APWH vocab unit 1-4

studied byStudied by 2 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Champa Rice

1 / 271

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
272
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
272 Terms
1
New cards

Champa Rice

Quick-maturing rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season. It was later sent to China as a tribute gift.

New cards
2
New cards

Proto-industrialization

a set of economic changes in which people in rural areas made more goods than they could sell in East Asia

New cards
3
New cards

artisan

A skilled crafts person

New cards
4
New cards

Scholar-gentry

in China, a group of people who controlled much of the land and produced most of the candidates for civil service

New cards
5
New cards

Filial Piety

In Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors.

New cards
6
New cards

Grand Canal

The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire.

New cards
7
New cards

Song Dynasty

During this Chinese dynasty (960 - 1279 AD) China saw many important inventions. There was a magnetic compass; had a navy; traded with India and Persia (brought pepper and cotton); paper money, gun powder; landscape black and white paintings

New cards
8
New cards

Imperial Bureaucracy

Division of an empire into organized provinces to make it easier to control

New cards
9
New cards

Meritocracy

government or the holding of power by people selected on the basis of their ability.

New cards
10
New cards

woodblock printing

a type of printing in which text is carved into a block of wood and the block is then coated with ink and pressed on the page

New cards
11
New cards

Foot Binding

Practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household.

New cards
12
New cards

Buddhism

Belief system that started in India in the 500s BC. Happiness can be achieved through removal of one's desires. Believers seek enlightenment and the overcoming of suffering.

New cards
13
New cards

Theravada Buddhism

the oldest of the two major branches of Buddhism. Practiced mainly in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, and Cambodia, its beliefs are relatively conservative, holding close to the original teachings of the Buddha

New cards
14
New cards

Mahayana Buddhism

"Great Vehicle" branch of Buddhism followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha and for Bodhisattva, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment.

New cards
15
New cards

Tibetan Buddhism

a Buddhist doctrine that includes elements from India that are not Buddhist and elements of preexisting shamanism, a tradition of Buddhism that teaches that people can use special techniques to harness spiritual energy and can achieve nirvana in a single lifetime

New cards
16
New cards

Syncretic

Combining several religious traditions

New cards
17
New cards

Chan Buddhism

Known as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society

New cards
18
New cards

Neoconfucianism

In post-classical China, a mixture of traditional Confucian and Buddhist beliefs.

New cards
19
New cards

Heian Period

The era in Japanese history from A.D. 794-1185, arts and writing flourished during this time

New cards
20
New cards

nuclear family

a couple and their dependent children, regarded as a basic social unit.

New cards
21
New cards

Polygyny

a form of marriage in which men have more than one wife

New cards
22
New cards

Mamluk Sultanate

- A political unit in Egypt (1250-1517), defeated the Mongols, did not set up a consistent, hereditary line of succession, which hurt them greatly

New cards
23
New cards

Seljuk Turks

Nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia; staunch Sunnis; ruled in name of Abbasid caliphs from mid-11th century

New cards
24
New cards

Sultan

Military and political leader with absolute authority over a Muslim country

New cards
25
New cards

Abbasid Caliphate

(750-1258 CE) The caliphate, after the Umayyads, who focused more on administration than conquering. Had a bureaucracy that any Muslim could be a part of & considered Golden Age of Islam

New cards
26
New cards

Mongols

People from Central Asia when united ended up creating the largest single land empire in history.

New cards
27
New cards

Crusades

a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Western European Christians to reclaim control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims

New cards
28
New cards

Sufis

Muslim mystics who seek communion with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals

New cards
29
New cards

House of Wisdom in Baghdad

Large Islamic-based Library and learning center. Focus of conversion of Greek and Roman classics and Indian learning into Arabic. Preserved knowledge.

New cards
30
New cards

Nasir al-Din Tusi

(1201-1274) Persian mathematician and cosmologist whose academy near Tabriz provided the model for the movement of the planets that helped to inspire the Copernican model of the solar system.

New cards
31
New cards

Aishah al-Ba'uniyyah

most prolific female Muslim writer before the 20th century; wrote a long poem honoring Muhammad called "Clear Inspiration, on Praise of the Trusted One"

New cards
32
New cards

Vijayanagar Kingdom

Southern Indian trade-based kingdom (1336-1565) that later fell to the Mughals.

