Principles of Cell and Molecular Bio Unit 1 (Ch 1 -6 )

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Ch 1 : What is biology

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1

Ch 1 : What is biology

Study of life

Cell Bio : study of cells

Molecular Bio : study of biology at a molecular level

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ch 6 : centrosomes and centrioles

ONLY FOUND IN ANIMAL CELLS

centrosome is a cellular structure involved in the process of cell division.

a centrosome is made up of 2 centrioles

ONLY FOUND IN ANIMAL CELLS

<p>centrosome is a cellular structure involved in the process of cell division.</p><p>a centrosome is made up of  2 centrioles</p><p><strong>ONLY FOUND IN ANIMAL CELLS</strong></p>
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Ch1 : what is science

Knowledge of natural world through observations and experiments

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Ch 1 : 7 Characteristics of life

  1. Order (cells)

  2. Adaptation

  3. Regulation

  4. Response to Environment

  5. Growth and development

  6. Energy processing

  7. Reproduction

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Ch 1 : Inductive reasoning vs deductive

Inductive : specific to general

deductive : general to specific

<p><mark data-color="yellow">Inductive</mark> : specific to general</p><p><mark data-color="green">deductive</mark> : general to specific</p>
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Ch 1 : hypothesis

DIFFERENT FROM A THEORY

  • Educated guess / proposed explanation

  • If .. then logic

  • Testable : through observations and experiments

  • Falsifiable : can’t be fully proved

<p><strong>DIFFERENT FROM A THEORY</strong></p><ul><li><p>Educated guess / proposed explanation</p></li><li><p>If .. then logic</p></li><li><p>Testable : through observations and experiments</p></li><li><p>Falsifiable : can’t be fully proved</p></li></ul>
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Ch 1: controlling for variables

Minimize affect on on dependent ( what you’re measuring ) to not draw incorrect conclusions on independent

<p>Minimize affect on on dependent ( what you’re measuring ) to not draw incorrect conclusions on independent</p>
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Ch 1 : independent vs dependent

Independent: manipulated by researcher

Dependent: being measured , based on independent’s effect

<p>Independent: manipulated by researcher</p><p>Dependent: being measured , based on independent’s effect</p>
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Ch 1 : theory

theory : Explanation that is less specific than a hypothesis

  • generates new hypothesis and is supported by way more evidence than a hypothesis

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Ch 1 : theory differences from hypothesis

A theory is :

  • broader in scope ( umbrella ; hypothesis grouped under )

  • evidence based

  • current ( changes as new info is presented )

  • doesn’t have to be testable

Like a hypothesis it can be proven and rejected

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Ch 2 : what is an element

element : substance that can’t be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions

  • cannot be broken down w/o losing its identity

  • example :sodium

<p><mark data-color="green">element</mark> : substance that can’t be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions</p><ul><li><p>cannot be broken down w/o losing its identity</p></li><li><p>example :sodium</p></li></ul>
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Ch 2 : Key elements

key elements : carbon , hydrogen , oxygen and nitrogen

<p><mark data-color="red">key elements</mark> : carbon , hydrogen , oxygen and nitrogen</p>
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Ch 2 : Compounds

compound : 2 or more elements combined in a fixed ratio

  • compounds have different properties than when they are in their element form

  • example : table salt

<p><mark data-color="red">compound</mark> : 2 or more elements combined in a fixed ratio</p><ul><li><p>compounds have different properties than when they are in their element form</p></li><li><p>example : table salt</p></li></ul>
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ch 2 : what determines properties of an element

the structure of its atoms ( protons , neutrons , electrons : electrical charges and locations )

example : oxygen has 8 protons , neutrons , electrons

<p>the structure of its atoms ( protons , neutrons , electrons : electrical charges and locations )</p><p>example : oxygen has 8 protons , neutrons , electrons</p><p></p>
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ch 2 : what is an atom

atom : smallest unit of matter that still retains properties of an element

  • atoms in a column of periodic table In same column behave the same

<p><mark data-color="red">atom :</mark> smallest unit of matter that still retains properties of an element</p><ul><li><p>atoms in a column of periodic table In same column behave the same</p></li></ul>
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ch 2 : subatomic particles that make up atomic structure

Neutrons : no charge neutral ( found in nucleus )

Protons : + charge ( found in nucleus )

