala

  • A circular diagram used in Buddhism and other spiritual traditions

  • Used as a focus for meditation and visualization

  • Often includes symbolic representations of deities or aspects of the universe

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Nagarjuna

  • Indian philosopher and founder of the Madhyamaka school of Mahayana Buddhism

  • Emphasized the concept of shunyata or emptiness

  • Considered one of the most important Buddhist philosophers.

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dependent arising

  • A fundamental concept in Buddhism

  • All phenomena arise in dependence upon other phenomena

  • The cycle of cause and effect that governs samsara.

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Kung fu tzu

  • Chinese philosopher and teacher (551–479 BCE)

  • Founder of Confucianism

  • Emphasized the importance of moral principles and social harmony

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xunzi

  • Chinese philosopher and follower of Confucius

  • Believed that human nature is fundamentally flawed and must be improved through education and ritual

  • Emphasized the importance of social order and ritual

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Mozi

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rujia

  • A philosophical and ethical system developed from the teachings of Confucius

  • Emphasizes the importance of moral principles and social harmony

  • Forms the basis of traditional Chinese culture

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the analects

  • A collection of sayings and teachings of Confucius

  • Forms one of the primary texts of Confucianism

  • Emphasizes the importance of moral principles, family values, and social harmony

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mencius

  • Chinese philosopher and follower of Confucius

  • Emphasized the goodness of human nature and the importance of cultivating moral virtues

  • Believed that rulers should be benevolent and responsive to the needs of their people

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wu-lun

  • The "five relationships" in Confucianism

  • Ruler-subject, father-son, husband-wife, elder brother-younger brother, friend-friend

  • Emphasizes the importance of social hierarchy and respect for authority

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xiao

  • Confucian concept of filial piety or respect for parents and elders

  • Emphasizes the importance of family values and social harmony

  • One of the core values of Confucianism

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bent rods

  • Confucian metaphor for effective leadership

  • The leader should be flexible like a bent rod, able to adapt to changing circumstances

  • The leader should also be firm like a straight rod, able to provide stability and guidance

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mandate of heaven

  • Chinese concept of the divine right to rule

  • The belief that the ruler is given the right to rule by the gods or the heavens

  • The ruler must rule justly and be responsive to the needs of the people or risk losing the mandate

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shu

  • Confucian concept of reciprocity

  • "Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself"

  • Emphasizes the importance of treating others with kindness and respect

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sprouts

  • Confucian metaphor for the innate goodness of human nature

  • Just as sprouts will naturally grow towards the sun, humans have an innate tendency towards goodness and morality

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rectification of names

  • Confucian belief that language and naming must be accurate and true

  • Proper naming is essential for creating social order and harmony

  • Incorrect naming can lead to confusion and disorder

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ren

  • Confucian virtue of benevolence or humaneness

  • Emphasizes the importance of compassion, kindness, and empathy towards others

  • One of the core values of Confucianism

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li

  • Confucian concept of propriety or proper conduct

  • Emphasizes the importance of social norms and rituals in creating social order and harmony

  • Proper conduct is essential for maintaining social hierarchy and respect for authority

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chun tzu

  • Confucian ideal of the "superior person" or the "gentleman"

  • Emphasizes the importance of moral virtues and leadership qualities

  • A chun tzu is someone who embodies the virtues of ren, li, and other Confucian values

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wei

  • Confucian concept of action or behavior

  • Emphasizes the importance of proper behavior and conduct in creating social harmony

  • Proper wei is essential for maintaining social hierarchy and respect for authority

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yi

  • Yi is a core Confucian value, emphasizing the importance of righteousness and ethical behavior.

  • It is considered one of the key virtues for achieving a harmonious and stable society.

  • In Confucian philosophy, yi is closely linked with other values such as ren (benevolence), li (propriety), and zhi (wisdom).

