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Physical Structures (Hubs, fiber, repeaters) bits
Formats data into frames (MAC/Ethernet)
Decides which physical path the data will take (Packets and IP)
Transmit data using protocols in different parts (Segments)-(TCP, UDP)
Establish and terminates network communications (Data, tunneling, NFS, SQL)
Data representation and encryption (Data, compression)
End user layer (Data, HTTP)
169.254.0.0 → 169.254.255.254
10.0.0.0 → 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 → 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 → 192.168.255.255
32 bit and 4 8-bit sections
126 bit and 8 blocks
1 - 127
128 - 191
192 - 223
Server Message Block (SMB) TCP/IP
Secure Shell (SSH)
Service Location Protocol (SLP)
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) - the server
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) - the client
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
NetBIOS over TCP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3)
Domain Name System (DNS)
Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) UDP
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) transfer control information
Apple Filing Protocol (AFP)
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP)
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) transfer the data
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS)
Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP)
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) used by the SNMP manager to query agents
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) used by agents to send alerts
Server Message Block (SMB) NetBIOS
Final page is stored in the memory (1)
Drum is charged -600v by the Primary Corona (2)
Laser beam writes -100 v image to drum surface (3)
Toner is applied to the surface of the drum (4)
The transfer roller puts a positive charge on the paper to pull the toner from the drum and onto the paper - Secondary corona wire (5)
Fuser assembly uses heat and pressure to fuse toner to paper - 400 degrees (6)
The drum is cleaned of residual toner and the charge (7)
Storage Attached Network (SAN)
A high-speed network for storing and sharing files
Body Area Network (BAN)
A very small network that consists of wearable or implanted devices such as a smart watch, fitness trackers, or medical implants.
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
Same as LAN but uses wireless connection/radio signal.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
A network that covers an area as small as a few city blocks to as large as an entire metropolitan city.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Group of LANs that are geographically isolated but are connected to form a large internetwork.
A private network that uses internet technologies.
A private network that uses internet technologies but its resources are made available to trusted external users.
connect multiple networks together.
connect multiple computers inside of a network together and manage traffic
A portion of a network with a common network address.
The medium that is used to carry electrical or radio signals between connected network hosts.
Converts the digital network data into a signal that can be transmitted along the transmission medium.
Provides a generic method of transferring files, file security, and allows file transfer between dissimilar computer systems.
Allows for secure interactive control of remote systems. All communication is encrypted and is used to remotely login to a network device, such as a switch.
Used to remotely connect to another system. All data is transmitted in cleartext
used when sending email
Used by web browsers and web servers to exchange web pages through the WWW and intranets.
Email retrieval protocol designed to enable users to access their email from various locations without transferring messages or files between computers.
Downloads emails from a server to a single computer, making those emails only accessible on that specific computer
Local Area Network (LAN)
Covers a small local area such as a home, office, ot other building
Locating printers and supported by printing system such as CUPS
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
Slow, not found in many platforms, print files and memory requirements are larger. Graphics are detailed and identical print.
Printer Control Language (PCL)
Fast Print Processing, Supported in many OS platforms. Not identical print copies and not supported in Macintosh.
Broadband technology that uses existing TV cables lines and is always connected (always up)
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
A group of broadband technologies that covers a wide range of speeds
A dedicated point-to-point (PTP) connection - Television, internet data, and voice communication
Provides high-speed internet connections in remote areas, however, require line-of-site wireless connectivity and latency occurs when uploading
A wireless internet service provider (WISP)
Provides wireless network coverage to a certain location using wireless broadband
Long-range fixed wireless (LRFW)
Networks are used to provide low-cost, point-to-point connections - use antennas
Wireless Access Point
Allows wireless device connections to LAN (SOHO can also be WAP)
Fast Ethernet - typically uses copper cabling rated CAT-5 or higher
Gigabit Ethernet - uses the twisted-pair cable and fiber-optic cable (CAT 6)
Typically uses fiber-optic cable
Least expensive and most common cable
Cable uses a covering or shield around each pair of wires to protect it from EMI and cost more
Transmit signals as pulses of light over glass or plastic strands inside protective tubing