Health Science study guide

studied byStudied by 10 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

what is a neuron?

1 / 108

Tags and Description

Health

10th

109 Terms

1

what is a neuron?

the basic structural unit of the nervous system

New cards
2

what is a dendrite?

appendages that are designed to receive communications from other cells.

New cards
3

what is an axon?

where electrical impulses from the neuron travel away to be received by other neurons.

New cards
4

what is the myelin sheath?

an insulating layer, or sheath, that forms around nerves, including those in brain & spinal cord.

New cards
5

what is the cell body?

the compact section of a nerve that contains the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

New cards
6

what is the difference between afferent and efferent nerves?

afferent nerves carry information to the brain. efferent nerves carry motor information to the muscles and glands.

New cards
7

what is the function of the pons?

conducts messages to other parts of the brain. reflex actions including chewing, tasting, and saliva production. assisting in respiration.

New cards
8

what is the function of the medulla?

regulating heartbeat, respiration, swallowing, coughing, and blood pressure.

New cards
9

what is the function of the cerebellum?

muscle coordination, balance, posture, and muscle tone.

New cards
10

what is the function of the pituitary gland?

growth and development. controls all other endocrine glands.

New cards
11

what is the function of the frontal lobe?

emotions, personality, morality, intellect, and speech.

New cards
12

what is the function of the parietal lobe?

sensory, motor, pain, heat, and touch.

New cards
13

what is the function of the occipital lobe?

vision.

New cards
14

what is the function of the temporal lobe?

hearing and smelling.

New cards
15

what is a synapse? where does it happen?

the site of transmission of electric nerve impulses. it occurs between 2 nerve cells or between a neuron and a gland or muscle cell.

New cards
16

what makes up the PNS?

12 cranial nerve pairs and 31 spinal nerve pairs.

New cards
17

what is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? is it treatable?

a chronic, degenerative neuromuscular disease. there is no cure but drugs may slow progress.

New cards
18

what is a cerebrovascular accident? is it treatable?

aka a stroke. when the blood flow to the brain is impaired, resulting in a lack of oxygen and a destruction of brain tissue. "clot busting" drugs can restore blood flow.

New cards
19

what is multiple sclerosis? is it treatable?

a chronic, progressive, disabling condition resulting from a degeneration of the myelin sheath in the CNS. no cure but physical therapy and muscle relaxants are used to maintain functional ability for as long as possible.

New cards
20

what is shingles? is it treatable?

an acute inflammation of nerve cells. treatments is directed towards relieving pain and itching.

New cards
21

what is cerebral palsy? is it treatable?

a disturbance in voluntary muscle action caused by brain damage. no cure. physical, occupational, and speech therapy are important. drugs, muscle relaxants, casts, braces, and/or orthopedic surgery.

New cards
22

what is parkinson's? is it treatable?

a chronic progressive involving degeneration of brain cells. no cure. drugs are used to relieve symptoms, physical therapy can also be used.

New cards
23

what is meningitis? is it treatable?

inflammation of the meninges of the brain and/or spinal cord. antibiotics, antipyretics, anticonvulsants, and/or medications for pain and cerebral edema.

New cards
24

what is epilepsy? is it treatable?

a seizure syndrome associated with abnormal electrical impulses in the neurons of the brain. no cure. anticonvulsant drugs.

New cards
25

functions of epithelial tissue?

cover the surface of body & line internal organs & form gland. protection and secretion.

New cards
26

functions of connective tissue?

support, protect, and give structure.

New cards
27

functions of muscle tissue?

power & movement

New cards
28

functions of nervous tissue?

control & coordinate.

New cards
29

what are the frontal and coronal planes?

separates the body into front and back parts.

New cards
30

what is the transverse plane?

separates the body into top and bottom parts but will never be equal.

New cards
31

superior

above

New cards
32

inferior

below

New cards
33

medial

towards middle

New cards
34

lateral

away from middle

New cards
35

anterior

moving towards front (forward)

New cards
36

posterior

moving towards back (backwards)

New cards
37

superficial

towards outside

New cards
38

deep

inside

New cards
39

proximal

on a diagonal. towards midline

New cards
40

distal

on a diagonal. away midline

New cards
41

what is the ventral cavity?

made up of thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities.

New cards
42

what is the dorsal cavity?

made up of cranial and spinal cavities.

New cards
43

what organs are in the hypogastric region?

small intestine, bladder, and uterus.

New cards
44

what happens in the epidermis?

cells grow from underneath and move to the top where they die. keratinization (the hardening of cells) occurs. Melanocytes produce melanin.

New cards
45

what happens in the dermis?

fingerprints are formed. blood vessels supply nutrients to the skin.

New cards
46

what happens in the hypodermis?

temperature regulation and storage. insulation. the connection between skin and underlying muscle.

New cards
47

what are active cells?

act as a repair system for the body

New cards
48

what happens to the body when temperature rises?

blood vessels dilate and you start to sweat

New cards
49

what happens to the body when tmperature falls?

blood vessels constrict and you start to shiver

New cards
50

what are melanocytes?

cells that produce melanin which gives your skin color.

