Ecology Test 3

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108 Terms
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weather

combination of factors that occur in a specific place, at a specific time

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temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, cloudiness

factors that contribute to the weather

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climate

long term average pattern of the weather

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sun

shortwave radiation is emitted from the ___

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surface

longwave radiation is emitted by _ as heat

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latitude

the average global near-surface temperature changes with _

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seasonality

annual temperature fluctuation, also known as _, changes with latitude

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earth’s curvature

latitudinal differences in temperature are due to the?

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direct, concentrated

it is hotter near the equator because the solar radiation is __ and __.

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less

It is hotter near the equator because the solar radiation travels a shorter distance through the atmosphere, therefore it has a __ chance of being reflected back away from earth

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same, larger, angle

It is cooler towards the poles because the __ amount of solar radiation is spread across a _ surface area because of _

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further distance

It is cooler towards the poles because the solar radiation travels __ through the atmosphere, more is reflected back

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Earth’s tilt

Seasonal differences in temperature are due to the?

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summer

what season is due to the earth tilting directly towards the sun?

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spring and fall

what season is due to the earth not tilting away or towards the sun?

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winter

what season is due to the earth tilting away from the sun?

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thermal energy

differences in _ across latitude is what generates different wind currents?

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Coriolis effect

the inertia of the rotating earth causes wind patterns to be much more complicated then if the earth didn’t rotate

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heat and carbon dioxide

as decomposition proceeds, what is lost to the atmosphere?

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immobilization

the uptake of mineral nutrients by decomposers to be used for their own function is referred to as

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moisture

temperature directly affects the amount of __ in air

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thermal energy, wind, and ocean currents

what three factors determine the global patterns of precipitation?

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ecosystem ecology

focuses on how organisms influence its abiotic environment

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complete system

ecosystem ecology views the natural world as what?

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photosynthesis

energy is captured and stored by autotrophs via?

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heat

some energy is from the system as?

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photosynthesis

use of light energy to convert CO2 and H2O into simple sugars

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cools, loses

as air rises over a mountain, it __ and tends to __ in the form of precipitation

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sugar

what energy is bound and transferred through the system of the plant?

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sun and plant

what foundational step ultimately determines energy flow through the system

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gross primary productivity

GPP the total rate of photosynthesis

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net primary productivity

NPP is the rate of energy sotred

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GPP - R

NPP

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plant respiration

not all energy is stored, but is used for what?

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standing biomass

in terrestrial system: NPP is often measured as the change in ?

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standing biomass

simply how much do all plants in an environment weigh (amount of organic matter making up those plants)

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NPP

what is the foundation for energy flow throughout the rest of the ecosystem?

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length of the growing season

what regulates NPP, also known as photosynthetic period

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northern states

winters are longer, less overall NPP

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southern states

shorter winters, longer photosynthetic periods

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precipitation and temperature

what controls NPP?

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cold

what temperature reduces rates of photosynthesis?

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stomata

plants have to close their _ to prevent water loss through transpiration

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evapotranspiration

the combined effect of water movement through the plant and water evaporation from soil

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temperature and moisture

what levels determine rate of evapotransipration?

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warm and wet

high rates of evapotranspiration therefore photosynthesis

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cold

low rates of evapotranspiration

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warm but dry

lowest rates of evapotranspiration

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ocean systems

no real effect of latitude

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photosynthesis

declines with water depth because of decrease in light

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aquatic

what type of autotrophs are limited by both nutrients and lights?

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shallower water and nutrients inputs from land

why do costal areas have the highest NPP?

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secondary producers

NPP determines the biomass the productivity and biomass of what?

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assimilation efficiency

how efficient consumers are in extracting energy for biomass and respiration versus waste

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production efficiency

how efficient consumers are in converting food to biomass

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endotherms

why are mammals not very efficient in energy flow, a lot of energy is lost via metabolic processes and waste

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ectotherms

why are most insects are very efficient in energy flow throughout the system

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trophic efficiency

how much energy is transferred and converted into biomass from one tropic level to the next

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lost

energy is __ as it flows from herbivores to higher trophic levels

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nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium

what other essential nutrients do plants require?

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recycled

essential nutrients remain in the ecosystem and are continuously __?

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roots

plants absorb their nutrients as a solution in soil by?

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direct

higher trophic direct or indirect consumption of tissue?

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retranslocation

nutrients are drawn back to the organism

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decomposition

where as translocation is cycling within an organism, nutrient cycling throughout the ecosystem is dependent on?

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bacteria and fungi

what organisms aid by increasing the rates of decomposition

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litterbags

what common ecological approach is used to examine different types of dead material

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species

decomposition rates depend on what?

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cellulose

makes up plant cell walls, simpler molecule, fewer chemical bonds, faster decomposition

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ligin

makes up “woody” parts of plants, many more chemical bonds needed to break, decomposes much slower

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slower

more mass remaining means _ decomposition rates

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tundra

low decomposition rates, low rates of primary productivity

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tropical forests

highest rate of decomposition, high rates of net primary productivity

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mineralization

converts nutrients bound in organic molecules to their mineral form and is done by bacteria and fungi

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nitrate ammonia

mineral form of nitrogen that plants can directly use

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10700

total number of described species of birds

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6400

total number of mammal species described

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6000

total number of amphibian species described

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10000

total number of reptile species described

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10000

total number of fish speciess described

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391000

total number of plant species described

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1 million

total number of insects species described

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350000

total number of beetle species described

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160000

total number of moth/butterfly species described

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115000

total number of bees, ants, and wasps described

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10 million

while 1.7 million species have been described, the estimate number of species on earth is?

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marmosa adleri

what new species was described in 2021 by Greg Adler?

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equator

the largest number of species are found near the what?

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latitudinal gradient in biodiversity

the global pattern where ecosystems near the equator of the highest diversity, but decreases as you move toward the poles

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cacti

what group of species do not follow the general latitudinal pattern?

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factors that allow for higher speciation rates

the first hypothesis that address the origin of the latitudinal gradient focuses on what?

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biotic and abiotic interactions

the second hypothesis that addresses the mechanisms reinforce and maintain existing patterns of diversity focuses on what?

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potential evapotranspiration

index used to describe amount of evaporation that would occur if provided enough water

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index of overall energy

potential evapotranspiration is used as an _ and correlates well with the species richness of plants

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idiosyncratic

no predictable relationship between diversity and function. level of function depends on the identity of species in the community (not the numbers)

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rivet

each species uniquely contributes to total function, so relationship is linear (more species, more function)

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redundancy

some species have overlapping contributions to overall function (addition of overlapping species doesn’t significantly increase overall function)

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niche complementarity

coexisting species compete less because they are using different available resources

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high intraspecific competition

most individuals of the same species that have the same nutrient requirements and strategies. OR most individuals are of the same species, higher probability that species-specific pathogens build up and reduce productivity

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less intraspecific competition

many different species with different nutrient requirements and having different strategies to gain those nutrients. OR most individuals are different species, there is not an opportunity for species- specific diseases to build up and negatively affect the community as much

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