Electrons : - charge ( found moving around protons and neutrons )

electrons are smaller than protons and neutrons

<p><mark data-color="yellow">Neutrons</mark> : no charge neutral ( found in nucleus )</p><p><mark data-color="red">Protons</mark> : + charge ( found in nucleus )</p><p><mark data-color="blue">Electrons</mark> : - charge ( found moving around protons and neutrons )</p><p><strong>electrons are smaller than protons and neutrons</strong></p>
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Ch 2 : atomic number vs atomic mass

Atomic number

  • protons ( changing the # of p changes identity )

Atomic mass

  • protons + neutrons

  • unit : amu ( atomic mass unit )

<p><mark data-color="red">Atomic number</mark></p><ul><li><p>protons ( changing the # of p changes identity )</p></li></ul><p><mark data-color="green">Atomic mass</mark></p><ul><li><p>protons + neutrons</p></li><li><p>unit : amu ( atomic mass unit )</p></li></ul>
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Ch 2 : electron orbitals

  • orbitals have 2 electrons

  • each electron shell has a different number of orbitals

  • different shells have different energy

  • orbitals are 3d shapes where electrons hang out

<ul><li><p>orbitals have 2 electrons</p></li><li><p>each electron shell has a different number of orbitals</p></li><li><p>different shells have different energy</p></li><li><p>orbitals are 3d shapes where electrons hang out</p><p></p></li></ul><p></p>
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Ch 2 : energy

energy : potential to cause change

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ch 2 : potential energy and electrons

Potential energy : energy due to location

  • The closer the electrons are to the nucleus, the lower the energy level. The farther the electrons are to the nucleus, the higher the energy level.

<p><mark data-color="red">Potential energy :</mark> energy due to location</p><ul><li><p>The closer the electrons are to the nucleus, the lower the energy level. The farther the electrons are to the nucleus, the higher the energy level.</p></li></ul>
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ch 2 : valence and valence electrons

valence : # that shows how well atom can combine w/other atoms through covalent bonds

  • is determined by valence electrons : which are the outermost electrons

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ch 2 : full valence shells

a full valence shell causes an atom to become unreactive

  • the goal of every atom is to have a full valence shell which they can gain through covalent bonding (sharing electrons) or ionic bonding ( transferring electrons )

  • when an atom is reactive it either gives or takes electrons

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ch 2 : Isotopes

Isotopes : atom with the same # of protons and electrons as other of same elements but has a different amount of neutrons ( causes a different atomic mass )

  • even with diff atomic masses they behave the same in chemical reactions

<p>Isotopes : atom with the same <mark data-color="green"># of protons</mark> and <mark data-color="blue">electrons</mark> as other of same elements but <strong>has</strong> <strong>a different amount of neutrons</strong> <strong>( causes a different atomic mass )</strong></p><ul><li><p>even with diff atomic masses they behave the same in chemical reactions</p></li></ul>
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ch 2 : chemical bonds and how they form

chemical bonds are attraction between two atoms from covalent ( sharing electrons ) or ionic (transfer electrons ) bonds

  • only valence electrons can participate in chemical reactions ( interactions with other atoms )

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Ch 2 : Ionic bonds

transfer of valence electrons

  • one atom is more electronegative

  • transfer creates ions ( charged particles ) of different charges

  • anions ( - charged ) ( have more electrons than protons b/c they gained electrons )

  • cations ( + charged ) ( have more protons than electrons b/c they lost electrons )

  • Opposites attract : Cations and anions are attracted to each other

  • the strength is affect by environment : ionic bonds become weak in cells

  • between atoms

<p><mark data-color="yellow"><strong>transfer of valence electrons</strong></mark></p><ul><li><p>one atom is more electronegative</p></li><li><p>transfer creates ions ( charged particles ) of different charges</p></li><li><p><mark data-color="red">anions ( - charged )</mark> ( have more electrons than protons b/c they gained electrons )</p></li><li><p><mark data-color="green">cations ( + charged</mark> ) ( have more protons than electrons b/c they lost electrons )</p></li><li><p>Opposites attract : Cations and anions are attracted to each other</p></li><li><p>the strength is affect by environment : ionic bonds become weak in cells</p></li><li><p><strong>between atoms</strong></p></li></ul>
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Ch 2 : covalent bond

sharing of valence electrons (custody agreement )

  • can be polar ( one parent hogs kids )

