Health Science study guide

studied byStudied by 10 People
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

what is a neuron?

1/109

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

New cards
109
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
109 Terms
New cards

what is a neuron?

the basic structural unit of the nervous system

New cards
New cards

what is a dendrite?

appendages that are designed to receive communications from other cells.

New cards
New cards

what is an axon?

where electrical impulses from the neuron travel away to be received by other neurons.

New cards
New cards

what is the myelin sheath?

an insulating layer, or sheath, that forms around nerves, including those in brain & spinal cord.

New cards
New cards

what is the cell body?

the compact section of a nerve that contains the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

New cards
New cards

what is the difference between afferent and efferent nerves?

afferent nerves carry information to the brain. efferent nerves carry motor information to the muscles and glands.

New cards
New cards

what is the function of the pons?

conducts messages to other parts of the brain. reflex actions including chewing, tasting, and saliva production. assisting in respiration.

New cards
New cards

what is the function of the medulla?

regulating heartbeat, respiration, swallowing, coughing, and blood pressure.

New cards
New cards

what is the function of the cerebellum?

muscle coordination, balance, posture, and muscle tone.

New cards
New cards

what is the function of the pituitary gland?

growth and development. controls all other endocrine glands.

New cards
New cards

what is the function of the frontal lobe?

emotions, personality, morality, intellect, and speech.

New cards
New cards

what is the function of the parietal lobe?

sensory, motor, pain, heat, and touch.

New cards
New cards

what is the function of the occipital lobe?

vision.

New cards
New cards

what is the function of the temporal lobe?

hearing and smelling.

New cards
New cards

what is a synapse? where does it happen?

the site of transmission of electric nerve impulses. it occurs between 2 nerve cells or between a neuron and a gland or muscle cell.

New cards
New cards

what makes up the PNS?

12 cranial nerve pairs and 31 spinal nerve pairs.

New cards
New cards

what is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? is it treatable?

a chronic, degenerative neuromuscular disease. there is no cure but drugs may slow progress.

New cards
New cards

what is a cerebrovascular accident? is it treatable?

aka a stroke. when the blood flow to the brain is impaired, resulting in a lack of oxygen and a destruction of brain tissue. "clot busting" drugs can restore blood flow.

New cards
New cards

what is multiple sclerosis? is it treatable?

a chronic, progressive, disabling condition resulting from a degeneration of the myelin sheath in the CNS. no cure but physical therapy and muscle relaxants are used to maintain functional ability for as long as possible.

New cards
New cards

what is shingles? is it treatable?

an acute inflammation of nerve cells. treatments is directed towards relieving pain and itching.

New cards
New cards

what is cerebral palsy? is it treatable?

a disturbance in voluntary muscle action caused by brain damage. no cure. physical, occupational, and speech therapy are important. drugs, muscle relaxants, casts, braces, and/or orthopedic surgery.

New cards
New cards

what is parkinson's? is it treatable?

a chronic progressive involving degeneration of brain cells. no cure. drugs are used to relieve symptoms, physical therapy can also be used.

New cards
New cards

what is meningitis? is it treatable?

inflammation of the meninges of the brain and/or spinal cord. antibiotics, antipyretics, anticonvulsants, and/or medications for pain and cerebral edema.

New cards
New cards

what is epilepsy? is it treatable?

a seizure syndrome associated with abnormal electrical impulses in the neurons of the brain. no cure. anticonvulsant drugs.

New cards
New cards

functions of epithelial tissue?

cover the surface of body & line internal organs & form gland. protection and secretion.

New cards
New cards

functions of connective tissue?

support, protect, and give structure.

New cards
New cards

functions of muscle tissue?

power & movement

New cards
New cards

functions of nervous tissue?

control & coordinate.

New cards
New cards

what are the frontal and coronal planes?

separates the body into front and back parts.

New cards
New cards

what is the transverse plane?

separates the body into top and bottom parts but will never be equal.

New cards
New cards

superior

above

New cards
New cards

inferior

below

New cards
New cards

medial

towards middle

New cards
New cards

lateral

away from middle

New cards
New cards

anterior

moving towards front (forward)

New cards
New cards

posterior

moving towards back (backwards)

New cards
New cards

superficial

towards outside

New cards
New cards

deep

inside

New cards
New cards

proximal

on a diagonal. towards midline

New cards
New cards

distal

on a diagonal. away midline

New cards
New cards

what is the ventral cavity?

made up of thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities.

New cards
New cards

what is the dorsal cavity?

made up of cranial and spinal cavities.

