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Business intelligence (BI)

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Business intelligence (BI)

provides historical, current, and predictive views of business operations and environments and gives organizations a competitive advantage in the marketplace.

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Computer literacy

is skill in using productivity software, such as word processors, spreadsheets, database management systems, and presentation software, as well as having a basic knowledge of hardware and software, the Internet, and collaboration tools and technologies.

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Data

consists of raw facts and is a component of an information system.

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Database

A database is a collection of all relevant data organized in a series of integrated files.

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Five Forces Model

Michael Porter's Five Forces Model analyzes an organization, its position in the marketplace, and how information systems could be used to make it more competitive. The five forces include buyer power, supplier power, threat of substitute products or services, threat of new entrants, and rivalry among existing competitors.

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Information

consists of facts that have been analyzed by the process component and is an output of an information system.

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Information literacy

is understanding the role of information in generating and using business intelligence.

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Information technologies

support information systems and use the Internet, computer networks, database systems, POS systems, and RFID tags.

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Management information system (MIS)

A management information system (MIS) is an organized integration of hardware and software technologies, data, processes, and human elements designed to produce timely, integrated, relevant, accurate, and useful information for decision-making purposes.

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Process

The process component of an information system generates the most useful type of information for decision making, including transaction-processing reports and models for decision analysis.

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Strategic information systems (SISs)

focus on big-picture, long-term goals and objectives and assist an organization or a decision maker to achieve them.

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Transaction-processing systems (TPSs)

focus on data collection and processing; the major reason for using them is cost reduction.

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Artificial intelligence (AI)

consists of related technologies that try to simulate and reproduce human thought and behavior, including thinking, speaking, feeling, and reasoning. AI technologies apply computers to areas that require knowledge, perception, reasoning, understanding, and cognitive abilities.

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Artificial neural networks (ANNs)

are networks that learn and are capable of performing tasks that are difficult with conventional computers, such as playing chess, recognizing patterns in faces and objects, and filtering spam e-mail.

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Augmented intelligence

The goal of augmented intelligence is to complement decision makers, not replace them.

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Backward chaining

In backward chaining, the expert system starts with the goal—the "then" part—and backtracks to find the right solution.

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Case-based reasoning (CBR)

is a problem-solving technique that matches a new case (problem) with a previously solved case and its solution, the details of which have been stored in a database. After finding a match, the CBR system offers a solution; if no match is found, even after more information is supplied, the human expert must solve the problem.

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Contextual computing

refers to a computing environment that is always present, can feel our surroundings, and—based on who we are, where we are, and whom we are with—offer recommendations.

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Data-mining agents

work with a data warehouse, detecting trends and discovering new information and relationships among data items that were not readily apparent.

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Expert systems

mimic human expertise in a particular field to solve a problem in a well-defined area.

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Explanation facility

An explanation facility performs tasks similar to what a human expert does by explaining to end users how recommendations are derived.

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Forward chaining

In forward chaining, a series of "if-then-else" condition pairs is performed.

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Fuzzy logic

allows a smooth, gradual transition between human and computer vocabularies and deals with variations in linguistic terms by using a degree of membership.

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Genetic algorithms (GAs)

are search algorithms that mimic the process of natural evolution. They are used to generate solutions to optimization and search problems using such techniques as mutation, selection, crossover, and chromosome.

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Inference engine

An inference engine is similar to the model base component of a decision support system. By using different techniques such as forward and backward chaining, it manipulates a series of rules.

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Intelligent agents

are software capable of reasoning and following rule-based processes; they are becoming more popular, especially in e-commerce.

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Knowledge acquisition facility

A knowledge acquisition facility is a software package with manual or automated methods for acquiring and incorporating new rules and facts, making the expert system capable of growth.

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Knowledge base

A knowledge base is similar to a database, but in addition to storing facts and figures, it keeps track of rules and explanations associated with facts.

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Knowledge base management system (KBMS)

A knowledge base management system (KBMS), similar to a DBMS, is used to keep the knowledge base updated with changes to facts, figures, and rules.

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Machine learning

is a process and procedure by which knowledge is gained through experience. In other words, computers learn without being explicitly programmed.

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Monitoring and surveillance agents

usually track and report on computer equipment and network systems to predict when a system crash or failure might occur.

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Natural-language processing (NLP)

was developed so users could communicate with computers in human language.

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Personal agents

perform specific tasks for a user, such as remembering information for filling out Web forms or completing e-mail addresses after the first few characters are typed.