  • can be non polar ( parents share kids equally )

  • Polar : one atom is more electronegative than other = atom with higher electronegativity hogs electrons

  • Non polar : both atoms have a similar electronegativity and share electrons equally

  • is between atoms

<p><mark data-color="yellow"><strong>sharing of valence electrons (custody agreement )</strong></mark></p><ul><li><p>can be polar  ( one parent hogs kids )</p></li><li><p>can be  non polar ( parents share kids equally )</p></li><li><p><mark data-color="red">Polar :</mark> one atom is more electronegative than other = atom with higher electronegativity hogs electrons</p></li><li><p><mark data-color="green">Non polar :</mark> both atoms have a similar electronegativity and share electrons equally</p></li><li><p><strong>is between atoms</strong></p></li></ul>
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ch 2 : molecule

2 or more atoms held by a covalent bond ( sharing electrons)

<p>2 or more atoms held by a covalent bond ( sharing electrons)</p>
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ch 2 : what does it mean to be electronegative

have more strength to pull electrons

<p>have more strength to pull electrons</p>
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ch 2 : hydrogen bonds

weak chemical bond . formed when slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent ( unequal sharing ) in one molecule is attracted to a negative atom of a polar covalent bond .OPPOSITEs attract ( + and - )

  • this bond is between whole molecules

<p>weak chemical bond . formed when slightly <mark data-color="green">positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent</mark> ( unequal sharing ) in one molecule is attracted to a <mark data-color="red">negative atom of a polar covalent bond</mark> .OPPOSITEs  attract ( + and - )</p><ul><li><p><strong>this bond is between whole molecules</strong></p></li></ul>
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ch 2 : strong bonds vs weak bonds

strong bonds : needs a lot of force to break and to make

  • covalent and ionic

weak bonds : easily breakable and easy to make

  • hydrogen and van der waals

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ch 2 : what determines the shape of a molecule

the bonds between the atoms in a molecule determine the molecules shape . the bonds are determined by valence electron arrangement

  • changing shape alters function ( think of a key )

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ch 2 : what happens to matter as chemical reaction occurs

Matter is rearranged as chemical bonds are made and broken

  • Matter ( energy ) is not destroyed

  • all atoms have to be on both sides in chemical equations

  • most reactions are reversible

<p>Matter is rearranged as chemical bonds are made and broken</p><ul><li><p>Matter ( energy ) is not destroyed</p></li><li><p>all atoms have to be on both sides in chemical equations</p></li><li><p>most reactions are reversible</p></li></ul>
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ch 2 : chemical equilibrium

Point where forward and reverse reactions occur at same rate causing concentrations to stop changing

  • equal rates of reactions

<p>Point where forward and reverse reactions occur at same rate causing c<mark data-color="red">oncentrations to stop changing</mark></p><ul><li><p><mark data-color="red">equal rates of reactions</mark></p></li></ul>
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<p>ch 2 : van der Waals</p>

ch 2 : van der Waals

regions of + and - charge ( even in non polar covalent bonds)

  • allows atoms and molecules to stick together

<p>regions of + and - charge ( even in non polar covalent bonds)</p><ul><li><p>allows atoms and molecules to stick together</p></li></ul>
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Ch 2 : Amphipathic molecules

part polar (hydrophilic ) and part non polar (hydrophobic) ; polar parts attract to water and non polar rejects

  • phospholipid bilayer

<p>part polar (hydrophilic ) and part non polar (hydrophobic) ; polar parts attract to water and non polar rejects</p><ul><li><p>phospholipid bilayer</p></li></ul>
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Ch 3 : Chemical structure of water

H20

  • oxygen is more electronegative ( hogs electrons , partial neg charge ) than hydrogen ( partial pos charge )

<p>H20</p><ul><li><p>oxygen is more electronegative ( hogs electrons , partial neg charge ) than hydrogen ( partial pos charge )</p></li></ul>
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Ch 2 : non polar molecules

non polar covalent bonds ( sharing electrons equally b/c of similar electronegativity ) are hydrophobic

  • don’t like water

<p>non polar covalent bonds ( sharing electrons equally  b/c of similar electronegativity ) are hydrophobic</p><ul><li><p>don’t like water</p></li></ul>
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ch 2 : polar molecule

polar covalent bonds ( one atom has more elctronegativity and hogs electrons ; not sharing equally ) are hydrophilic

