chapter 3: cellular levels of organization

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the _____ is the basic, living, structural, and functional unit of the body

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A&P 1 - dr tenneson

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1

the _____ is the basic, living, structural, and functional unit of the body

cell

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2

define cytology

study of cell structure

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3

define cell physiology

study of cell function

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4

what are the 3 principle parts of the cell?

plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus

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5

describe the plasma membrane & fluid mosaic model

plasma membrane is a flexible, sturdy barrier surrounding the cytoplasm. the fluid mosaic model is a gelatinous [phospholipids] layer with floating proteins

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6

the plasma membrane is __% lipid & __% protein held together by ____ bonds.

  • lipid is barrier to entry/exit of polar substances. proteins regulate traffic.

  • there are 50 lipids for every protein molecule. why?

    1. hydrogen. because lipids are smaller than proteins so there needs to be more of them to keep up the ratio

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7

water moves freely through protein covered tubes in the plasma membrane called _____ _____

polar pores

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8

what are 3 examples of amphipathic lipids?

phospholipids, cholesterol, glycolipids

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9

phospholipids have polar () & nonpolar () parts

charged. uncharged

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10

cholesterol is [strongly/weakly/moderately?] amphipathic.

  • they are interspersed among other lipids

weakly

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11

what type of amphipathic lipid appears only in the membrane layer which faces the ECF (have a carbohydrate head)?

glycolipids

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12
  • define integral membrane proteins

    • what happens if it’s removed?

  • define peripheral membrane proteins

    • what happens if it’s removed?

extend into/across entire lipid bilayer. destroys the membrane. found at inner OR outer surface of membrane. doesn’t destroy the membrane

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13

what are the 6 plasma membrane functions? explain each.

  1. pores (allow specific ions to move through)

  2. transporters (active transporters)

  3. receptors (molecule binds to it & opens a gate)

  4. enzymes

  5. cell ID markers (distinguishes cell from bacteria; self vs non-self)

  6. linkers (connectors)

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14

what are the 3 overall plasma membrane functions?

communication, electrochemical gradient, selective permeability

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15

plasma membranes are selectively permeable. what does this mean?

some things can pass through & others can’t

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16

the plasma membrane is [always/sometimes/never?] permeable to water

always

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17

transmembrane proteins act as _____ & [increase/decrease?] the permeability

channels/transporters. increase

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18

what are 4 examples of passive processes for transport across the plasma membrane?

diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, filtration

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19

what are active processes in regards to transport across the plasma membrane?

requires cellular energy (active transport uses ATP). vesicle transport via exocytosis/endocytosis

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20

mediated transport across the plasma membrane: needs transporter proteins

answer: :)

:)

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21

define diffusion

movement of a substance from high to low concentration. goal is equilibrium

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22

where does diffusion occur in the body?

everywhere

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23

what are 3 factors that effect diffusion?

molecule size (bigger=slower), KE (high heat=speeds up), concentration gradient (not at equilibrium=speeds up)

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24

diffusion is caused by brownian movement. what does this mean?

molecular collisions

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25

according to brownian movement, molecules hit each other (collide) less when they…

spread out and reach equilibrium

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26

what are 5 examples of things that diffuse THROUGH the lipid bilayer (ie are nonpolar & hydrophobic)

water, respiratory gases (CO2, O2), some lipids, small alcohols, vitamins a, d, e, k

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27

diffusion through membrane channels:

  • most are _____ channels

    • small, inorganic ions which are hydrophilic

  • _____: water

  • ion channels are _____ & specific & may be gated or open all the time

ion. aquaporins. selective

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28

define osmosis & osmotic pressure

osmosis (diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. osmotic pressure (proportional to the concentration of the solute particles that can’t cross the membrane

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29

osmosis/osmotic pressure experiment:

a. start of experiment: water on one side, then membrane, then high solute concentration on other side… water levels even on both sides

b. equilibrium: movement due to hydrostatic pressure… water level higher on side with high solute concentration

c. restoring starting conditions: applied pressure on side with high solute concentration = osmotic pressure to make volumes equal on both sides of membrane

answer: :)

:)

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30

describe RBCs in isotonic, hypotonic, & hypertonic solutions.

  1. isotonic: equally salty inside & outside of cell. normal cell shape.

  2. hypotonic: inside of cell is saltier than water. more water outside the cell → water flows into cell → cell pops (HEMOLYSIS)

  3. hypertonic: more water inside cell than outside of cell → water moves out of cell → leaves RBC with less water than needed → cell shrivels (CRENATION)

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31

water movement in cells (isotonic/hypotonic/hypertonic) is caused by …?

purity of the water

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32

define filtration

movement of a substance across a membrane due to fluid pressure differences

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33

where does filtration occur?

everywhere with blood

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34

define facilitated diffusion

solute binds to specific transporter on one side of membrane & released on other side after transporter undergoes conformational change (doesn’t require energy)

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35

what 2 types of substances does facilitated diffusion work with?

small molecules & vitamins

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36

the rate of facilitated diffusion depends on what 2 things?

concentration gradient & number of transporter proteins (lower number = slower diffusion)

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37

define active transport

requires ATP & transporter proteins. movement across concentration gradient

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38

what types of atoms are moved in active transport?

charged atoms

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39

cystic fibrosis:

  • genetic

  • produces abnormal …

  • affects which 4 systems?

