Comp Gov Midterm

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advanced democracies

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advanced democracies

the countries have well-established democratic governments and a high level of economic development (Great Britain and the USA)

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Alternative Vote (AV)

``a candidate-centered preference voting system used in single-member districts where voters rank order the candidates. A candidate who receives an absolute majority is elected. If no candidate wins an absolute majority, then the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated, and her votes are reallocated until one candidate has an absolute majority of the valid votes remaining

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austerity measures

government policies meant to save money

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authoritarian regime

A government in which one leader or group of people holds absolute power.

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autonomy

self-government, political control without influence from outside agents

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asymmetric federalism

A system where power is devolved unequally across the country and its constituent regions, often the result of specific laws negotiated between the region and the central government

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bicameral legislature

a lawmaking body made up of two chambers or parts

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Conservative Party (Tories)

One of the UK's two largest parties, currently the majority party. Value free market and traditional values.

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Labour Party

British working-class political party established in the 1890s and dedicated to reforms and a peaceful transition to socialism, in time providing a viable alternative to the revolutionary emphasis of Marxism.

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Liberal Democratic Party

Centrist third party in the United Kingdom and junior member of a coalition government from 2010 to 2015

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Scottish National Party (SNP)

Nationalist political party promoting Scottish independence, and currently in control of the Scottish regional government

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Sinn Fein

An Irish political party that has long combatted Britains' influence in Ireland

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Plaid Cymru

the nationalist party in Wales that advocates more rights for the Welsh people, including use of the Welsh language

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UK Independence Party (UKIP)

a Eurosceptic and right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom

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capacity

ability for government to accomplish goals

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Civil Liberties

Constitutional freedoms guaranteed to all citizens

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civil rights

the rights of citizens to political and social freedom and equality.

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civil society

Organizations outside of the state that help people define and advance their own interests

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coinciding cleavages

A division that strengthens feelings of difference and discrepancy, weakening society

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crosscutting cleavages

When a group contains many different points of conflict, thus allowing people to find many points of agreement and conflict within the group.

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Collectivist Consensus

Cross-party British support for the welfare state that lasted until the late 1970s.

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command economy

An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.

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Constitutional Monarchy

A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.

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Corporatism

A method of co-optation whereby authoritarian systems create or sanction a limited number of organizations to represent the interests of the public and restrict those not set up or approved by the state.

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comparative method

The means by which social scientists make comparisons across cases

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Democratization

A process of transition as a country attempts to move from an authoritarian form of government to a democratic one.

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Devolution

the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states

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single-member district

An electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official.

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proportional representation

An election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.

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Ranked Choice Voting

Voters put their 1st, 2nd, and 3rd choices on a ballot. The last-place candidates are gradually eliminated. If your 1st choice is eliminated your vote switches to your second choice. The winner must receive a majority of the vote.

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economic liberalization

the process of limiting the power of the state over private property and market forces

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European union

An international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.

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Executive term limits

institutional constraints on the length of time a head of state or head of government can serve in office. The United Kingdom is the only AP Comparative country with no formal executive term limit on its head of state and head of government. Russia: "2" 6yr terms

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failed state

A state so weak that its political structures collapse, leading to anarchy and violence

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federal system

A government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments

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fedralism

the division of powers between the states and the federal government

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first past the post

Electoral system based on single-member districts in which the candidate who receives the most votes wins.

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government

The institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies

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GINI Index/Coefficient

a coefficient (index) that measures the ratio of the area between a Lorenz curve and the line of absolute equality to the total area under the line of equality. The higher the figure, the more unequal is the distribution.

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Human Development Index (HDI)

Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy

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head of government

The executive role that deals with the everyday tasks of running the state, such as formulating and executing policy

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head of state

The executive role that symbolizes and represents the people both nationally and internationally.

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hybrid regimes

term used to describe regimes that combine elements of liberal democracy and authoritarianism in post-communist and other countries

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ethnicity

Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.

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nationality

Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.

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Illiberal Democracy

A procedural democracy, with elections, but without real competition, and lacking some civil rights and liberties.

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institutions

stable, long lasting organizations that help to turn political ideas into policy

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Independent Judiciaries

the concept that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government.

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Judicial Review

Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws

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The State Duma of Russia

The State Duma was first introduced in 1906 and was Russia's first elected parliament. (Rubber Stamp)

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Federation Council

The largely powerless upper house of the Russian parliament

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Parliament

Britain's law-making assembly

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House of Commons (UK)

Lower house of the UK legislature, more powerful house of parliament

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Prime Minister (PM)

The head of government in parliamentary and semipresidential systems

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house of lords

the upper house of the British parliament, largely ceremonial

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market economy

Economic decisions are made by individuals or the open market.

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multi-party system

political party system that recognizes 3 or more major political parties

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nation-state

a sovereign state whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in factors such as language or common descent.

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noblesse oblige

the inferred responsibility of privileged people to act with generosity and nobility toward those less privileged

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Nomenklatura

Politically sensitive or influential jobs in the state, society, or economy that were staffed by people chosen or approved by the Communist Party

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coercion

use of force to get someone to obey

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co-optation

The process by which individuals are brought into a beneficial relationship with the state, making them dependent on the state for certain rewards

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personality cult

Promotion of the image of an authoritarian leader not merely as a political figure but as someone who embodies the spirit of the nation and possesses endowments of wisdom and strength far beyond those of the average individual and is thus portrayed in a quasi-religious manner.

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surviellance

close watch over a person, group, or area; supervision

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Clientalism

an exchange system in which clients offer support and loyalty to patrons who offer material and intangible benefits

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normative statement

claims that attempt to prescribe how the world should be

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empirical statement

a statement based on observation, experiment, or experience

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party systems

Systems characterized by competition among political parties

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radicals

People who wanted to make extreme changes

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liberals

Are open to change in government through reform

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conservatives

Like to stick to the traditional ways of government and tend to oppose change

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Reactionaries

Those who want to restore political, social, and economic institutions that existed in the past

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political culture

an overall set of values widely shared within a society

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liberalism

A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.

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communism

A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.

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socialism

a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.

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fascism

A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition

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anarchism

A political theory favoring the abolition of governments

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political socialization

the process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions

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agents of socialization

social institutions, including families and schools, that help to shape individuals' basic political beliefs and values

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political violence

Violence outside of state control that is politically motivated

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PPP (Purchasing Power Parity)

A statistical tool that estimates the buying power of income across different countries by using prices in the United States as a benchmark

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Presidential systems

governments with strong presidents as both the head of state and the head of government

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Privatization

To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.

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