Cell Bio final review (with all the practice tests)

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in an atom, the particle that is electronically neatual is the

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145 Terms
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in an atom, the particle that is electronically neatual is the

neutron

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in the atom the particle that is positive is the

proton

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if a substance consists of only one kind of atom, it is an

element

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a covalent bond is formed by

sharing electrons

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iconic bonds are formed by

transfering or moving electrons

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hydrogen bonds

sharing electrons

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When ice melts, it changes to the _______.

liquid phase

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Almost all known enzymes are _______.

proteins

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Two molecules of glucose combine to form maltose by ______ _________

Dehydration synthesis

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isotopes of an element contain diffrent numbers of _____.

neutrons

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waxy or oily organic componds are ______.

lipids

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When should you infrom the teacher of an accident, spill, or injury?

immediantly after it happens

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The suffix -logy means

study of

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Living things produce new organisms of the same type by _____.

reproduction

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The metric system is based on or scaled on powers of

10

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chemical reactions in an organism that build, or synthesize, complex molecules from less complex molecules are called…

anabolism

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in the terms of the scientific method, the purpose of an experiement is to

test a hypothesis

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a light microscope can clearly magnify an image 400x (T/F)

True

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one cell from each of two diffrent individuals units to produce the first cell of a new organism by

sexual reproduction

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An organism maintains the stable conditions nessessary for life by

homeostasis

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The nucleus of an atom contains

protons and neutrons

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an atom with an atomic number of 8 has

8 protons

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Prontiens ulike carbohydrates contain

nitrogen

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Proteins are build with

amino acids

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Saccarides are used to build

carbohydrates

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Fatty acids are used to build

lipids

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Fats are ____ at room temp

solid

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Fatty acids connected to a glycerol molecule are called

triglyceride

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What does it mean to denature a protein? give an example.

when the bonding of a protein unravels, cooking meat

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Name the steroid that is an important part of the cell but can be bad if we have too much of it in our diet.

cholesterol

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What is the diffrence between organic and inorganic compounds?

organic has carbon inorganic does not

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Name twoo of the three parts that make up nucleotides

phospate, nitrogen base, 5 carbon sugar

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Name the four nitrogenous bases found in DNA and how they pair up

ATCG, AT, CG

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List the chemical symbols of the top 8 elements in the human body

SP2ONC2H: sulfur, phosphours, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, calcium and hydrogen

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A cell that has a hypertonic salt solution will

loose salt

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The basic unit of structure and function in living things is the

cell

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which is an example of active transport?

endocytosis

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the nucleolus is made up of

proteins and RNA

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if you observe several cells with a nuclei uner the microscope, you are probably observing cells that are

eukaryotic

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Two organelles that are common to plants and not to animal cells are

cell wall, and chlloroplasts

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Prokaryotic cells are

small, have no true nuclus,

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Passive transport includes

diffusion, osmosis and facilitated diffusion

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if a solution becomes isotonic which way would the substances in it move?

both ways equally

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the proces by which molecules of a substance move from aereas of low concentraton to areas of higher concentration are called

active transport

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What is the purpose of the carbohydrates in the cell membrane

thy act as identification carbohydrates

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The work of Schleiden and Schwann can be summerized by saying

plants and animals are made of cells

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Robert brown discovered the

nucleus

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proteins are modifided by special enzyms is the

rough ER

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the most common organele that makes proteins is the

ribosomes

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the organelle that is known as the powerhouse of the cell because it converts energy into its usable form is the

mitochondria

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The sorting and packing area for proteins in the cells is the

golgi body

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These organeles aid in the digestion of other organelles

lysosome

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Types of fermentation in anaerobic respieration

alchoholic and lactic acid

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What is produced in the dark reaction

PGAL

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What is not produced in light reactions

glucose

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In the light reaction what is created

ATP and NADPH

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How many ATPs are made in latic acid fermentation?

2

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What is another name for the dark reactions in photosynthesis

Calvin cycle

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What is the last stage in aerobic respiration?

electrron transport chain

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What goes into the dark reactions

NADPH w/electrons

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what is the formula for glucose

C6H12O6

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an expirement that showed that part of growing plants mass comes from water was preformed by

Van Helmont

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leaves of a plant appear green because chlorophyll

reflects green light

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What does our body make during anaerobic respieration

lactic acid

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the dark reactions occour in the

stroma

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What is the net amount of ATP made in Glycolysis

2 (atp glyco)

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The electron transport chain occours in what organele?

mitochondria

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What is resperiation with oxygen called ?

Arobic

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What part of the chloroplast do the light reactions take place?

thylokoid/granum

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Centriole

used to pull the cell apart during reproduction

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chloroplast

contains pigmints for photosynthesis

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cell wall

gives plants structure

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cytoplasm

is located between the nucleus and cell membrane

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mitochondria

powerhouse of the cell

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nucleus

holds the DNA and information for the cell

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endoplasmic reticulum

modifies proteins around the clel

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the empty spacei in the chloroplast is called the

stroma

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The entire thing of diisks inside a chloroplast is called __ and one singular one is called __.

granum, thylakoid

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a chromatid is

one of the two identical parts that make up a chromosome

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interphase is

a time of cell growth and development

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cytokinesis is

diffrent in animal and plant cells

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DNA encodes

the information needed for making proteins within the cell

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hydrogen bonds are found

between nucleotide chains

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complementary base pairing is important for

DNA replication, RNA trnscription, RNA translation

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