  • they do like water

<p>polar covalent bonds ( one atom has more elctronegativity and hogs electrons ; not sharing equally ) are hydrophilic</p><ul><li><p>they do like water</p></li></ul>
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ch 3 : water’s internal and external bonds

internal polar (hydrophilic ) covalent ( no equal sharing b/c oxygen is more electroneg. ) causes external hydrogen bonds ( - and + molecules attract )

<p><strong>internal polar</strong> (hydrophilic )  <strong>covalent</strong>  ( no equal sharing b/c oxygen is more electroneg. ) causes <strong>external hydrogen bonds</strong> ( - and + molecules attract )</p>
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ch 3 : water bonding with water (cohesion )

When water bonds with water it causes hydrogen bonds ( - and + polar covalent in a molecule attracted to each other )

  • this is called cohesion

<p>When water bonds with water it causes hydrogen bonds ( - and +  polar covalent in a molecule  attracted to each other )</p><ul><li><p>this is called cohesion</p></li></ul>
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ch 3 : how does water’s ability to form hydrogen binds affect it’s properties

  • allows for cohesion (hydrogen bonds holding together )

  • high surface tension (difficultly breaking surface of a liquid )

  • adhesion (water bonding to something else )

  • floating of ice on water ( water is more dense as a solid than liquid )

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ch 3 : properties that result b/c of water’s polarity (hydrophilic - attracted to water )

  • cohesion

  • ice floating on water ( spread out b/c hydrogen bonds )

  • water being a solvent ( dissolving agent )

<ul><li><p>cohesion</p></li><li><p>ice floating on water ( spread out b/c hydrogen bonds )</p></li><li><p>water being a solvent ( dissolving agent )</p></li></ul>
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ch 3 : how does a high specific heat and high heat of vaporization impact cells ? Organisism

  • Water resists temp changes b/c of hydrogen bonds . Heat absorbed by water is used to break hydrogen bonds and release heat

  • bodies of water moderate temp , organisms resist temp change , evaporative cooling allows temp stability for organism regions and planet

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ch 3 : specific heat

amount of heat absorbed or lost to change temp

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ch 3 : heat of vaporization

quantity of heat required to change from liquid to gas

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ch 3 : soultion

liquid that is a homogeneous ( evenly distributed ) mixture of two or more substances

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H +

hydrogen ion

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OH -

hydroxide ion

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ch 3 : why does ice float on water

water is less dense as a solid than liquid

  • water expands as it solidifies

  • hydrogen bonds lock into place as water freezes

<p>water is less dense as a solid than liquid</p><ul><li><p>water expands as it solidifies</p></li><li><p>hydrogen bonds lock into place as water freezes</p></li></ul>
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ch 3 : what kinds of molecules can water dissolve

  • Ions ( - and + )

  • Polar ( unequally sharing , hydrophilic )

  • Ionic compounds ( transferring of valence electrons ) (salt)

  • covalent polar ( sugar )

  • large molecules w/polar/ionic regions

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ch3 : adhesion

water sticks to something else ( charges or partial charges )

  • allows plants to transport h2o

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ch 3 : cohesion

water sticks to water , linking of like molecules by hydrogen bonds

  • allows plants to transport h20

  • causes high surface tension

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ch 3 : solvent

dissolving agent of solution

  • example : water

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ch 3 : solute

substance dissolved in solution

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ch 3 : hydrophilic

water loving ; polar ( don’t share e equally ) won’t always dissolve , attracted to water molecules

<p>water loving ; polar ( don’t share e equally ) won’t always dissolve , attracted to water molecules</p>
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ch 3 : hydrophobic

water fearing ; non polar ( share electrons equally ) hydrogen carbon bonds

<p>water fearing ; non polar  ( share electrons equally ) hydrogen carbon bonds</p>
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Ch 3 : dissociation of water

hydrogen ion (h+ ) moves to another water molecule leaving its electron behind

<p>hydrogen ion (h+ ) moves to another water molecule leaving its electron behind</p>
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ch 3 : 3 characteristics of dissociation of water

  • reversible

  • rare

  • reactive hydrogen ion

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ch 3 : acids

substance that increases hydrogen ion concentration

  • donates a H + (hydrogen ion )

  • more hydrogen (H+ ) than hydroxide (OH-)

