Sociology 100 chapter 1

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Who are the foundational Theorist

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Who are the foundational Theorist

Emile Durkheim

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Karl Marx

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Max Weber

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What are the Perspectives

SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM

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FUNCTIONALISM

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CRITICAL THEORY

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What is symbolic interactionism theory

is a micro-level theory

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that focuses on the relationships among individuals within a society. Communication—the exchange of meaning through language and symbols—is believed to be the way in which people make sense of their social worlds. people active in shaping social world

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ex.What's it mean to be an X?

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The way one-on-one interactions and communications behave.

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A symbolic interactionist may compare social interactions to:theatrical roles

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what is functionalism theory

a theoretical approach that sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to

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meet the biological and social needs of individuals that make up that society

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macro or mid theory

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ex. how each organ works together to keep body healthy/ or not

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criticism pg19

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what is critical theory

expansion of conflict theory is

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what theorist was karl Marx

conflict theorist

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what type of theorist was max weber

symbolic interactionalis

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what type of theorist was Emile Durkheim

functionalist

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Critical Theory

German philosophers, known as the Frankfurt School, developed critical theory as an elaboration on Marxist principles.

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is an expansion of conflict theory and is broader than just sociology, incorporating other social sciences and philosophy.

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constructivism

an extension of symbolic interaction theory which proposes that reality is what humans

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cognitively construct it to be

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culture

a group's shared practices, values, and beliefs

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s comprised of shared values (ideals), beliefs which strengthen the values, norms and rules that maintain the values, language so that the values can be taught,

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product of people in a society

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function

the part a recurrent activity plays in the social life as a whole and the contribution it makes to

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structural continuity

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generalized others

the organized and generalized attitude of a social group

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case study

in-depth analysis of a single event, situation, or individual

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types of sampling

Random

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stratified

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snowball

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cluster

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voluntary

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culture relativism

is the practice of assessing a culture by its own standards rather than viewing it through the lens of one's own culture

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symbolic culture

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language

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existing culture

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material culture

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non-material culture

as items you can touch-they are tangible. in contrast, consists of the ideas, attitudes, and beliefs of a society. These are things you cannot touch.

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symbolic culture

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Sapir whorf

Even while it constantly evolves, language shapes our perception of reality and our behavior. In the 1920s, linguists Benjamin and Edward ----

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advanced this idea which became known as _______

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or linguistic relativity. It is based on the idea that people experience their world through their language, and therefore understand their world through the cultural meanings embedded in their language.

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the way that people understand the world based on their form of language

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A hypothesis

is an explanation for a phenomenon based on a conjecture about the relationship between the phenomenon and one or more causal factors. In sociology, the hypothesis will often predict how one form of human behavior influences another.

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interpretive framework

sometimes referred to as an interpretive perspective, seeks to understand social worlds from the point of view of participants, which leads to in-depth knowledge or understands about the human experience.

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what is primary source data

such as survey, participant observation, ethnography, case study, unobtrusive observations, experiment,

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what is secondary data analysis

using data collected by others and applying new interpretations

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survey

collects data from subjects who respond to a series of questions about behaviors and opinions, often in the form of a questionnaire or an interview.

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define sample

small, manageable number of subjects that represent the population

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define field research

refers to gathering primary data from a natural environment. To conduct field research, the sociologist must be willing to step into new environments and observe, participate, or experience those worlds.

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the sociologists, rather than the subjects, are the ones out of their element.

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participant observation

when a researcher immerses herself in a group or social setting in order to make

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observations from an "insider" perspective

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define ethnography

participating and observing thinking and behavior in a social setting

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define case study

in-depth analysis of a single event, situation, or individual

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define Hawthorne effect

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what is code of ethics

a set of guidelines that the American Sociological Association has established to foster

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ethical research and professionally responsible scholarship in sociology

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accuracy

using a tool makes the measuring more precise.

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random sample

every person in a population has the same chance of being chosen for the study. As a result, a Gallup Poll, if conducted as a nationwide random sampling, should be able to provide an accurate estimate of public opinion whether it contacts 2,000 or 10,000 people.

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high culture

to describe the pattern of cultural experiences and attitudes that exist in the highest or elite class segments of a society.

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low culture

is associated with the pattern of cultural experiences and attitudes that exist in the lowest class segments of a society.

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popular culture

refers to the pattern of cultural experiences and attitudes that exist in mainstream society.

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events might include a parade, a baseball game, or the season finale of a television show

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culture universals

are patterns or traits that are globally common to all societies. One example of a cultural universal is the family unit: every human society recognizes a family structure that regulates sexual reproduction and the care of children.

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Ethnocentrism

which means to evaluate and judge another culture based on one's own cultural norms.

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cultural imperialism

is the deliberate imposition of one's own culture values on another culture

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culture shock

When people find themselves in a new culture, they may experience disorientation and frustration. In sociology, we call this

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Xenocentrism

is the opposite of ethnocentrism, and refers to the belief that another culture is superior to one's own

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values

ideals, or principles and standards members of a culture hold in high regard.

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a culture's standard for discerning what is good and just in society

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beliefs

Values are deeply embedded and are critical for learning a culture's_____

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which are the tenets or convictions that people hold to be true.

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ideal culture

what values portray

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the standards society would like to embrace and live up to

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real culture

the way society really is based on what actually occurs and exists

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sanctions

a way to authorize or formally disapprove of certain behaviors

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social control

ways to encourage conformity to cultural norms or rules.

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Subculture

a smaller cultural group within a larger culture. People of a subculture are part of the larger culture but also share a specific identity within a smaller group.*

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ex. tattoo people

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have independent values

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distinguish from the large culture

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counter culture

which reject some of the larger culture's norms and values. In contrast to subcultures, which operate relatively smoothly within the larger society,

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might actively defy larger society by developing their own set of rules and norms to live by, sometimes even creating communities that operate outside of greater society.

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ex survivalist or white supremacist

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culture lag

refers to the time that passes between the introduction of a new item of material culture and its social acceptance.

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can also cause tangible problems.

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Functionalism on Culture

the different categories of culture as serving many functions. Having membership in a culture, a subculture, or a counterculture brings camaraderie and social cohesion and benefits the larger society by providing places for people who share similar ideas.

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conflict theorist on culture

view social structure as inherently unequal, based on power differentials related to issues like class, gender, race, and age.

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