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Robots

are one of the most successful applications of AI. They perform well at simple, repetitive tasks and can be used to free workers from tedious or hazardous jobs.

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Shopping and information agents

help users navigate through the vast resources available on the Web and provide better results in finding information. These agents can navigate the Web much faster than humans and gather more consistent, detailed information. They can serve as search engines, site reminders, or personal surfing assistants.

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Soft robot

A soft robot is made of elastomer, is simpler to make and less expensive than conventional robots, and is used for an increasing number of applications.

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Business networking ethics

advocates that to maintain a business network, not only should the organization provide open and fair access to all authorized users, it should also consider three types of networking: utilitarian, emotional, and virtuous.

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Acceptable use policies

An acceptable use policy is a set of rules specifying the legal and ethical use of a system and the consequences of noncompliance.

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Accountability

refers to issues involving both a user's and organization's responsibilities and liabilities.

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Cheap fakes

sometimes known as the new fake news, are audiovisual manipulations of events created with cheap software that's readily available on the Web and then modified using Photoshop and other tools and distributed through the Web.

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Cookies

are small text files with unique ID tags that are embedded in a Web browser and saved on the user's hard drive.

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Cybersquatting

is registering, selling, or using a domain name to profit from someone else's trademark.

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Deepfakes

are fake videos or audio recordings that look and sound just like real events.

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Digital citizenship

means using information technology safely, ethically, and responsibly.

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Digital divide

Information technology and the Internet have created a ________. Computers are still not affordable for many people. The digital divide has implications for education.

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Disinformation

is fake information that is knowingly distributed.

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Fake news

is a story or hoax created to intentionally misinform or deceive readers.

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General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

The (GDPR) covers a series of laws that protect European Union (EU) citizens' personal data, including genetic data, health records, racial or ethnic origin, and religious beliefs.

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Green computing

involves the design, manufacture, use, and disposal of computers, servers, and other computing devices so that there is minimal impact on the environment.

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Intellectual property

is a legal umbrella covering protections that involve copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, and patents for "creations of the mind" developed by people or businesses.

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Log files

which are generated by Web server software, record a user's actions on a Web site.

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Misinformation

is fake information that is distributed to an audience, regardless of intent to mislead.

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Nonrepudiation

is a method for binding all parties to a contract.

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Social media networking ethics

advocates that social media should be open and provide fair access to all of its users.

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Spam

is an unsolicited e-mail sent for advertising purposes.

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Virtual organizations

are networks of independent companies, suppliers, customers, and manufacturers connected via information technology so they can share skills and costs and have access to each other's markets.

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Access controls

are designed to protect systems from unauthorized access in order to preserve data integrity.

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Adware

is a form of spyware that collects information about the user (without the user's consent) to determine which advertisements to display in the user's Web browser.

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Asymmetric encryption

uses two keys: a public key known to everyone and a private or secret key known only to the recipient. A message encrypted with a public key can be decrypted only with the same algorithm used by the public key and requires the recipient's private key, too. Any people who intercept the message cannot decrypt it because they do not have the private key.

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Authentication tokens

improve security by transmitting a security token among connected applications. The user logs in once with approved credentials, and then a unique token is generated and shared with connected applications or Web sites to verify the user's identity for a given period.

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Availability

means that computers and networks are operating, and that authorized users can access the information they need. It also means a quick recovery in the event of a system failure or disaster.

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Backdoors

A backdoor (also called a trapdoor) is a programming routine built into a system by its designer or programmer. It enables the designer or programmer to bypass system security and sneak back into the system later to access programs or files.

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Baiting

is similar to phishing attacks. What distinguishes it from phishing is the promise that the baiter gives to the recipient.

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Biometric security measures

use a physiological element that is unique to a person and cannot be stolen, lost, copied, or passed on to others.

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Black hats

Hackers who specialize in unauthorized penetration of information systems. They attack systems for profit, fun, or political motivation or as part of a social cause. These penetration attacks often involve modifying and destroying data.

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Blended threats

A blended threat is a security threat that combines the characteristics of computer viruses, worms, and other malicious codes with vulnerabilities found on public and private networks.

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Brain passwords

A brain password is a digital reading of a user's brain activity while looking at a series of images. These brain activities are recorded in a database. To log in to a system or enter a secure room, the user puts on a special hat and again watches the sequence of images. The new brain activities are compared with the ones in the database and then access is given or denied.

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Business continuity planning

outlines procedures for keeping an organization operational after a natural disaster or network attack.