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Lao Tzu

  • Chinese philosopher and founder of Taoism

  • Author of the Tao Te Ching, a classic text on Taoist philosophy

  • Emphasized the importance of living in harmony with nature and following the natural flow of the universe

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wu wei

  • Taoist concept of non-action or non-interference

  • Emphasizes the importance of letting things unfold naturally, without trying to force or control them

  • Often associated with the idea of "effortless action"

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Taojia

  • School of Taoist philosophy that focuses on the study of the Tao Te Ching and other Taoist texts

  • Emphasizes the importance of cultivating wisdom and living in accordance with the Tao

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Chuang Tzu

  • Chinese philosopher and key figure in Taoist philosophy

  • Author of the Chuang Tzu, a classic text on Taoist philosophy

  • Emphasized the importance of living in harmony with nature and embracing the concept of wu wei

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wan wu

  • Taoist concept of the "ten thousand things"

  • Refers to the infinite variety of phenomena in the universe

  • Emphasizes the interconnectedness of all things and the importance of living in harmony with nature

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Skeptical relativism

  • Philosophical concept that emphasizes the limitations of human knowledge and the difficulty of obtaining objective truth

  • Often associated with the ancient Chinese philosopher Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)

  • Emphasizes the importance of questioning one's own beliefs and perceptions

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fu, yin, and po

  • In Taoist philosophy, these are the three spirits or "souls" of the human being

  • Fu represents the physical body, yin represents the spirit, and po represents the soul

  • Emphasizes the interconnectedness of mind and body, and the importance of balance and harmony between the two

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yang

  • One of the two complementary forces in Chinese philosophy, along with yin

  • Associated with masculine energy, light, and activity

  • Often represented by the sun or daytime

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tai chi

  • Chinese martial art and form of exercise

  • Involves slow, flowing movements and deep breathing

  • Emphasizes the principles of balance, relaxation, and internal energy cultivation

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chi

  • Vital energy or life force in Chinese philosophy

  • Believed to flow through the body and be influenced by factors such as breath, movement, and environment

  • Central to practices such as acupuncture, Tai Chi, and Qigong

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feng shui

  • Chinese system of arranging the environment to promote harmony and balance

  • Involves the placement of objects and the orientation of buildings in relation to natural features and energy flows

  • Emphasizes the importance of balance and harmony between humans and their environment

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tao

  • Central concept in Chinese philosophy, often translated as "the way" or "the path"

  • Refers to the natural order or principle that governs the universe

  • Emphasizes the importance of living in harmony with nature and following the natural flow of things

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principles of nature

  • Central to Taoist philosophy

  • Emphasizes the importance of following the natural order and living in harmony with nature

  • Involves principles such as balance, harmony, simplicity, and humility

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tao te ching

  • Classic text of Taoist philosophy, attributed to the legendary figure Lao Tzu

  • Emphasizes the importance of living in harmony with the Tao and following the natural flow of the universe

  • Contains teachings on topics such as leadership, ethics, and spirituality

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I ching

  • Ancient Chinese divination system and book of wisdom

  • Involves the use of hexagrams to represent different states of being and situations

  • Emphasizes the importance of balance and the principles of nature in decision-making

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tzu jan (ziran)

  • Taoist concept of naturalness or spontaneity

  • Emphasizes the importance of acting in accordance with one's true nature and the natural flow of things

  • Central to the practice of wu-wei and other Taoist concept

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zhenren

  • A term used in Taoism to refer to a "real" or "true" person who has achieved enlightenment or immortality

  • Often associated with the attainment of spiritual and physical perfection

  • Considered a role model for spiritual seekers

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ming

  • A concept in Chinese philosophy that refers to the destiny or fate of a person or thing

  • Believed to be determined by a combination of factors such as one's actions, environment, and cosmic forces

  • Can be influenced through self-cultivation and spiritual practice

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hseng sheng

  • Chinese term for reincarnation or transmigration of the soul

  • Believed to occur after death and involve the migration of the soul to a new physical body

  • Central to many Chinese religious and philosophical traditions

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trigram

  • A set of three lines used in divination and cosmology in Chinese philosophy

  • Represent different elemental forces and correspond to various aspects of life and the universe

  • Used in practices such as feng shui and I Ching divination

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dantian

  • A focal point in the body used in traditional Chinese medicine, martial arts, and Taoist practice

  • Refers to an area in the lower abdomen believed to be the center of physical and spiritual energy

  • Important in practices such as Tai Chi, Qigong, and neidan (inner alchemy)

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neidan

  • A Taoist practice of inner alchemy, aimed at cultivating spiritual and physical transformation

  • Involves practices such as meditation, breathwork, and visualization

  • Aims to develop the practitioner's inner resources and cultivate a deeper understanding of the nature of reality

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shen

  • A term in Chinese philosophy that refers to the spiritual or divine nature of a person or thing

  • Believed to be associated with consciousness, mind, and spirit

  • Central to many religious and philosophical practices in China, including Taoism and Confucianism

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fangshi

  • A term used in Chinese philosophy to refer to a master or expert in various fields, including divination, medicine, and alchemy

  • Often associated with esoteric knowledge and spiritual attainment

  • Central to many Chinese religious and philosophical traditions

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jing

  • A term in traditional Chinese medicine and Taoist philosophy that refers to the body's vital essence or energy

  • Believed to be stored in the kidneys and associated with physical and sexual vitality

  • Important in practices such as Qigong, Tai Chi, and neidan.

