Geography Exam 1

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mental maps

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141 Terms

1

mental maps

maps in our minds of our activity spaces

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Cartography

the making of maps

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remote sensing

process of making maps where scanners and cameras on satellites transmit information to computers

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4

Geographic information system(GIS)

programs allow presentation and analysis of spatial data

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5

spatial perspective

spatial patterns are crucial to how we live and how we organize our societies

space: surface of earth

organization: organizing that space

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6

geography

made of physical geography and human geography

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7

spatial patterns

knowledge of location and distribution of significant features on the earths surface

natural world and human world

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8

scale

relationship between distance on a map and distance on the ground (ratio)

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9

small scale map

ratio between map and real world is very small

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10

operational scale

scale at which social or natural processes operate

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11

geographic realms

global neighborhoods possessing particular combinations of environmental, cultural and organizational properties.

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12

physical and human realm

the largest division based on physical and huma ncriteria

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13

functional realm

intervention of human societies and natural environments

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14

historical realm

interaction over time

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15

natural boundaries

ocean and seas

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16

transitional zones

where 2 geographic realms meet, no sharp boundaries

Sahel (ATZ) is largest transition zone

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17

dynamic entities

colonization, europeanization, and westernization are then the world map has changed dramatically

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18

mono-centric

dominated by a single major political entity (biggest realms in area) -mexico, U.S., china, russia

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19

polycentric

appearance, functioning, and organization of the realm are dispersed among a number of more or less equally influential regions or countries. - Europe, north Africa southwest Asia, sub-saharan Africa

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colonization

colonel goes to land and takes over it wether it is empty or already taken

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21

europeanization

European Union expands and passes characteristics

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22

westernization

extension of Western Europe culture and practices

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23

transition zones example

North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa- desert/mountains to wet/grasslands

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24

region

refined level of spatial classification requiring more specific criteria (sub to realm)

-south, midwest, prairie provinces

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25

area

space occupied on earths surface

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26

boundaries

natural sharp divisions ( river)

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27

absolute location

latitudinal and longitudinal coordinate

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28

relative location

location with reference to other regions

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homogeneity

samness

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30

formal regions

display measurable and often visible internal homogeneity (corn belt farming)

<p>display measurable and often visible internal homogeneity (corn belt farming)</p>
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31

regions as systems

functional integration - way they work

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32

spatial systems

formed by the areal extent of the activities that define them - space from core and surrounding area

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CBD

central business district (core)

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hinterland

surrounding zone of intersection

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35

periphery

boundary of functional region - has a core/CBD and a periphery

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interconnections

all human- geographic regions are interconnected

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37

natural landscapes

mountain chains to coastal plains

these influence human activity and movement

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38

continental drift

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39

Pangea

supercontinent that broke up and continues to drift apart

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40

tectonic plates

lighter rock continents rest on slabs of heavier rock plates that move by magma circulation cells within the earth.

(collision of plates cause earthquakes or volcano eruptions)

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41

pacific ring of fire

zone of active volcanos and earthquakes that encircle the pacific ocean

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42

Alfred wagener

flew and studied atmosphere in arctic

came up with pangea

he found that the continents move

he thought they moved out but really they move on tectonic plates

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43

weather

immediate state of the atmosphere in a certain place at a given time

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44

climate

total record of weather conditions at apace or a region over an entire period during which records have been kept

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45

climatology

branch of geography that focuses on climate

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46

global climate change

natural anthropogenic causes of warming and cooling

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47

green house effect

suns radiation becomes trapped in the earths atmosphere leading to climate changed (2 degree C a year)

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48

Anthropocene

humans predominately affect the natural environment

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49

holocene

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50

Wladimir koppen

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51

Humid equatorial climate (A)

high precipitation and temperatures

AF: tropical rainforest (no dry season)

AW: tropical savanna (warm temps, wet summer, dry winter)

AM: tropical monsoon (humid, lots of rain)

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52

dry climate (B)

low precipitation with varying temperature averages

BS: semiarid (some rain but has droughts from not enough)

BW: arid( very dry, no rain)