  • ex: Hydrochloric acid

<p>substance that <mark data-color="green"><strong>increases hydrogen ion concentration</strong></mark></p><ul><li><p>donates a H + (hydrogen ion )</p></li><li><p>more hydrogen (H+ )  than hydroxide (OH-)</p></li><li><p>ex: Hydrochloric acid</p></li></ul>
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ch3 : bases

substance that decreases hydrogen ion concentration

  • accepts H + (hydrogen ion )

  • less H + than OH - ( hydroxide )

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Ch 3 : PH SCALE

Numerical method for expression range of hydrogen ion in concentrations

  • 0 to 14

  • 7 is neutral ( equal amount of hydrogen ion to hydroxide )

  • small # more acidic

  • ph changes molecular structure

<p>Numerical method for expression range of hydrogen ion in concentrations</p><ul><li><p>0 to 14</p></li><li><p>7 is neutral ( equal amount of hydrogen ion to hydroxide )</p></li><li><p>small # more acidic</p></li><li><p>ph changes molecular structure</p></li></ul>
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ch 3 : strong and weak acids and bases

strong

  • acids and bases completely ionized ( break apart) when dissolved in water

  • dissociate completely ( break apart )

  • shown with single arrow

weak

  • partially dissociates ( partially break apart )

  • shown with double arrow

dissociation is a chemical reaction where a compound breaks into two or more parts.

<p><mark data-color="red"><strong>strong</strong></mark></p><ul><li><p>acids and bases completely ionized ( break apart)  when dissolved in water</p></li><li><p><strong>dissociate completely ( break apart )</strong></p></li><li><p>shown with single arrow</p></li></ul><p><mark data-color="yellow"><strong>weak</strong></mark></p><ul><li><p><strong>partially dissociates ( partially break apart )</strong></p></li><li><p>shown with double arrow</p></li></ul><p><mark data-color="green"><strong>dissociation</strong></mark> is a chemical reaction where a compound breaks into two or more parts.</p>
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Ch 3 : Buffers and how they work

buffers are substances that minimize changes of hydrogen and hydroxide ions

  • accepts hydrogen (h + ) when there’s too much and donate hydrogen when there not enough

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ch 4 : how does carbon bond

carbon has 4 valence electrons

  • forms single or double covalent bonds ( sharing custody )

  • carbon based molecules have structural diversity

<p>carbon has 4 valence electrons</p><ul><li><p>forms single or double covalent bonds ( sharing custody )</p></li><li><p>carbon based molecules have structural diversity</p></li></ul>
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Ch 4 : Isomers

Compounds w/ the same # of atoms of same elements , have different structures which cause different properties

  • equal parts different properties

same molecular formula - diff structure - diff properties

<p>Compounds w/ the same # of atoms of same elements , have different structures which cause different properties</p><ul><li><p>equal parts different properties</p></li></ul><p>same molecular formula - diff structure - diff properties</p><p></p><p></p>
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Ch 4 : Structural isomers

same formula , different arrangement

  • covalent bonds b/w atoms

  • more possible structural isomers as molecule gets bigger

<p>same formula , different arrangement</p><ul><li><p>covalent bonds b/w atoms</p></li><li><p>more possible structural isomers as molecule gets bigger</p></li></ul>
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ch 4 : cis - trans isomers

arrangement of functional groups in relation to double bonds (or sometimes rings)

Cis : the two are on the same side

  • Think of sisters

Trans : the two are on opposite sides

different shapes = different functions

<p>arrangement of  functional groups in relation to double bonds (or sometimes rings)</p><p><mark data-color="green">Cis :</mark> the two are on the same side</p><ul><li><p>Think of sisters</p></li></ul><p><mark data-color="red">Trans</mark> : the two are on opposite sides</p><p><strong>different shapes = different functions</strong></p><p></p>
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ch 4 : enantiomers

mirror images ( left and right hand )

  • different shapes = different functions

  • right handed molecule won’t fit into left handed molecule spot

<p>mirror images ( left and right hand )</p><ul><li><p>different shapes = different functions</p></li><li><p>right handed molecule won’t fit into left handed molecule spot</p></li></ul>
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functional groups

specific groups of atoms that affect molecular function by being directly involved in chemical reactions.