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Han Feizi

  • A philosopher and statesman who lived during the Warring States period in China

  • Founder of the Fajia (Legalist) school of philosophy

  • Believed in a strict system of laws and punishments to maintain social order and strengthen the state

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Fajia

  • A school of Chinese philosophy that emerged during the Warring States period

  • Emphasizes the importance of strong government and strict laws to maintain social order and stability

  • Associated with Han Feizi and other Legalist thinkers

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fa

  • A term in Legalist philosophy that refers to the law or principle used to govern the state

  • Seen as a tool to maintain social order and prevent chaos

  • Emphasizes the importance of strict and impartial enforcement of the law

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shu

  • A concept in Legalist philosophy that refers to statecraft or political strategy

  • Involves tactics such as spying, deception, and manipulation to gain and maintain power

  • Seen as essential to the success of the state and the ruler

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shi

  • A term in Chinese philosophy that refers to the scholar-official class

  • Played a key role in the government and bureaucracy of imperial China

  • Considered to be educated and morally upright, with a responsibility to serve the state and the people

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the two handles

  • A metaphor used in Legalist philosophy to describe the two primary tools of the ruler: rewards and punishments

  • Seen as essential to maintaining social order and ensuring obedience to the law

  • Emphasizes the importance of balancing the use of rewards and punishments to maintain the stability of the state

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system of ranks

  • A hierarchical system used in imperial China to organize society and government

  • Based on Confucian ideals of social order and harmony

  • Divided society into different classes and ranks, with officials and scholars at the top

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authoritarianism

  • A political system characterized by strong central control and limited political freedoms

  • Often associated with strict laws and regulations, as well as a focus on maintaining social order and stability

  • Can be seen as compatible with Legalist philosophy and the concept of the strong state.

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Angra Mainyu

  • A concept in Zoroastrianism that represents the principle of evil and chaos

  • Seen as a counterpart to the principle of good, represented by Ahura Mazda

  • Associated with destructive forces such as disease, death, and natural disasters

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Ahura Mazda

  • The supreme deity in Zoroastrianism

  • Represents the principle of good and order

  • Associated with positive forces such as truth, wisdom, and righteousness

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apocalypticism

  • A belief system that focuses on the end of the world and the final judgment

  • Often associated with religious or political upheaval

  • Can be seen in various religious traditions, including Zoroastrianism

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ethical dualism

  • A belief system that posits the existence of two opposing moral forces

  • Associated with Zoroastrianism and other religious traditions

  • Often emphasizes the importance of choosing the right path and acting ethically

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gathas

  • The oldest sacred texts of Zoroastrianism

  • Composed in poetic form by the prophet Zarathustra

  • Emphasize the importance of moral and ethical behavior, and the battle between good and evil

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haoma

  • A sacred plant used in Zoroastrian rituals and ceremonies

  • Associated with immortality, healing, and divine power

  • Often used in rituals involving fire, which is also considered sacred in Zoroastrianism

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daeva

  • A term in Zoroastrianism that refers to evil or demonic spirits

  • Seen as opposing the forces of good and order represented by Ahura Mazda

  • Later associated with the concept of demons in other religious traditions

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concentration

  • A process in religious or philosophical thought of making abstract concepts more tangible or concrete

  • In Zoroastrianism, this process can be seen in the development of ideas such as the afterlife, heaven and hell, and the battle between good and evil

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idolatry

  • The worship of physical objects or images as representations of the divine

  • Often seen as a violation of religious principles in various traditions, including Zoroastrianism

  • Can be associated with the worship of daevas or other spirits in Zoroastrianism

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one true teaching

  • The belief that a particular religious tradition or group possesses the one true path to salvation or enlightenment

  • Often associated with exclusivism and a rejection of other belief systems

  • Can be seen in various religious traditions, including Zoroastrianism

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exclusivism

  • Exclusivism claims exclusive access to truth

  • Can lead to intolerance and conflict

  • Often involves rejection or criticism of other beliefs or perspectives

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