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Callback modem

A callback modem verifies whether a user's access is valid by logging the user off (after the user attempts to connect to the network) and then calling the user back at a predetermined number.

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Computer fraud

is the unauthorized use of computer data for personal gain.

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Confidentiality

means that a system must prevent disclosing information to anyone who is not authorized to access it.

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Cryptojacking

occurs when hackers secretly use the computing power of a user to mine cryptocurrency.

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Data encryption

transforms data, called plaintext or cleartext, into a scrambled form called ciphertext that cannot be read by others.

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Denial-of-service attacks

A denial-of-service (DoS) attack floods a network or server with service requests to prevent legitimate users' access to the system.

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DNA identification

gathers a user's unique behavioral characteristics and then creates an "eDNA" profile that is used for identification when the user tries to log in to a system.

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Fault-tolerant systems

ensure availability in the event of a system failure by using a combination of hardware and software.

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Firewall

A firewall is a combination of hardware and software that acts as a filter or barrier between a private network and external computers or networks, including the Internet. A network administrator defines rules for access, and all other data transmissions are blocked.

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Gray hats

As you might imagine, they are a mixture of black and white hacking. Gray hats may violate laws or ethical standards, but they do not have the malicious intent to harm a person or a system. They look for vulnerabilities in a system without the owner's permission or knowledge. They may inform the owner that they have found vulnerabilities and will fix them for a small fee.

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Implanted microchips

a controversial technology, are microchips the size of a grain of rice that are inserted between the thumb and the index finger. The microchip can store various information, including that for a user's ID cards and credit cards, which could be used to log in to Web sites and to enter a secure room.

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Integrity

refers to the accuracy of information resources within an organization.

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Intrusion detection system (IDS)

An intrusion detection system (IDS) can protect against both external and internal access. It is usually placed in front of a firewall and can identify attack signatures, trace patterns, generate alarms for the network administrator, and cause routers to terminate connections with suspicious sources.

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Keystroke loggers

are software or hardware devices that monitor and record keystrokes.

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Logic bombs

A logic bomb is a type of Trojan program used to release a virus, worm, or other destructive code. Logic bombs are triggered at a certain time (sometimes the birthday of a famous person) or by a specific event, such as a user pressing the Enter key or running a certain program.

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Password

A password is a combination of numbers, characters, and symbols that a user enters to gain access to a system.

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Pharming

Similar to phishing, pharming directs Internet users to fraudulent Web sites with the intention of stealing their personal information, such as Social Security numbers, passwords, bank account numbers, and credit card numbers. The difference is that pharmers usually hijack an official Web site, then alter its IP address so that users who enter the correct Web address are directed to the pharmer's fraudulent Web site.

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Phishing

is the transmission of fraudulent e-mails that seem to come from legitimate sources, such as a bank or university.

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Physical security measures

primarily control access to computers and networks, and they include devices for securing computers and peripherals from theft.

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PKI (public key infrastructure)

A PKI (public key infrastructure) enables users of a public network such as the Internet to securely and privately exchange data through the use of a pair of keys—a public one and a private one—that is obtained from a trusted authority and shared through that authority.

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Quid pro quo

Similar to baiting, quid pro quo involves a hacker requesting the exchange of critical data or login information for a service or prize.

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Rootkits

A rootkit is a series of software tools that enable an unauthorized user to gain access to a computer or network system without being detected.

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Script kiddies

Inexperienced, usually young hackers who use programs that others have developed to attack computer and network systems and deface Web sites.

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Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

is a commonly used encryption protocol that manages transmission security on the Internet.

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Sniffing

is capturing and recording network traffic.

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Social engineering

takes advantage of the human element of a security system to trick others into revealing private information.

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Spoofing

is an attempt to gain access to a network by posing as an authorized user in order to find sensitive information, such as passwords and credit card information.

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Transport Layer Security (TLS)

is a cryptographic protocol that ensures data security and integrity over public networks, such as the Internet.

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Spyware

is software that secretly gathers information about users while they browse the Web.

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Symmetric encryption

In symmetric encryption (also called secret key encryption), the same key is used to encrypt and decrypt the message. The sender and receiver must agree on the key and keep it secret.

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Trojan programs

A Trojan program contains code intended to disrupt a computer, network, or Web site, and it is usually hidden inside a popular program. Users run the program, unaware that the malicious program is also running in the background.

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Virtual private network (VPN)

A virtual private network (VPN) provides a secure "tunnel" through the Internet for transmitting messages and data via a private network.

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