Phonetics year 2

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how is sound presented

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Health

10th

122 Terms

1

how is sound presented

variations in air pressure then vibrates in vocal cords

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2

trough

area of low concentration of wave

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3

loudness is affected by

amplitude , distance from source, density of item, presence of resonating body

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4

larger the surface area =

the larger the sound

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5

denser the item=

the more sound

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6

frequency means the

number of waves

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7

small area =

small sound and amplitude

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8

more wave cycles=

higher the pitch

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9

pitch remains the same regardless of

size

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10

what is the only thing that changes depending on size

loudness

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11

sinosoidal

any wave having the shape of a sine wave = S

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12

cps=

cycles per second (same as HTZ)

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13

Frequency equation =

cycle % time taken

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14

frequencies tell us =

if wave is a vowel or consonant

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15

vowel and consonant wave form together to make-

complex wave (played at same time)

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16

complex wave=

any wave that is not a sine wave

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17

fundamental frequency=

frequency of a complex wave

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18

white noise

sound with equal amounts of power at every frequency within audible range

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19

sound at audible level production=

vibrations move back and forwards- causing waves- waves enter eardrum vibrating it and moving cochlear

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20

crest

area of highest concentration of wave

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21

frequency=

number of cycles in a second

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22

sinusoidal wave

Any Wave having shape of an S wave

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23

shape of waves differing

can be differing for differing sound qualities

  • differ if 2 different instruments

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24

Descibles

how loud you can hear

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25

how can loudness be represented-

the higher the crest the louder the sound

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26

amplitude2=

loudness

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27

route mean square RMS

is the amplitude

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28

dotted line on a graph=

the average (mean) of the wave

  • loudness of sound does not depend on its peak

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29

frequency =

wAVES

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30

simple periodic sounds =

sine wave

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31

complex periodic sounds

2 or more sine waves - complex waveforms

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32

aperiodic sounds

white noise

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33

sunusoidal wave

an S sine wave

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34

fundamental frequency=

lowest frequency eg 100htz

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35

first harmonic =

the loudest sound wave (where the dotted line is or the crest)

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36

Harmonics

How many times glottis opens and closes Focuses on vocal cords before sound comes out mouth

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37

Frequency

Resonance of the mouth Is shaped and comes up to mouth for production

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38

Spectrogram

Shows amounts of fundamental frequencies through differing dark area

  • different levels of frequency within a word

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39

Formants =

Frequency from they vocal tract Change due to shape of vocal tract

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40

Spectrum pitches

Higher the itch the more dense the spectrum

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Spectrogram

Shows bursts of air in shaded areas First shaded area is a formant

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42

Spectogram formants

F1- low formant so low vowel F2- low formant so back vowel Highest formant- high vowel and front vowel

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43

Nasalisation in vowels

Oral and nasal cavity are coupled together Have low frequency resonance- formant Antiresonace- no energy frequencies

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44

Dipthongs

Affects duration, amplitude and formant frequencies Second vowel s a target but not actually reached

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45

Vowel characteristics

Are voiced Source- phonation Periodic waveform

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46

Sonorant consonants

Voiced Nasal stops, approximants, lateral approximants Source0 phonation Periodic waveform

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47

Obstruent consonants characteristics

Fricatives plosives and affricates Eg S Is noise resulted from constricted airflow Has a aperiodic waveform- no regular waves

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48

Phases of plosive production

Plosive burst= release of articulation - at end of consonant Hold phase= before plosive burst release - no sound occurs

  • aspiration occurs after a plosive

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49

Aperiodic english soundless

Voice3less fricatives - f the, s , sh, h Voiceless plosives- p t k Voiceless africate - ch

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50

Aperiodic waveform

Waves have no regular cycles

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51

Affricates sound process

Includes a plosive (stop) element then a fricative element

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52

Homorganic

Occur at same place of articulation

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53

\\ brackets

Phonemic transcriptions

  • intonation

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54

[]

Phonetic transcriptions

  • substitutions

  • Allophonic detail

  • Nasalisation

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55

Allophonic variation

Multiple pronunciation variants for the same phonological unit

Eg bottle and bo?le

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56

Aspiration

Pt k are aspirated when in initial position and with a stressed syllable

But are not aspirated when in cluster eg spot

Are aspirated when on their own- pot, pan, pen

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57

Devoicing of liquids and glides

When unvoiced plosives are up before a stressed vowel they become devoiced- o below LRWJ