New cards
New cards

what organs are in the hypogastric region?

small intestine, bladder, and uterus.

New cards
New cards

what happens in the epidermis?

cells grow from underneath and move to the top where they die. keratinization (the hardening of cells) occurs. Melanocytes produce melanin.

New cards
New cards

what happens in the dermis?

fingerprints are formed. blood vessels supply nutrients to the skin.

New cards
New cards

what happens in the hypodermis?

temperature regulation and storage. insulation. the connection between skin and underlying muscle.

New cards
New cards

what are active cells?

act as a repair system for the body

New cards
New cards

what happens to the body when temperature rises?

blood vessels dilate and you start to sweat

New cards
New cards

what happens to the body when tmperature falls?

blood vessels constrict and you start to shiver

New cards
New cards

what are melanocytes?

cells that produce melanin which gives your skin color.

New cards
New cards

what bones are in the axial skeleton?

the bones in your skull, neck, and vertebrae.

New cards
New cards

what bones are in the appendicular skeleton?

arms, pelvis, and legs.

New cards
New cards

how many bones are in the body?

you are born with 300 but adults have 206.

New cards
New cards

what are the types of vertebrae and how many are there?

cervical (1-7) thoracic (1-12) lumbar (1-5) sacral (1-5) coccyx(1-4)

New cards
New cards

describe skeletal muscle.

attached to bone and causes body movement that is voluntary.

New cards
New cards

what is a strain?

an injury to muscle or a band of tissue that connects muscle to bone.

New cards
New cards

what is a sprain?

an injury to the tissue that connects two bones.

New cards
New cards

what is origin?

where a muscle attaches to a bone, the end that does not move.

New cards
New cards

what is insertion?

the end that moves when a muscle contracts.

New cards
New cards

a simple fracture

a crack in the bone

New cards
New cards

a colles fracture

a crack in the distal radius

New cards
New cards

a communuted fracture

a break into 3+ pieces

New cards
New cards

a compound fracture

when bone breaks through the skin

New cards
New cards

a depressed fracture

occurs in hollow bone. a concave fracture

New cards
New cards

a dislocation

bone is removed from the joint

New cards
New cards

a greenstick fracture

bone is bent until splintering occurs

New cards
New cards

an impacted fracture

bone crushes into itself

New cards
New cards

a spiral fracture

bone twists while breaking

New cards
<p>what is the yellow?</p>
New cards
<p>what is the yellow?</p>

what is the yellow?

thalamus

New cards
<p>what is the orange?</p>
New cards
<p>what is the orange?</p>

what is the orange?

hypothalamus

New cards
<p>what is the red?</p>
New cards
<p>what is the red?</p>

what is the red?

pituitary gland

New cards
<p>the midbrain</p>
New cards
<p>the midbrain</p>

the midbrain

what is the purple?

New cards
<p>what is the light blue?</p>
New cards
<p>what is the light blue?</p>

what is the light blue?

pons

New cards
<p>what is the medium blue?</p>
New cards
<p>what is the medium blue?</p>

what is the medium blue?

medulla

New cards
<p>what is the dark blue?</p>
New cards
<p>what is the dark blue?</p>

what is the dark blue?

spinal cord

New cards
<p>what is the light purple?</p>
New cards
<p>what is the light purple?</p>

what is the light purple?

corpus callosum

New cards
<p>what is the light green?</p>
New cards
<p>what is the light green?</p>

what is the light green?

the cerebellum

New cards
New cards

open wound descriptions

an injury involving an external break in body tissue involving the skin.

New cards
New cards

inflammation

tissues are injured by bacteria or toxins and cells release chemicals that cause blood vessels to leak fluid into tissue causing swelling

New cards
New cards

diarthrosis (synovial) joints

freely moveable. ex: ball and socket or hinge

New cards
New cards

amphiarthrosis joints

slightly moveable. ex: attachment of ribs to thoracic vertebrae and symphysis pubis

New cards
New cards

synathrosis joints

immovable. ex: suture joints in cranium

New cards
New cards

process of smelling

  1. breath in

  2. air stimulates the olfactory cells

  3. impulse travels to temporal lobe through the olfactory nerve

  4. temporal nerve determines smell

New cards
New cards

process of hearing

  1. sound enters external canal

  2. sound hits eardrum which vibrates & send sound into middle ear

  3. sound travels from middle ear to inner ear.

  4. vestibulocochlear nerve is stimulated. impulse travels to the temporal lobe.

New cards