Anatomy Ch. 4: Skin and Body Membranes

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cover surfaces, line body cavities, form protective sheets around organs

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cover surfaces, line body cavities, form protective sheets around organs

functions of body membranes

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cutaneous, mucous, serous

list the epithelial membranes (3)

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cutaneous membrane

epithelial membrane composed of epidermis and dermis; exposed to air and is dry

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stratified squamos epithelium

tissue type of epidermis

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dense irregular (fibrous) connective

tissue type of dermis

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mucous membrane

epithelial membrane that lines all body cavities open to exterior (respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive); bathed in secretations or urine; absorption and secretion

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epithelium / loose (areolar) connective tissue / lamina propria

mucous membrane is composed of ___ resting on a ___ membrane called a ____

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stratified squamos epithelium (mouth, esophagus) or simple columnar (digestive)

tissue type of most mucosae

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no

does the urinary tract secrete lubricating mucus?

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serous membrane

epithelial membrane that lines open body cavities and compartments in ventral body cavity closed to exterior; occur in pairs (parietal and visceral)

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layer of simple squamos resting on thin areolar connective

tissue type of serous membrane

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parietal

serous layer that lines a specific portion of the wlal of the ventral body cavity

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visceral

serous layer that covers the outside of the organ in that cavity

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serous fluid

serous layers separated by ____ that allows the organs to slide easily across cavity walls and one another w/o friction or pain

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peritoneum

serosa lining abdominal cavity and covering its organs

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pleurae

serosa surrounding lungs

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pericardia

serosa surrounding heart

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synovial membrane

connective tissue membrane that lines fibrous capsules arround joints, provide a smooth surface, and secrete lubircating fluid, and line bursae and tendon sheaths

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loose areolar connective (NO epithelial)

tissue type of synovial membrane

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skin

another name for cutaneous membrane is?

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maintains boudnaries by keeping water and others in and excess out; blocks bacteria; prevent heat loss

functions of skin

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integumentary system

skin and its appendages (sweat and oil glands, hair, nails)

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insulates and cushions deep organs; protection from mechanical damage (bumps and cuts), chemical damage (acids and bases), thermal damage (heat and cold), UV radiation (sun), and microbes; prevents water loss; regulate heat loss; excretion

functions of integumentary system

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urea, salts, water / sweating / vitamin D, acid mantle (protect against bacterial invasion)

what does the skin excrete and when? What does the skin produce?

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burn or friction causes separation of epidermis and dermis, and interstitial fluid accumulates in cavity

how do blisters form?

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adipose

tissue type of hypodermis (subcutaneous)

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no / skin / organs / nutrient storage / shock absorber / insulates / curves

Is the hypodermis part of the skin? It anchors the ____ to underlying ___ and provides a site for ____. It serves as a ____ and ____ the deeper tissues from extreme temp changes. Also results in women’s ____.

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keratinocytes / desmosomes

most cells of the epidermis are this, which produce the fibrous protein that makes it a tough protective layer; they are connected by?

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avascular

is the epidermis vascular or avascular?

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stratum basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum

list the epidermis layers from deepest to most superficial

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stratum basale

deepest epidermis layer connected to dermis along wavy border; contins most adequately noursihed cells; cells constantly dividing

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stratum spinosum

epidermis layer in which cells contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin

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sratum granulosum

epidermis layer in which cells are flattened, organelles are deteriorating, cytoplasm full of granules, and more keratinized

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stratum lucidum

clear epidermis layer only present in areas where skin is hairless and thick (palms and soles)

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accumulating keratin, water-repellent glycolipid secreted, distance from blood supply, inadequate nutrients and oxygen

reasons for epidermal cells dying in lucidum —>

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stratum corneum

outermost epidermal layer 20-30 cell layers thick, accounting for ¾ of epidermis; shinglelike dead clels completely filled with keratin are cornified

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abundance of tough keratin proteins

why is the stratum corneum a durable body coating

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melanin / melanocytes / stratum basale

pigment that ranges in color from yellow to brown to black and produced by special spider-shaped cells called ____. found chiefly in ____.