L R W J all are devoiced when applied after plosives PTK

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58

Dental realisations of alveolar sounds

Alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ and the alveolar lateral approximant /l/ are realised as dental articulations when they occur before a dental fricative - /θ/ and /ð/ )

The th when your Tongue touches between teeth

<p>Alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ and the alveolar lateral approximant /l/ are realised as dental articulations when they occur before a dental fricative -  /θ/ and /ð/ )</p><p>The th when your Tongue touches between teeth</p>
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59
<p>Devoicing of plosives in word initial position</p>

Devoicing of plosives in word initial position

B d g - voiced plosives

When at start or end of word they become devoiced

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60

Clear and dark L

plain [l] (‘clear l’) and velarised [ɫ] (‘dark l’)

[l] in the onset of a syllable, [ɫ] in the rhyme of a syllable:

Eg heal- darker and stronger

leaf [liːf] holiday [hɒlɪdeɪ] feel [fiːɫ] field [fiːɫd] battle [b̥ ætlɫ̩]

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61

Devoicing of obstruents in word final position

In word final position, voiced fricatives - b d ɡ v ð z ʒ dʒ become devoiced (voiceless)

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62

Devoiced =

Voiceless

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63

Intonation

Is context, Stress, Pitch

Fits into phonology

Is a suprasegmental system

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64

Suprasegmental system

Intonation

Prosody

Rhythm

Stress

Pitch

Amplitude

Voice

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65

Segmental system

Is specific and wider contexts

Consonants and vowels

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66

Command/statement Function of intonation in English

Is falling intonation

Demonstrating final to a sentence

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67

Fallowing tone function of intonation in English

Demonstrates end of a sentence

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68

Rising tone function of intonation in english

Demonstrates a sentence isn finished

Ill be late, as I don’t finish work until 6

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69

Rise to fall function of intonation in english

Represents surprise or being impressed

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70

Rising intonation function

Yes/no questions

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71

Falling intonation function

Questions with detailed answers

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72

Rising to falling intonation function

Show surprise or excitement

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73

Falling to rising intonation function

Demonstrates uncertainty/doubt/hesitation

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74

Nuclear tone

Centre tone

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75

If word ends with a voiced plosives =

Plosive will become devoiced

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76

If there’s ‘ng’ in middle of word =

‘Ng’symbol is always accompanied with g in WM

But never at WF

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77

Where does nasalisation symbol appear

On the vowels in the word

Not the nasal

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78

Stress is often accompied (on plosives) by =

Aspiration

<p>Aspiration</p>
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79

Devoiced will dominate ——— when next to each other =

Aspiration

<p>Aspiration</p>
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80

N becomes dental when accompanied with =

T/d and th/thv

<p>T/d and th/thv</p>
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81

T becomes dental when accompanied with =

Th/thv

<p>Th/thv</p>
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82

If there’s a silent space in a word

Eg house = ‘Ouse

This is always replaced with =

A space is always replaced with ? Glottal

Here is never a blank space in transcriptions

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83

Stress appears in which position on an C/V ?

BEFORE C/V

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84

Can shwa be stressed?

No

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85

How many voiceless plosive aspirations can there be in a sentence?

1

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86

When are B d g devpoiced ?

wi and wf

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87

When are V z 3 th devoiced?

WF

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88
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89

waveform types

aperiodic

periodic

sinusoidal

complex

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90

how to measure waves

frequency = number of waves cycles in a second

more wave cycles= higher pitch

loudness changes the wave size

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91

higher the wave heigt=

larger the loudness

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92

how is sound prodcuced ?

vibrations caused by an object that travel through air in waves

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93

what is sound?

vibrations travelling though air pressure

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94

how to measure sound

?

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95

pitch

the more waves = higher the pitch

higher the pitch = denser the spectrum

  • pitch remains the same regardless of size of objects

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96

amplitude

the maximum extent of vibration

amplitude= loudness of sound

small area = small amplitude

RMS= route mean square

  • doesn’t change depending on size

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97

loudness

Changes dependent on size

higher the crest= louder the sound

loudness= amplitude

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98

loudness is impacted by

size

amplitude of sound waves

waves distance from sound source

quantity of energy that initiated the waves.

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99

higher amplitude wave =

= more energy/intensity, thus they sound louder.

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100
<p>electropalatography (EPG) purpose</p>

electropalatography (EPG) purpose

tracks articulation to see where errors are happening

measure tongue to palate contact during running speech

aka palatometry

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