New cards
51

what bones are in the axial skeleton?

the bones in your skull, neck, and vertebrae.

New cards
52

what bones are in the appendicular skeleton?

arms, pelvis, and legs.

New cards
53

how many bones are in the body?

you are born with 300 but adults have 206.

New cards
54

what are the types of vertebrae and how many are there?

cervical (1-7) thoracic (1-12) lumbar (1-5) sacral (1-5) coccyx(1-4)

New cards
55

describe skeletal muscle.

attached to bone and causes body movement that is voluntary.

New cards
56

what is a strain?

an injury to muscle or a band of tissue that connects muscle to bone.

New cards
57

what is a sprain?

an injury to the tissue that connects two bones.

New cards
58

what is origin?

where a muscle attaches to a bone, the end that does not move.

New cards
59

what is insertion?

the end that moves when a muscle contracts.

New cards
60

a simple fracture

a crack in the bone

New cards
61

a colles fracture

a crack in the distal radius

New cards
62

a communuted fracture

a break into 3+ pieces

New cards
63

a compound fracture

when bone breaks through the skin

New cards
64

a depressed fracture

occurs in hollow bone. a concave fracture

New cards
65

a dislocation

bone is removed from the joint

New cards
66

a greenstick fracture

bone is bent until splintering occurs

New cards
67

an impacted fracture

bone crushes into itself

New cards
68

a spiral fracture

bone twists while breaking

New cards
69
<p>what is the yellow?</p>

what is the yellow?

thalamus

New cards
70
<p>what is the orange?</p>

what is the orange?

hypothalamus

New cards
71
<p>what is the red?</p>

what is the red?

pituitary gland

New cards
72
<p>the midbrain</p>

the midbrain

what is the purple?

New cards
73
<p>what is the light blue?</p>

what is the light blue?

pons

New cards
74
<p>what is the medium blue?</p>

what is the medium blue?

medulla

New cards
75
<p>what is the dark blue?</p>

what is the dark blue?

spinal cord

New cards
76
<p>what is the light purple?</p>

what is the light purple?

corpus callosum

New cards
77
<p>what is the light green?</p>

what is the light green?

the cerebellum

New cards
78

open wound descriptions

an injury involving an external break in body tissue involving the skin.

New cards
79

inflammation

tissues are injured by bacteria or toxins and cells release chemicals that cause blood vessels to leak fluid into tissue causing swelling

New cards
80

diarthrosis (synovial) joints

freely moveable. ex: ball and socket or hinge

New cards
81

amphiarthrosis joints

slightly moveable. ex: attachment of ribs to thoracic vertebrae and symphysis pubis

New cards
82

synathrosis joints

immovable. ex: suture joints in cranium

New cards
83

process of smelling

  1. breath in

  2. air stimulates the olfactory cells

  3. impulse travels to temporal lobe through the olfactory nerve

  4. temporal nerve determines smell

New cards
84

process of hearing

  1. sound enters external canal

  2. sound hits eardrum which vibrates & send sound into middle ear

  3. sound travels from middle ear to inner ear.

  4. vestibulocochlear nerve is stimulated. impulse travels to the temporal lobe.

New cards
85

process of seeing

  1. impulse occurs

  2. light rays enter eye

  3. optic nerve receives impulse

  4. message travels to the occipital lobe

New cards
86

process of tasting

  1. eat or drink something

  2. flavors are broken down & stimulate taste buds

  3. brain (pons) interprets which taste buds were activated

New cards
87

what are lymph vessels?

they're found throughout the body in almost all tissues that have blood vessels- pick up lymph and connect to lymph nodes

New cards
88

What are T cells?

develop stem cells in the red bone marrow

New cards
89

what are the innate defenses?

  1. Species resistance

  2. mechanical barriers

  3. chemical barriers

  4. natural killer cells

  5. inflammation

  6. phagocytosis

  7. fever

New cards
90

describe species resistance

certain animals are non-susceptible to certain pathogens

New cards
91

describe mechanical barriers

physically block pathogens from entering body

New cards
92

describe chemical barriers

destroy pathogens on the outer surface, body openings, & inner linings.

New cards
93

describe natural killer cells

lymphocytes that respond quickly to pathogens like viruses & cancer cells

New cards
94

describe phagocytosis

phagocytes ingest or engulf other cells of particles

New cards
95

describe fever

higher temperature releases lymphocytes

New cards
96

what is primary immune response?

  1. activation of B cells or T cells

  2. plasma cells release antibodies into the lymph

  3. antibodies are transported to the blood and then throughout the entire body

New cards
97

what is secondary immune response?

some B cells remain dormant as memory cells. if the same antigen is encountered again, these memory cells enlarge and respond rapidly

New cards
98

how many days does primary immune response take?

lasts 5-10 days.

New cards
99

how many days does secondary immune response take?

lasts 1-2 days

New cards
100

what is cellular immune response?

  • T cells originating in red bone marrow

  • primarily located in lymphatic tissue and make up 70-80% of the circulating lymphocytes in the blood

  • interact directly with antigens or antigen-bearing agents to destroy them

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 234 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard87 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard140 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard51 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard58 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard107 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 353 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)