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freckles and moles

forms where melanin is concentrated in one spot

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epidermal dendritic cells

important sentries that alert and activate immune system cells to a threat of bacteria or virus

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merkel cells / merkel discs

found at epidermal-dermal junction and associated with sensory nerve endings and tough receptors called ____

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leathery skin, depressed immune system, human herpesvirus 1 (cause cold sores), skin cancer

effects of excessive exposure to UV light

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melanin

skin’s natural sunscreeen

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dermis

your “hide”, strong, strethcy envelope that helps bind body together; composed of 2 major regions (papillary and reticular)

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areolar connective tissue

tissue type of papillary dermis layer

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dense irregular connective tissue

tissue type of reticular dermis layer

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papillary layer / dermal papillae

superficial dermal region that is uneven and has peglike projections called ____ which indent epidermis

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capillary loops / pain / touch

papillary layer may contain ____, which furnish nutrients to epidermis. others house ____ receptors (free nerve endings) and ____ receptors

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papillary patterns

ridges of fingertips and gripping ability of fingers and feet caused by?

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reticular layer

deepest skin layer containing blood vessels, sweat and oil gands, and deep pressure receptors called almellar corpuscles

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cutaneous sensory receptors

tiny sensors located in skin that help with touch, pressure, temp, and pain receptors, prevent microbes from penetrating body

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collagen

what type of fibers are responsible for toughness of dermis, attract water, and keep skin hydrated

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elastic

what type of fibers give the skin elasticity and youth

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number of collagen and elastic fibers decreases, and hypodermis (subcutaneous) layer loses fat leading to wrinklage

why does our skin age

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vascular / homeostasis of body temp

is the dermis vascular or avascular and why is that important?

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capillaries / swollen / red and warm / radiate from / bypasses / capillaries

When the body temp is high, ____ of the dermis become ____ with heated blood, and skin becomes ____ so that body heat can ____ skin surface. When temp low, blood _____ _____.

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decubitus ulcers

occur in bedridden patients who are not turned regularly or who are dragged or pulled across the bed repeatedly

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yellow, reddish brown, or black

color(s) of melanin in epidermis

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sunlight exposure (leads to tan)

what stimulates melanocytes to produce more melanin pigment

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melanosomes / keratinocytes / shields

as the melanocytes produce melanin, it accumulates in their cytoplasm in membrane-bound granules called ____. granules then move to ends of melanocyte spidery arms, where taken up by ____. Inside keratinocytes, melanin ____ DNA from UV damage

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brown-toned / light

people who produce a lot of melanin have ____ skin and people with less have ___ skin

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strtum corneum and subutaneous tissue

carotene is deposited in the

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orange-yellow

what color is carotene pigment

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dermal blood vessels

hemoglobin is found in

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oxygen-rich hemoglobin in dermal blood supply flushes through transparent cell layers above

why does the skin of light people appear rosy

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cyanosis

blood and skin appears blue whe hemoglobin poorly oxygenated (in light-skinned people); common during heart failure and breathing disorders

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erythema

redness is also known as

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reddened

fever, hypertension, inflammation, and allergy result in ____ skin

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pallor/blanching

anemia, emotional stress, low blood pressure, and impaired blood flow result in ____ skin

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jaundice (yellow cast)

an abnormal yellow skin tone signifying a liver disorder in which excess bile pigments accumulate in blood, ciculate thru body, and deposit in body tissues

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bruise / vitamin C / hemophilia

black-and-blue mark where blood escaped from circulation and clotted in tissue spaces; tendency to do this may signify a ___ deficiency or ____

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hematomas

clotted blood masses

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skin apendages

include cutaneous glands, hair and hair follicles, and nails; physically located in dermis but produced by epidermal layer

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cutaneous glands

exocrine glands that release secretions to skin surface via ducts; formed by stratum basale and pushed into deeper skin; 2 types (sebaceous and sweat)

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sebaceous glands

oild glands found all over skin except palms and soles; ducts usually empty into hair follicle

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sebum

product of sebaceous glands that is a mixture of oily substances and fragmented cells; lubricant to keep skin soft and moist and prevent hair brittling; kills bacteria

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acne

sebaceous gland ducts blocked by sebum and infected

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whitehead / blackhead

If sebum in ducts does not dry, ___ forms. If it oxidizes and dries, a ___ will form

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seborrhea

“cradle cap”, overactivity of sebaceous glands

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sweat / eccrine / apocrine

sudiferous glands, also known as ___, have 2 types: ___ and ___

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eccrine glands

sweat gland that is more numberous and found all over; secretes sweat (water plus some slats, vitamin C, and traces of wastes and lactic acid)

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inhibits bacterial growth

Why is it important that sweat is acidic? How does sweat reach the skin surface

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eccrine glands

glands important in body’s heat regulation; supplies with nerve endings

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appocrine glands

glands largely confined to axillary (armpit) and genitals; larger and ducts empty into hair follicles; secretions contain fatty acids and protectins; milky or yellowish color

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