  • genetic engineering failed

  • triple-drug can _____ life by 90%. treats symptoms but doesn’t cure

  • is there a cure?

  • what is a method of treatment that is alternative medicine that has been accepted by mainstream medicine?

  • _____ production interferes with gas exchange

chloride ion transporter. respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive. improve. no. type of massage on back to loosen fluid in lungs. mucous

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40

what is a vesicle & what are 2 ways it can work?

small membranous sac formed by budding off from an existing membrane. endocytosis & exocytosis

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41
  • define endocytosis

    • define phagocytosis

    • define pinocytosis

  • define exocytosis & the process

bringing something into cell. cell eating by macrophages & WBCs; binds to receptor protein. cell drinking; no receptor proteins. release something from cell; vesicles form inside cell, fuse to membrane, release contents (digestive enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, waste products), replace cell membrane lost by endocytosis

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42

define cytosol

  • location?

  • structure?

  • function?

semifluid part of cytoplasm. inside cell membrane, NOT including organelles. semifluid. medium for metabolic reactions

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43

define cytoskeleton

protein filaments throughout cytosol. functions as cell support and shape

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44

define centrosomes, what they contain, how they work, how they move chromosomes, etc

dense areas of cytoplasm. contain centrioles - paired cylinders at right angles. centers for organizing microtubules in interphase cells. mitotic spindle during cell division. spindle fibers move chromosomes from metaphase plate to poles

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45

describe cilia

numerous, short, hair-like projections from surface of cell membrane. move material over surface of cell

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46

describe flagella

single, very long. cellular movement. only human example - sperm tail

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47

ribosomes made of what 2 things?

  • ribosomes occur singly or in _____

  • ribosomes free in cytoplasm OR …

  • purpose: protein synthesis

rrna & proteins. clusters. attached to ER (smooth ER)

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48

large & small ribosomal subunits:

  • made where?

  • assembled where?

nucleolus, cytoplasm

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49

does the smooth or rough ER have ribosomes attached?

rough

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50

ER:

  • network of …, like a cave system

  • purpose: to do what 3 things?

  • _____ chemicals

  • EX: when chemicals build up (like urea), ER detoxifies it

flattened sacs and tubules. transport, synthesis, storage of molecules. detoxify

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51

drug detoxification happens in the _____.

  • one of the functions of the smooth ER is to _____ drugs

  • what happens due to repeated exposure to certain drugs?

liver. detoxify. produces changes to smooth ER in the liver; results in tolerance to drugs

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52

golgi complex:

  • made of what 2 materials?

  • shape?

  • 3 purposes?

  • what are secretory vesicles?

protein & lipids. flattened sacs. processing, sorting, delivery. release the product

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53

where do lysosomes initially form?

golgi

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54

lysosomes contain powerful _____ _____

digestive enzymes

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55

4 functions lysosomes?

intracellular digestion, autophagy (worn out organelles), autolysis, extracellular digestion

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56

describe tay-sachs disorder

affects children of eastern european jewish descent. seizures, muscle rigidity, blindness, dead before 5. genetic disorder caused by absence of a lysosomal enzyme (hexosaminidase A). this enzyme normally breaks down glycolipid commonly found in nerves (destruction of nerves in nervous system because of lack of enzyme)

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57

how did tay-sachs disorder become so prevalent in the eastern european jewish descent people?

bottleneck effect. many Jews killed, and those left had unusually high rate of tay-sachs. then they passed it down/

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58

define peroxisomes

similar in structure to lysosomes. smaller. contain enzymes that oxidize organic substances

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59

what do proteosomes do?

destroy faulty proteins

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60

mitochondria:

  • _____ membrane bound

  • inner membrane folds are called _____

  • site of _____ production

  • what is special about their DNA?

double. cristae. ATP. mitochondria have their own DNA and self replicate. this DNA is inherited from the mother. fathers only contribute sperm, & the mother’s egg contains the mitochondrial DNA

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61

mitochondrial myopathies:

  • inherited _____ disorders

  • resulting from…

  • muscles become _____ & _____ easily

    • ^ how?

muscle. faulty mitochondrial genes. weak & fatigued. less ATP production = less endurance

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62

define cell inclusions

large non-organelles found in cytoplasm

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63

what are 3 examples of cell inclusions? explain each.

melanin (protect from UV & cancer/melanoma. protect from reflection in eyes), glycogen (long chain carbohydrate stored in muscles. readily digestible), triglycerides (1 glycerol, 3 fatty acids)

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64

the nucleus is usually the most _____ feature of a cell

prominent

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65

do RBC’s have a nucleus? why/why not?