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53

Humid temperate climates (C)

mid-latitudes with no temperature extremes

CF: no dry season ( hot summer, cool winter)

CW: dry season in winter (wet summer)

CS: dry season in summer

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54

Humid cold climates (D)

continental with temperature extremes

DF: no dry season (wet all seasons)

DW: dry season in winter

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55

Cold polar climate (E)

high latitudes and large temperature ranges

ET: tundra- freezing temps with plant covering

EF: ice- Antartica

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56

highland climates (H)

high altitude and large temperature ranges

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57

Tropic of Cancer

most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead

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58

tropic of Capricorn

the southernmost latitude where the Sun can be seen directly overhead

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59

population distribution

every dot represents 100,000 people

world population: 7.7 billion

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60

population cluster

one specific group or a few related but separate groups of people.

South Asia, East Asia, and Europe make up 4 billion people in world

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south Asia

worlds largest cluster

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62

east Asia

centered on china - another large cluster

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europe

Europe and Russia - another large cluster

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64

urbanizing the world

proportion of the total population living in cities and towns (55%)

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urban growth rate

the growth of urban population over time

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66

megacities

huge urban groups with populations over 10 million

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67

cultural landscape

distinctive attributes of a society imprinted on its portion of the worlds physical stage

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68

language

essence of culture

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69

language families

15 language families

Indo-European is most widely distributed language family

English,french,spanish,russian,persian,hindi

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70

lingua franca

common second language used in government, commerce, and higher education

(English primacy is result of colonization and globalization)

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71

landscapes of religion

crucial influence on world civilization and globalization

strong connection between realm and religion

patterns of religion are diffuse and dynamic

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72

states

200 “states” in world

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73

sovereignty

a government of a state rules supreme within its borders

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74

European state model

assumed that state and nation were ideally conterminous

nation-state would enclose an ethically and culturally homogenous people within a national boundary

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75

modern state

challenged

“from above” by the European union

“from below” by the ethnic minorities

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76

geography roles

the politics of the state

the international relations among states, within realms and religions

warefare and terrorism

world map of states is unstable

states are not only geopolitical actors

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77

economic geography

focuses on spatial aspects of ways people make their living and the patterns of production distribution

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78

development

used to gauge a populations economic, social, and institutional growth and overall well being

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79

sustainable development

long-term viability of economic patterns in relation to the physical environment and natural resources

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80

inclusive development

emphasize the extent of equal economic opportunities for different population groups, especially minorities and the poor

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81

global core

places of dominance whose inhabitants exerted their power over their surroundings near and far

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global periphery

sustained the core

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83

core-periphery relationships

operates at multiple scales

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84

core areas

except for a few special cases all countries contain these

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85

uneven development

at both the global and local scales

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86

globalization

geographical process in which spatial relations (economic, cultural,political) shift to even broader scales.

integrating the entire world into a “global village” linked by communications and transport technologies

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87

global warming

threat to planet

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88

un climate change conference

purpose is to reach agreement on collective reductions in the emission of greenhouse gases to limit global warming

slow process

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89

migration

flows have intensified

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90

transitional migrants

highly mobile and major players in the spreading of cultures around the world

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91

North American realm

Canada and US

almost unlimited range of natural resources

bonds by trade as well as culture

broad cultural traits

highly urbanized

mobile population

multilingualism

stable democrates

similar cultural landscapes

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92

U.S.

major concentrations along Atlantic and pacific coast.

population growing faster than canda

high degrees of cultural diversity in ancestral and historical backgrounds.

hispanic- 18.3 %

african american- 13.4%

asian- 5.9%

other

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93

Canada

East-West corridor within 300 km(200 mi) of the US border

East and south asians

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94

physiographic regions

west: pacific mountains, rocky mountains

great lakes

great plains

Appalachian mountains

canadian sheild

interior lowlands

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95

tropical

southern tip of florida

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96

CF and DF climates

good for farming

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97

continentality

inland climate remotes from maritime influences

higher latitude, continental interiors coincide with lower population densities

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98

rain shadow effect

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99

five great lakes

drain into st. Lawrence river

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100

st Lawrence river

flows to the Atlantic ocean

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