Cell Bio final review (with all the practice tests)

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in an atom, the particle that is electronically neatual is the

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145 Terms

1

in an atom, the particle that is electronically neatual is the

neutron

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2

in the atom the particle that is positive is the

proton

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3

if a substance consists of only one kind of atom, it is an

element

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4

a covalent bond is formed by

sharing electrons

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5

iconic bonds are formed by

transfering or moving electrons

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6

hydrogen bonds

sharing electrons

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7

When ice melts, it changes to the _______.

liquid phase

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8

Almost all known enzymes are _______.

proteins

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9

Two molecules of glucose combine to form maltose by ______ _________

Dehydration synthesis

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10

isotopes of an element contain diffrent numbers of _____.

neutrons

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11

waxy or oily organic componds are ______.

lipids

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12

When should you infrom the teacher of an accident, spill, or injury?

immediantly after it happens

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13

The suffix -logy means

study of

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14

Living things produce new organisms of the same type by _____.

reproduction

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15

The metric system is based on or scaled on powers of

10

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16

chemical reactions in an organism that build, or synthesize, complex molecules from less complex molecules are called…

anabolism

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17

in the terms of the scientific method, the purpose of an experiement is to

test a hypothesis

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18

a light microscope can clearly magnify an image 400x (T/F)

True

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19

one cell from each of two diffrent individuals units to produce the first cell of a new organism by

sexual reproduction

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20

An organism maintains the stable conditions nessessary for life by

homeostasis

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21

The nucleus of an atom contains

protons and neutrons

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22

an atom with an atomic number of 8 has

8 protons

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23

Prontiens ulike carbohydrates contain

nitrogen

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24

Proteins are build with

amino acids

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25

Saccarides are used to build

carbohydrates

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26

Fatty acids are used to build

lipids

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27

Fats are ____ at room temp

solid

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28

Fatty acids connected to a glycerol molecule are called

triglyceride

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29

What does it mean to denature a protein? give an example.

when the bonding of a protein unravels, cooking meat

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30

Name the steroid that is an important part of the cell but can be bad if we have too much of it in our diet.

cholesterol

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31

What is the diffrence between organic and inorganic compounds?

organic has carbon inorganic does not

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32

Name twoo of the three parts that make up nucleotides

phospate, nitrogen base, 5 carbon sugar

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33

Name the four nitrogenous bases found in DNA and how they pair up

ATCG, AT, CG

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34

List the chemical symbols of the top 8 elements in the human body

SP2ONC2H: sulfur, phosphours, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, calcium and hydrogen

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35

A cell that has a hypertonic salt solution will

loose salt

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36

The basic unit of structure and function in living things is the

cell

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37

which is an example of active transport?

endocytosis

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38

the nucleolus is made up of

proteins and RNA

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39

if you observe several cells with a nuclei uner the microscope, you are probably observing cells that are

eukaryotic

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40

Two organelles that are common to plants and not to animal cells are

cell wall, and chlloroplasts

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41

Prokaryotic cells are

small, have no true nuclus,

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42

Passive transport includes

diffusion, osmosis and facilitated diffusion

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43

if a solution becomes isotonic which way would the substances in it move?

both ways equally

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44

the proces by which molecules of a substance move from aereas of low concentraton to areas of higher concentration are called

active transport

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45

What is the purpose of the carbohydrates in the cell membrane

thy act as identification carbohydrates

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46

The work of Schleiden and Schwann can be summerized by saying

plants and animals are made of cells

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47

Robert brown discovered the

nucleus

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48

proteins are modifided by special enzyms is the

rough ER

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49

the most common organele that makes proteins is the

ribosomes

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50

the organelle that is known as the powerhouse of the cell because it converts energy into its usable form is the

mitochondria

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51

The sorting and packing area for proteins in the cells is the

golgi body

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52

These organeles aid in the digestion of other organelles

lysosome

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53

Types of fermentation in anaerobic respieration

alchoholic and lactic acid

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54

What is produced in the dark reaction

PGAL

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55

What is not produced in light reactions

glucose

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56

In the light reaction what is created

ATP and NADPH

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57

How many ATPs are made in latic acid fermentation?

2

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58

What is another name for the dark reactions in photosynthesis

Calvin cycle

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59

What is the last stage in aerobic respiration?

electrron transport chain

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60

What goes into the dark reactions

NADPH w/electrons

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61

what is the formula for glucose

C6H12O6

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62

an expirement that showed that part of growing plants mass comes from water was preformed by

Van Helmont

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63

leaves of a plant appear green because chlorophyll

reflects green light

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64

What does our body make during anaerobic respieration

lactic acid

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65

the dark reactions occour in the

stroma

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66

What is the net amount of ATP made in Glycolysis

2 (atp glyco)

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67

The electron transport chain occours in what organele?

mitochondria

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68

What is resperiation with oxygen called ?

Arobic

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69

What part of the chloroplast do the light reactions take place?

thylokoid/granum

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70

Centriole

used to pull the cell apart during reproduction

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71

chloroplast

contains pigmints for photosynthesis

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72

cell wall

gives plants structure

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73

cytoplasm

is located between the nucleus and cell membrane

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74

mitochondria

powerhouse of the cell

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75

nucleus

holds the DNA and information for the cell

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76

endoplasmic reticulum

modifies proteins around the clel

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77

the empty spacei in the chloroplast is called the

stroma

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78

The entire thing of diisks inside a chloroplast is called __ and one singular one is called __.

granum, thylakoid

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79

a chromatid is

one of the two identical parts that make up a chromosome

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80

interphase is

a time of cell growth and development

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81

cytokinesis is

diffrent in animal and plant cells

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82

DNA encodes

the information needed for making proteins within the cell

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83

hydrogen bonds are found

between nucleotide chains

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84

complementary base pairing is important for

DNA replication, RNA trnscription, RNA translation

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85

After DNA replication the two DNA molecules that are made are

identical

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86

The order in which speficic amino acids bond to messenger RNA is initally detirmed by the

base pairing of DNA

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87

Who figured out the molecular structure of DNA

watson and crick

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88

Cytosine and thymine are only in

DNA

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89

DNA does not have

ribose sugar and nitrogen base U

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90

tRNA carries

amino acids

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91

the backbone of a chian of nucleotides consist of

sugar and phosphate groups

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92

Each combination of three nitrogenous bases on messenger RNA forms a

codon

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93

Before a cell divids it must duplicate its DNA in which period of interphase

S

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94

The process by which genetic code of DNA is copied into a strand of RNA is called

transcription

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95

In most cases living thing grows because it produces

more cells

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96

When DNA is tangled and uncoiled it is called what?

Chromatin

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97

Which type of cell makes a cell plate

plant cells only

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98

when chromosomes line up in the middle it is in which stage

metaphase

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99

T/F interphase is a part of mitosis

false

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100

List four difrrences between DNA and RNA

sugars, single strand vr doublee strand, U replaces T

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