New cards
33
New cards

Rajput Kingdoms

set of kingdoms in India that arose after the fall of the Gupta dynasty; were hundreds of kingdoms ruled by land owning Kshatriyas, wealthy due to trade and a good economy. Hindu beliefs and this is when the practice of sati began, as well as purdah (the separation of women from society).

New cards
34
New cards

Delhi Sultanate

(1206-1526 CE) The successors of Mahmud of Ghazni mounted more campaigns, but directed their goals to creating this empire.

New cards
35
New cards

Srivijaya Empire

flourished from the 600s to 1200s; controlled the Strait of Malacca thus impacting Chinese trade into the Indian Ocean

New cards
36
New cards

proselytize

to convert someone to a faith, belief, or cause

New cards
37
New cards

Bhakti Movement

An immensely popular development in Hinduism, advocating intense devotion toward a particular deity.

New cards
38
New cards

Urdu

A Persian-influenced literary form of Hindi written in Arabic characters and used as a literary language since the 1300s.

New cards
39
New cards

Mississippian Culture

Last of the mound-building cultures of North America; flourished between 800 and 1300 C.E.; featured large towns and ceremonial centers; lacked stone architecture of Central America.

New cards
40
New cards

Matrilineal

relating to a social system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the mother

New cards
41
New cards

Cahokia

Mississippian settlement near present-day East St. Louis, home to as many as 25,000 Native Americans

New cards
42
New cards

Maya city-states

Classical culture in Southern Mexico and Central America; contemporary with Teotihuacan; extended over broad region; featured monumental architecture, written language, calendrical system, mathematical system; highly developed region.

New cards
43
New cards

Aztecs

Also known as Mexica, they created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax.

New cards
44
New cards

Theocracy

a system of government in which priests rule in the name of a god.

New cards
45
New cards

human sacrifice

Killing of humans for a purpose like worshiping a god, practiced widely by the Aztecs and a little by the Maya

New cards
46
New cards

Pachacuti

Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca

New cards
47
New cards

Incan Empire

Formed in present day Peru. Expanded out as far south as Chile and as far North as Ecuador. Best known for their enormous wealth and extensive road building. Imposed a mit'a (work tax) on its people.

New cards
48
New cards

Carpa Nan

During Incan rule, this is a massive roadway system made possible by captive labor, stretched 25,00 miles

New cards
49
New cards

Temple of the Sun

Inca religious center located at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas

New cards
50
New cards

Animism

Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.

New cards
51
New cards

Kin-based networks

Relation between two or more people that is based on common ancestry or marriage

New cards
52
New cards

Swahili

A Bantu language with Arabic words, spoken along the East African coast

New cards
53
New cards

Zanj Rebellion

A series of revolts by slaves working on sugar plantations in Mesopotamia, led by Ali bin Muhammad

New cards
54
New cards

Trans-Saharan Trade

route across the Sahara Desert. Major trade route that traded for gold and salt, created caravan routes, economic benefit for controlling dessert, camels played a huge role in the trading

New cards
55
New cards

Indian Ocean Trade

world's richest maritime trading network that was essential for the prosperity of East Africa

New cards
56
New cards

Indian Ocean Slave Trade

East Africa -> Middle East & India, similar conditions to the Atlantic Slave Trade, cultural diffusion

New cards
57
New cards

Great Zimbabwe

A powerful state in the African interior that apparently emerged from the growing trade in gold to the East African coast; flourished between 1250 and 1350 C.E.

New cards
58
New cards

Hausa states

people of northern Nigeria formed these states; formed following the demise of the Songhay Empire & combined Muslim & pagan tradition

New cards
59
New cards

Kingdom of Ghana

West African empire from 700s to 1076, grew wealthy and powerful by controlling gold-salt trade.

New cards
60
New cards

Mali Empire

From 1235-1400, this was a strong empire of Western African. With its trading cities of Timbuktu and Gao, it had many mosques and universities. The Empire was ruled by two great rulers, Sundiata and Mansa Musa. Thy upheld a strong gold-salt trade. The fall of the empire was caused by the lack of strong rulers who could govern well.

