psych final

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egocentrism

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100 Terms
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egocentrism

a term that identifies children’s difficulty seeing another’s perspective

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permissive parenting

a morther tells her teenage child, “do whatever you want, I dont care” what type of parenting style is this ?

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accommodation

when we change our scheme to fit into characteristics of the world around us

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oral stage

freud- what stage do infants associate erotic pleasure with the mouth?

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cognitive development

jean piaget created

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object permanence

when a child realizes that an object exists even when they cannot see or touch it

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authoritative parenting

parents allow the children and adolescents to participate in the decision-making

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authoritarian parenting

parents feel as if they do not have to explain themselves or actions to their children

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generativity vs stagnation

a middle-aged man leaves his job to give back to the community by volunteering at an elementary school

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conservation

5 year old tammy mistakenly believes that her short, wide glass contains less soda than her brother’s tall, narrow glass. both glasses contain the same amount of soda. this illustrates that tammy lacks the concept of…

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assimilation

3 year old zara calls all 4 legged animals “kitties” her tendency to fit all 4 legged animals into her existing conception of a kitten illustrates the process of…

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post conventional morality

valiery believes stealing is not right, but in certain emergencies or life and death situations to help her family, she believes its ok. according to kohlberg, valerie is in the ____ stage

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narcolepsy

malcom often experiences overwhelming feelings of sleepiness. in fact, malcolm has been known to fall asleep at his desk… he may be suffering from

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caffine, cocaine, nicotine, methamphetamines

stimulants:

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depressant

drug responsible for slowing heart rate and respiratory rate would be

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hallucinogens

drugs that can cause visual or auditory hallucionaltions

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framing

is the way an issue is posed

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confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions

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belief perseverance

clinging to your initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

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mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially if it had worked in the past

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fuctional fixedness

the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions

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algorithm

methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem

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insight

a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem

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cognition

another term for thinking, knowing and remembering

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episodic

memory holds items that happen in a individual person’s life

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explicit

memory holds the memory of general information

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sensory

memory holds information for only a few seconds

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short term memory

information that is kept in the mind as long as you repeat it is stored in

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retroactive interference

when a new memory blocks the recall of an older memory

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proactive interference

when an old memory blocks the recall of a recent memory

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james lange theory of emotion

the belief that emotions are experienced following physical response

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instinct theory

when salmon are motivated to swim upstream to mate and die, its called

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drive reduction theory

explains motivation by stressing our biological need to sustain homeostasis

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arousal theory

explains how people are often motivated to “seek out” stimulation

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cannon bard theory

states the idea that an emotional-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological response and the subjective experience of emotion

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two factor theory

differs from the james lange and the cannon bard in that a cognitive label precedes emotional experience

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sympathetic nervous system

system that increases your heart rate, dilates pupils, and sweats when aroused

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amygdala to the thalamus

when one is faced with a threatening stimulus, there is a “shortcut” neural pathway to allow a speedy emotional response- running from

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catharsis

karen’s therapist encouraged her to “get her anger out” by punching a pillow. her therapist values the concept of

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maslows hierarchy of needs

which theory of motivation does this statement best represent? “Nobody wants to kiss when they are hungry”

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William James

Who suggested that “we feel sorry because we cry… afraid because we tremble”?

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two factor theory

noticing that his heart was pounding and his palms were sweaty while he was taking a difficult test, Harley concluded that he was “anxious”. noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty when an attractive lady asked him to dance, harley concluded that he was “falling in love” the differing emotions experienced by harley can be best explained by the

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cannon-bard theory

10 yr old vito tells his friend, “when you notice that your knees knock, your hands sweat, and your stomach is in knots, then you get really scared”. this statement best illustrates the

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physiological needs

the need for food and water, including the need to breathe and the ability to go to the bathroom. this describes which section of maslow’s hierarchy of needs?

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maslow’s hierarchy of needs

lisa is unable to worry about doing well in school because she has to deal with meeting her basic needs (food, water, shelter) first. which theory of motivation does this demonstrate?

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intrinsic motivation

shely is motivated to do well in school bc she loves satisfying her curiosity. jay is motivated to do well in school so that he can play on the football team. this best demonstrates which motivational concept?