  • most cells have a nucleus

  • some skeletal cells have many nuclei

no. they have a shorter lifespan because of it. no nucleus because it has one job: to carry oxygen around the body. the shape of the RBC blocks nucleus to maximize oxygen

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66

a wiffle ball can be a representation of what part of the cell?

nuclear envelope with nuclear pores

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67

define nucleoli deals with _____ _____. this is only observed in non-[_?] cells

ribosome synthesis. dividing

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68

where is the nucleoli located?

inside nuclear envelope

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69

chromosomes

  • long & coiled dna

  • how are genes arranged?

  • what do histone proteins do?

  • how many chromosomes do we have?

single file along length of dna. organize folding & coiling of DNA. 46; 23 pairs

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70

chromosomes are VERY HIGHLY _____!

coiled

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71

what is chromatin?

  • describe the 2 types of chromatin?

DNA not as distinct chromosomes. heterochromatin (regulates turning off/on genes; more condensed; doesn’t contain gene; not transcribed). euchromatin (active chromatin; contains DNA; transcribed into RNA)

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72

describe the sense & antisense strands.

sense (coding): not copies

antisense (template): template for mRNA

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73

describe the 4 significant parts of a gene/dna strand

promoter (near beginning of gene where RNA polymerase attaches). introns (don’t code for proteins; later removed). exons (don’t code for parts of proteins). terminator (detachment of RNA polymerase)

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74

describe genetics vs genomics

genetics is how things are inherited. genomics is more broad & is about relationships between the genome & functions of an organism

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75

protein synthesis involves what 2 things?

transcription & translation

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76

briefly describe dna replication, transcription, & translation

  1. dna replication: making copy of dna inside nucleus

  2. transc: info transcribed from dna strand to mrna

  3. transl: construction of protein using mrna instructions

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77

describe mrna & trna

  1. mrna: instructions

  2. trna: carries amino acid to ribosome

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78

genetic engineering/therapy:

  • insert new genes into existing _____.

  • used now in bacteria to produce what 4 things?

DNA. hGH, insulin (get insulin from bacteria with human gene inserted that make insulin), interferon (antivviral; blood cell production), erythroboietin

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79

describe CRISPR

enzyme system used to cut out gene and replace with another gene

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80

what term does this describe: sequence of events where a cell duplicates is its contents & divides in 2

cell cycle

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81

how long does the cell cycle normally last?

1-2 days

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82

describe the phases of the cell cycle

  1. G0: prep for cell division

  2. S: DNA replication (trying to go from 46 to 92 chromosomes so that when the cell splits, each cell gets 46 chromosomes (in mitosis)).

  3. G2: prep for cell division

  4. M: nuclear division (mitosis/meiosis) & cytokinesis (cytoplasm)

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83

describe prophase, metaphase, anaphase, & telophase

answer: :)

:)

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84

what’s the product of mitosis?

2 identical daughter cells (clones)

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85

what are 3 possible destinies of a cell?

remain alive & functioning without dividing (neuron). grow & divide (most cells). die.

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86

_____ _____ _____ (MPF) induces cell division

maturation promoting factor

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87

describe apoptosis

cell death. triggered by outside (chemicals) or inside, pr “cell suicide” (when too old)

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88

define necrosis

a pathological cell death due to an injury. cut off blood supply

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89

describe aging

normal process resulting in observable changes in structure & function, increased vulnerability to stress and disease. study: geriatrics

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90

what are the 4 theories of aging? describe each.

  1. glycosylation: glucose added to proteins forming cross linkages, which interfere with normal cell functioning & loss of elasticity

  2. genetic programming: heart, skeletal muscles, nerves always in G0. most cells divide a max of 50x

  3. free radical theory: oxidative damage (steal electrons), damage lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

  4. autoimmunity: changes in cell ID markers. person’s own cells attached by their own antibodies

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91

define progeria

genetic; telomeres very short

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92

define werner’s syndrome

inherited; premature aging

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93

define cancer

uncontrolled cell proliferation

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94

who studies cancer/tumors?

oncologists

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95

tumors are also called _____

neoplasm

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96

what is the difference between benign & malignant tumors?

benign can still kill you, but less so than malignant. malignant metastasizes

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97

what are the 5 types of cancer? define each.

  1. carcinoma: epithelial

  2. sarcoma: muscle/connective

  3. myeloma: bone marrow

  4. leukemia: blood forming organs

  5. lymphoma: lymph nodes

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98

define hyperplasia

cancer growth

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99

define metastasis

spread of cancer

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100

define angiogenesis

growth of new blood vessels

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