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Hydroxyl (-OH )

Alcohols

  • Names end in -ol

  • Polar ( hydrophilic )

  • Forms hydrogen bonds with water molecules ( dissolve in water )

<p><mark data-color="red">Alcohols</mark></p><ul><li><p>Names end in -ol</p></li><li><p>Polar ( hydrophilic )</p></li><li><p>Forms hydrogen bonds with water molecules ( dissolve in water )</p></li></ul>
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Carbonyl ( C=O)

•Sugars

  • names end in -oses

  • polar

Two types

  • Ketone- carbonyl in the middle

  • Aldehyde- carbonyl at the end

<p><mark data-color="green">•Sugars</mark></p><ul><li><p>names end in -oses</p></li><li><p>polar</p></li></ul><p>Two types</p><ul><li><p>Ketone- carbonyl in the middle</p></li><li><p>Aldehyde- carbonyl at the end</p></li></ul>
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Carboxyl ( - COOH)

  • Acts as an acid because of the polar covalent bond between O and H

  • (-) charged

  • Found in cells as the carboxylate ion

<ul><li><p><mark data-color="red">Acts as an acid</mark> because of the polar  covalent bond between O and H</p></li><li><p>(<mark data-color="yellow">-) charged</mark></p></li><li><p>Found in cells as the carboxylate ion</p></li></ul>
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Amino ( - NH2 )

Acts as a base (+) charged

  • Found in cells in ionized form

  • Amino acids have a carboxyl group and an amino group

<p><mark data-color="blue">Acts as a base (+) charged</mark></p><ul><li><p>Found in cells in ionized form</p></li><li><p>Amino acids have a <mark data-color="red">carboxyl  group</mark> and an <mark data-color="green">amino group</mark></p></li></ul>
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Sulfhydryl ( -SH)

Cross links: two sulfhydryl groups can bond covalently which stabilizes protein structure

polar

<p>Cross links: two sulfhydryl groups   can bond covalently which stabilizes   protein structure</p><p>polar</p>
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Phosphate ( -OP3)

  • Acts as an acidic

  • (-) charge

  • hydrophilic

<ul><li><p>Acts as an acidic</p></li><li><p>(-) charge</p></li><li><p>hydrophilic</p></li></ul>
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Methyl (-CH3)

  • Isn’t a functional group b/c its not reactive

  • Acts as a tag

  • Affects gene expression when bound to DNA

  • Affects shape and function of molecules, like sex hormones

  • NON POLAR

<ul><li><p>Isn’t a functional group b/c its not reactive</p></li><li><p>Acts as a tag</p></li><li><p>Affects gene expression when bound to   DNA</p></li><li><p>Affects shape and function of   molecules, like sex hormones</p></li><li><p>NON POLAR</p></li></ul>
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Ch 4 : ATP and its purpose

Adenosine triphosphate

  • “molecular currency”

  • Transports chemical energy within cells

  • transfer of energy b/w molecules

<p>Adenosine triphosphate</p><ul><li><p>“molecular currency”</p></li><li><p>Transports chemical energy within  cells</p></li><li><p>transfer of energy b/w molecules</p></li></ul>
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Ch 5 : Macromolecules

macromolecules are giant polymers formed by joining of small monomers ( train cars )

  • monomers linked by covalent bonds

<p>macromolecules are giant polymers  formed by joining of small monomers ( train cars )</p><ul><li><p>monomers  linked by covalent bonds</p></li></ul>
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Ch 5 : dehydration synthesis

water is lost to form a bond b/w 2 molecules

  • Water is taken away to make something new

<p>water is <mark data-color="yellow">lost</mark> to <mark data-color="yellow">form a bond b</mark>/w 2 molecules</p><ul><li><p>Water is taken away to make something new</p></li></ul>
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ch 5 : hydrolysis

water is gained to break a bond and form two molecules

  • breaking down into small parts

<p>water is gained to break a bond and form two molecules</p><ul><li><p>breaking down into small parts</p></li></ul>
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Ch 5 : how are polymers covalent bonds formed and broken ?