New cards
61
New cards

Ethiopia

A Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty of King Lalaibela; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa

New cards
62
New cards

Magna Carta

the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215, "no taxation without representation" began with this document

New cards
63
New cards

English Parliament

-Firmly established by the 14th century

New cards
64
New cards

-Gained power at the expense of the king

New cards
65
New cards

-Composed of the House of Lords (titled nobility) and the House of Commons (gentry and middle classes)

New cards
66
New cards

Manors

Large farm estates of the Middle Ages that were owned by nobles who ruled over the peasants living in the land

New cards
67
New cards

Manorial System

an economic system in the Middle Ages that was built around large estates called manors

New cards
68
New cards

three-field system

a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left fallow (unplanted)

New cards
69
New cards

Feudalism in Europe

Political system in which land is exchanged for protection.

New cards
70
New cards

1. King (no real power; only figurehead)

New cards
71
New cards

2. Lords (receive a fief from the king)

New cards
72
New cards

3. Vassals (lesser lords)

New cards
73
New cards

4. Knights (warrior class)

New cards
74
New cards

5. Serfs (provided free labor)

New cards
75
New cards

Serfs

People who gave their land to a lord and offered their servitude in return for protection from the lord.

New cards
76
New cards

Primogeniture

right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son

New cards
77
New cards

Burghers

a member of the middle class who lived in a city or town

New cards
78
New cards

Estates General

France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners.

New cards
79
New cards

Otto I

Crowned emperor by pope in 962 CE; first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Close ties with the Catholic Church

New cards
80
New cards

Marco Polo

Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.

New cards
81
New cards

Rensissance

Period of great "re-birth" of Greco-Roman culture that began in Italy during the 15th century. Art, politics, and economic changes took place.

New cards
82
New cards

Humanism

A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements

New cards
83
New cards

Lay Investiture Controversy

A disagreement between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII about who should appoint church officials.

New cards
84
New cards

Great Schism of 1054

The separation between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church

New cards
85
New cards

Antisemitism

hostility to or prejudice against Jews.

New cards
86
New cards

Little Ice Age

Temporary but significant cooling period between the fourteenth and the nineteenth centuries; accompanied by wide temperature fluctuations, droughts, and storms, causing famines and dislocation.

New cards
87
New cards

magnetic compass

Chinese invention that aided navigation by showing which direction was north

New cards
88
New cards

rudder

Steering device, usually a vertical blade attached to a post at, or near, the stern of the boat

New cards
89
New cards

Chinese Junk

A very large flat-bottom sailing ship produced in the Tang and Song Empires, specially designed for long-distance commercial travel.

New cards
90
New cards

Kashgar

a central trading point where the Eastern and Western Silk Roads met.

New cards
91
New cards

Samarkand

During the rule of Timur Lane was the most influential capital , a wealthy trading center known for decorated mosques and tombs.

New cards
92
New cards

Caravanerais

Rest stops along the Silk Roads that merchants could exchange ideas and goods under the protection of the Mongols.

New cards
93
New cards

flying cash

a paper currency of the Tang dynasty in China and can be considered the first banknote

New cards
94
New cards

Banking Houses

These European banks developed during the Middle Ages to aid trade. Along with innovations such as bills of exchange, or bank drafts, and credit, the rise of banking houses supported the development of interregional trade in luxury goods.

New cards
95
New cards

Hanseatic League

an organization of north German and Scandinavian cities for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.

New cards
96
New cards

paper money

legal currency issued on paper; it developed in China as a convenient alternative to metal coins

New cards
97
New cards

Khan

Title given to Mongol leaders, meaning "supreme ruler"

New cards
98
New cards

Kuriltai

Meeting of all Mongol chieftains at which the supreme ruler of all tribes was selected

New cards
99
New cards

Genghis (Chinggis) Khan

Founder and supreme leader of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death, consisting of several Eurasian societies. He used battle tactics, psychological warfare, and foreign weapons to conquer land easily. He ruled his territory fairly, protecting the Silk Roads.

New cards
100
New cards

Khanates

Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 157 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4311 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(39)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard115 terms
studied byStudied by 47 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard42 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard66 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard146 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard