DCIT 21A

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An electronic device that takes data, processes it according to a program, and produces information.

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Introduction to Computing

142 Terms

1

An electronic device that takes data, processes it according to a program, and produces information.

Computer

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2

A series of instructions that a computer must follow in order to process data into information.

Program

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3

The basic flow of data in a computer system, where input is received, processed according to a program, and output is produced.

IPO (Input, Process, Output)

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4

Capabilities of Computers

Performing mathematical and logical operations, storing and retrieving information, handling repetitive tasks, communicating with operators and other machines, and controlling errors.

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Limitations of computers (3)

Need for human input and instructions, inability to correct inaccurate entries, and susceptibility to breakdowns and malfunctions.

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6

Characteristics of Computers

Machine, electronic, automatic, manipulating data, memory, and logic functions.

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7

Types of Computers (5)

Mainframes, Personal Computers (including Desktop Computers, Laptop Computers, Tablet PCs, Media Centre, and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).

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8

Computer Classifications (5)

Age and Component Generations, Size, Operation, Application, Design

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9

The collection of programs that manage and coordinate the activities within a computer, acting as an intermediary between the user and the computer and between application programs and system hardware.

Operating System

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10

The operating system and utility programs that control a computer system and allow users to use their computer.

System Software

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11

Programs that allow users to perform specific tasks on a computer, such as word processing, gaming, web browsing, and music listening.

Application Software

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12

Functions of an Operating System

Interfacing with users, booting the computer, configuring devices, managing network connections, managing and monitoring resources and jobs, file management, and security

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13

The optimization of main memory (RAM) usage

Memory Management

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14

Traditionally used a command-line interface.

  • Dominant OS in the 1980s and early 1990s

Disk Operating System (DOS)

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15

Created originally for IBM microcomputers

PC-DOS

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16

Operating system developed in the late 1960s for midrange servers

UNIX

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Operating system that allows multiple users to access the system simultaneously

Multi-user OS

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Open-source operating system developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991.

Linux

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Graphical user interface, a visual way to interact with the computer

GUI

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20

Cloud operating system designed to run on Chrome devices

Chrome OS

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21

Latest version of Windows designed for smartphones

Windows Phone

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22

Linux-based operating system for mobile devices (open platform).

Android

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23

Operating system designed for Apple mobile phones and devices and supports multitasking

iOS

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Operating system designed for Blackberry devices

Blackberry OS

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Other mobile operating systems based on Linux besides Android and iOS (4)

Ubuntu, WebOS, Firefox OS, Tizen

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26

Software that performs specific tasks related to managing or maintaining the computer system (stand-alone or suites)

Utility Programs

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Programs that remove software from the hard drive without leaving behind any leftover files

Uninstall Utilities

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28

Programs that delete temporary files to free up storage space

Cleanup Utilities

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29

Programs that reduce the size of files to optimize storage space and transmission time (WinZip, Stuffit)

File Compression Programs

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30

Programs that make it easier to create backups of important files and restore them if needed

Backup and Recovery Utilities

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31

Security programs that protect computers from viruses, spyware, and unauthorized access (3)

Antivirus, Antispyware, Firewalls

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32

Programs that enable users to perform tasks such as copying, moving, and deleting files and folders

File Management Programs

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33

Programs designed to search for documents and files on the computer's hard drive

Search Tools

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34

Programs that evaluate and diagnose system errors and problems related to the hard drive

Disk Management Programs

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35

Collection of raw facts and figures

Data

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Data that is made meaningful and useful to someone

Information

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37

Series of activities that transform data into information

Data Processing

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38

A conceptual framework wherein input in the form of data or information is processed which result in the generation of an output basically in the form of information.

Input-Process-Output (I-P-O) Model

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39

The flow of data from the moment it is recorded until the time it becomes a usable piece of information is traced taking into consideration what is actually done on the data in the process of transforming it into information.

Data Processing Cycle

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40

Processing data using manual labor

Manual Data Processing

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41

Processing data using machines or devices that alter, transmit and direct applied forces.

Mechanical Data Processing

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Processing data using mechanical devices with electric motors

Electromechanical Data Processing

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43

Processing data using computers and electronic devices

Electronic Data Processing

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44

Phase of data processing cycle involving capturing and recording data

Origination Phase

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45

Phase of data processing cycle involving ensuring accuracy and completeness of data

Input Preparation Phase

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46

Phase of data processing cycle involving conversion of data into meaningful information

Processing Phase

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47

Phase of data processing cycle involving generating and presenting the information

Output Preparation Phase

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48

Group of organized interdependent components that interact to achieve goals

System

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49

Elements that enter the system in the form of energy, materials, or information

Inputs

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Actions on the inputs that convert them into outputs

Processes

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51

The finished product or information resulting from the processing of inputs

Outputs

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52

The external elements or factors that influence the system

Environment

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Group of activities designed to collect, process, generate, and exchange information for the exclusive support of a major functional area.

Information System

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54

Group of activities designed to support a specific function or task

Application System

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Physical components or equipment used in data processing, such as the CPU and input/output devices

Hardware

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Non-physical components, such as programs, used to control and direct the hardware in data processing

Software

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Collection of programs that facilitate the programming and operation of the computer system

Systems Software

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Programs written to solve specific problems or tasks

Applications Software

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Refers to the personnel involved in managing and designing the application and writing the program.

Peopleware

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60

1st manual data processing device from China able to perform arithmetic calculations.

Abacus

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61

(William Oughtred) able to perform arithmetic operations by sliding rules.

Oughtred’s Slide Rule

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(Blaise Pascal) able to add and subtract numbers up to 8 digits.

Pascal’s Calculator

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(Gottfried Leibniz) able to do the same as Pascal’s calculator and also perform multiplication, division and square roots.

Leibniz Calculator

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(Charles Babbage) uses two cards: operation and variable

Babbage Analytic Engine

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65

Father of Modern Computers

Charles Babbage

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66

worked with Babbage and is the first female Programmer

Augusta Ada Byron

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(Herman Hollerith, a statistician) a census machine used by the US Bureau of Census in 1890

Hollerith’s Punch Card Machine

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68

Boolean Algebra

George Boole

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69

General Purpose Programmable Computer

Alan Turing

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70

Made the first electronic digital purpose computer or “Atanasoff Berry Computer”.

John Atanasoff

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71

Introduced the concept of debugging and finding errors.

Grace Hopper

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72

ENIAC

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer

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EDVAC

Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer

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EDSAC

Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer

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75

Computer simulation

Stanislaw Ulam

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Microprocessor chip

Ted Hoff

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77

The co-founders of the Microsoft Corporation

Paul Allen and William Howard (Bill Gates)

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78

Proposed or invented the World Wide Web (www)

Tim Berners-Lee

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79

According to Age and Component Generations: 1st Generation

slow

expensive

fragile

very large

Vacuum Tubes

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80

According to Age and Component Generations: 2nd Generation (Assembly Language and 1st OS)

much simpler

much smaller

much cheaper

more reliable

no warm up

Transistors

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81

According to Age and Component Generations: 3rd Generation

miniaturization added to all the existing benefits

enabled un-thought of possibilities

Integrated Circuits

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82

According to Age and Component Generations: 4th Generation (High-level Programming Language)

Medium Scale Integration (MSI)

Large Scale Integration (LSI)

Microprocessors

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83

According to Age and Component Generations: 5th

Making computers behave like humans

Games Playing, Expert Systems, Natural Language, Neural Networks, Robotics

Artificial Intelligence

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84

Used to describe large computers. It can process large amounts of data at very high speed, hold up to millions of characters in its storage and support many input, output, and storage devices.

Mainframe

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85

Relatively smaller and slower computers compared to mainframe.

Minicomputers

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86

Typically fits a desktop. Inside of it is microprocessor, which has control capability for memory and I/O access, and which contains an arithmetic logic unit all on a single, chip less than one quarter of an inch square

Microcomputers

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87

Operates essentially on the basis of distinct (discrete) “on” and “off” states which can be represented by 1’s and 0’s referred to as binary digits.

Digital Computers

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88

Operate by measuring continuous physical or electrical magnitudes such as pressure, current, voltage, length or shaft rotations.

Analog Computers

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89

Combination of the desirable qualities of the analog and digital computers

Hybrid Computers

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90

Computers that can manipulate numbers according to sophisticated formulas and keep track of the results to several decimal places.

Scientific Computers

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91

Computers that usually handle large volumes of data for input, perform simple calculations like addition and subtraction and print vast numbers of reports.

Business Computers

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92

Computer classification according to age and component generations (5)

1st (Vacuum Tubes), 2nd (Transistors), 3rd (Integrated Circuits), 4th (Microprocessors), 5th Gen (AI)

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93

Computer classification according to size (3)

Mainframe, Minicomputers, Microcomputers

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94

Computer classification according to operation (3)

Digital Computer, Analog Computer, Hybrid Computer

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95

Computer classification according to application (2)

Scientific Computer and Business Computer

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96

Computer classification according to design (2)

General Purpose Computer and Special Purpose Computer

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97

Designed to perform a variety of operations by simply changing instructions.

General Purpose Computer

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98

Built for specific operation and usually satisfies the needs for a particular type of problem.

Special Purpose Computer

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99

Important part or basic unit of an operating system.

Kernel

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100

A command to test network connectivity.

Ping

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