  • Monomers connected by dehydration reaction (water is lost to form a bond b/w 2 molecules )

  • Polymers broken by hydrolysis (water is gained to break a bond and form two molecules)

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Ch 5 : enzymes

enzymes are

  • macromolecule

  • end in -ase

  • catalyst (increase rate of reaction)

  • proteins

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Ch 5 : cataylst

Facilitates reaction but is not consumed by reaction

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Ch 5 : carbohydrates

sugars that end in -ose

  • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

  • Carbonyl group

  • monomers : monosaccharides

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<p>Ch 5 : Monosaccharides</p>

Ch 5 : Monosaccharides

one sugar

  • building block of carbohydrates

  • CxH2xOx

  • Example: Glucose

  • Source of energy and raw materials for cell

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Ch 5 : Disaccharides

two sugars

  • two monosaccharides joined through dehydration synthesis

  • example : glucose + fructose = sucrose ( disaccharide)

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Ch 5 : Polysaccharides

  • Many sugar

  • Storage molecule for energy

  • Structural molecule

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Ch 5 : Cellulose

Plant structural polysaccharide

  • In plant cell walls

  • Unbranched polymer of glucose which allows for microfibrils

  • Linked differently than starch resulting in different shape

  • Different enzymes needed to break the different linkages

  • Called β linkages

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89

Ch 5 : Glycogen

In animals

  • Polysaccharide storage molecule

  • Branched polymer of glucose

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90

ch 5 : starch

In plants

  • Polysaccharide for storage

  • May be amylose and/or amylopectin

  • Amylo- “starch”

  • Amylose- unbranched polymer of glucose

  • Amylopectin- branched polymer of glucose

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<p>Ch 5 : Lipids</p>

Ch 5 : Lipids

Hydrophobic molecules

  • fats , phospholipid , steroids

  • hydrophobic b/c of main hydro-carbon regions that are non polar

  • building blocks : glycerol and fatty acids

<p>Hydrophobic molecules</p><ul><li><p>fats , phospholipid , steroids</p></li><li><p>hydrophobic b/c of main hydro-carbon regions that are non polar</p></li><li><p>building blocks : glycerol and fatty acids</p></li></ul>
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Ch 5 : Fats

Large molecules assembled from smaller molecules by a dehydration reaction

  • function : energy storage

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Ch 5 : Phospholipids

Hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic head

  • Bilayer structure in aqueous environment

  • Cell membranes have phospholipid bilayers

<p>Hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic  head</p><ul><li><p>Bilayer structure in aqueous  environment</p></li><li><p>Cell membranes have phospholipid  bilayers</p></li></ul>
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Ch 5 : Steroids

Lipids with 4 carbon rings

must have a hydroxyl group ( polar )

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Ch 5 : Unsaturated and Saturated fats

Unsat

  • Cis double bonds

  • Fewer hydrogens

  • Liquid at room temperature because the double bonds cause kinks in the chain and cannot pack tightly together

  • Plants and fish, called oils

Sat

  • No double bonds

  • Hydrogen in every available spot

  • Solid at room temp because the molecules can pack close together

<p><mark data-color="green">Unsat</mark></p><ul><li><p>Cis double bonds</p></li><li><p>Fewer hydrogens</p></li><li><p>Liquid at room temperature because the double bonds  cause kinks in the chain and cannot pack tightly together</p></li><li><p>Plants and fish, called oils</p></li></ul><p><mark data-color="yellow">Sat</mark></p><ul><li><p>No double bonds</p></li><li><p>Hydrogen in every available spot</p></li><li><p>Solid at room temp because the molecules can pack close together</p></li></ul>
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Ch 5 : proteins

  • Un-branched polymers of amino acids

  • Monomers : amino acids

  • An amino acid has both a carboxyl group and an amino group

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Ch 5 : amino acid monomer

  • Amino group

  • Alpha carbon

  • Carboxyl group

  • R group (side chain)

  • r group determines properties of amino acid

<ul><li><p>Amino group</p></li><li><p>Alpha carbon</p></li><li><p>Carboxyl group</p></li><li><p>R group (side chain)</p></li><li><p>r group determines properties of amino acid</p></li></ul>
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Ch5 : what determines Properties of a protein

Structure determines funciton

  • R groups (side chains) outnumber the ends so the properties of the side chains determine the properties of the polypeptide

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Ch 5 : Polypeptide

When amino acids are covalently bonded together (peptide bonds) by a dehydration reaction they make a long chain of linked amino acids

<p>When amino acids are covalently  bonded together (peptide bonds) by  a dehydration reaction they make a  long chain of linked amino acids</p>
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Ch 5 :what determines protein structure

SEQUENCE OF AMINO ACIDS

<p>SEQUENCE OF AMINO ACIDS</p>
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