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sigmund freud

who emphasized that slips of the tongue often reveal the personality dynamics that contribute to psychological disorders?

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free association

a psychotherapist instructs dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. the therapist is using a technique known as

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Id

when 2 year old matthew told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. freud would have suggested that matthew was unable to resist the demands of his

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reality principal is to pleasure principal

ego is to id as

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superego

the part of the personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards

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anal stage

2 year old damien frequently refuses to obey his parents bc he derives immense pleasure from demonstrating his independence from their control. freud would have suggested that damien is going through the ___ of development

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phallic stage

children develop unconscious sexual desires for the parent of the opposite sex during the

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oedipust and electra concept

a boy’s sexual desires for his mother and feelings of hostility toward his father constitute what freud called

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fixation

freud emphasized that unresolved childhood conflicts often leads to

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repression

inge was sexually abused by her uncle when she was 8 years old. at 14, inge felt uncomfortable whenever she saw the uncle but was unable to understand why she felt this way. a psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that inge is using the defense mechanism of

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reaction formation

parents who disguise hosility toward their children by becoming overly projective of them are very liekly using the defense mechanism of

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projection

the defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called

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displacement

while professor was going thru a painful divource, he tended to create unnecessarily difficult tests and gave his students unusually low grades. a psychoanalyst would be most likely to view the professor’s treatment of students as an example of

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projection

although eduardo has repressed his own homosexual desires, he is distressed by a false suspicion that many men frequently stare lustfully at his body. according to psychoanalytic theory, eduardo’s thinking best illustrates

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carl rogers

which theorist emphasized that a individual’s personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathetic ??

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unconditional positive regard

carl rogers emphasized that a positive self-concept is promoted by

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regression

for several months after he lost the job he had held for nearly 20 years, mr ullomi frequently lost his temper and suffered periodic crying spells. his behavior is most clearly an example of

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behavioral therapy

type of therapy using learning techniques to change behaviors is called

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antipsychotics

schizophrenia is most often treated with

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tardive pyskinesial

antipsychotics can cause ___ and unwanted side effect

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humanistic therapy

the goal of ___ is the attain self-actualization and increase self esteem

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cognitive behavioral therapy

type of therapy which uses thoughts to control emotions and behavior

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lithium

bipolar disorders are often treated with

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mood stabilizer

lithium is a ___ medication

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dream analysis therapeutic approach

lucy is telling her therapist about a dream she had last night. her therapist begins to interpret the dream for her. the terapist is using the

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unconditional positive regard

carl rogers’ term for complete acceptance of an individuals feelings and thoughts in a therapy

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rational emotive theory

albert ellis’s term for getting emotions under control through reason is called

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schizophrenia

jabar thinks he is napoleon. he further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the mental hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. jabar is most likely suffering from

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behavioral perspective

luke suffers from acrophobia (fear of heights). luke’s therapist suggests that his reaction to heights is a generalization of the fear triggered by a childhood playground accident in which he fell off a sliding board. the therapists suggestion reflects a

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token economy

benny’s mother tries to reduce his fear of sailing by giving the 3 yr old his fav candy as soon as they board the boad. the mother’s strategy best illustrates the

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psychiatrist

a medical doctor who is able to prescribe medication

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clinical psychologist

has a ph.d and is able to diagnose and treat patients

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adversive conditioning

to help claire quit smoking, a therapist delivers an electric shock to her arm each time she smokes a cig. the therapist is using

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light therapy

a therapy that has been demonstrated to provide relief for those who suffer from seasonal affective disorder

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phobia disorder

sally finds herself very calm at home, but anytime she has to leave and engage socially, her heart rate increases, her breathing quickens, and she starts to feel worried. these symptoms best reflect which disorder?

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dependent personality disorder

margaret behaves in a very submissive way. she expects the people around her to take care of her all the time and relies on them to make decisions for her. she likely has a

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bipolar disorder

cheyenee experiences episodes of depression and episodes of mania. this best reflects…

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narcissistic personality disorder

jay lacks empathy towards others. he also has a heightened sense of self importance. he may bully or belittle others out of a misguided sense that he is always right. this best reflects which disorder?

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