family nutrition first exam

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What factors influence food choices?

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120 Terms

1

What factors influence food choices?

preferences, habit, heritage/religion, social interactions, marketing, availability/convenience/economy, positive and negative associations, emotions, values, body weight and health, nutrition

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2

What are whole foods?

fresh foods that are unprocessed or minimally processed

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3

Ex of whole foods

fresh fruits, vegetables, grains, meats, milk

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4

What are processed foods?

foods that have been intentionally changed by the addition of substances or a method of cooking, preserving, milling, etc.

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5

What are ultra-processed foods?

foods that have been made from substances that are typically used in food preparation, but not consumed as foods by themselves and that undergo further processing

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6

What are the substances in ultra-processed foods that are used in food preparation/undergo further processing?

oils, fats, refined starches, sugars, flours

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7

6 classes of nutrients

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water

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8

Which nutrient classes are energy yielding? (one is not considered a nutrient but it does provide energy)

carbs, fats, proteins, alcohol (not a nutrient)

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9

Which nutrients are macronutrients? Which are micronutrients?

carbs, fats, proteins; vitamins, minerals, water

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10

Steps to the scientific method

observation and question, hypothesis and prediction, experiment, results and interpretations, hypothesis supported or not, theory

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11

What are the calories per each macronutrients and alcohol? What is the unit? *know how to do calculations

carbs=4 fats=9 protein=4 alcohol=7; kcal/g

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12

Calculate the energy available from a bean burrito with cheese (55g carbs, 15g protein, 12g fat). Determine the percentage of kcalories from each of the energy nutrient (contributes to the total).

220, 60, 108 kcal/g ; 56.7%, 15.5%, 27.8%

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13

A set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in US and Canada. These values are used for planning and assessing diets.

dietary reference intake (DRI)

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14

What is included in the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)?

estimated average requirement (EAR), recommended dietary allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI), tolerable upper intake level (UI)

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15

The average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrients needs of practically all healthy people

recommended dietary allowance (RDA)

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16

The average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the healthy people of a given age and sex group

estimated average requirement (EAR)

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17

The average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion

adequate intake (AI)

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18

The max daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects

tolerable upper intake level (UL)

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19

Nutrient intakes associated with a low risk of chronic disease. This is a new category of DRI

chronic disease risk reduction intake (CDRR)

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20

Types of nutrient assessment

historical information, anthropometric, physical exam, lab tests

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21

Example of historical information for nutrient assessment

health status, socioeconomic status, drug use, dietary intake

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22

Example of anthropometric for nutrient assessment

height and weight measurements

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23

Example of physical exam for nutrient assessment

visual inspection of hair, eyes, skin, posture, tongue, and fingernails

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24

Example of lab test for nutrient assessment

blood and urine sample

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25

What are the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for each macronutrient? (% of total calories)

carb= 45-65% fat= 20-35% protein= 10-35%

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26

6 dieting planning principles

adequacy, balance, energy control (calories), nutrient density, moderation, variety

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27

Diet planning principle: enough calories (energy) and nutrients to support health

adequacy

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28

Diet planning principle: combination of foods for adequate nutrients and calories

balance

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29

Diet planning principle: calories consumes = basic energy needs + calories from activity

energy control (calories)

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30

Diet planning principle: variety and amount of nutrients in relation to calorie content

nutrient density

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31

Diet planning principle: consumption of nutrient dense foods most of the time and only occasionally consuming non nutrient dense foods

moderation

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32

Diet planning principle: selection of foods from each food group and varying choices within groups (different foods withing groups contain different nutrients)

variety

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33

A measure of nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides

nutrient density

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34

The more ____ and the fewer ____, the higher the nutrient density

nutrients, kcalories

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35

What does the USDA consider to be one serving size of fruit (1c)?

1c fresh, frozen, canned fruit; 1/2c dried fruit; 1c 100% fruit juice

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36

What does the USDA consider to be one serving size of vegetables (1c)?

1c cut up, raw, or cooked veg; 1c cooked legumes; 2c raw leafy greens

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37

What does the USDA consider to be one serving size of grain (1oz)?

1 slice bread; 1/2c cooked rice, pasta, cereal; 1c ready to eat cereal; 3c popped popcorn

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38

What does the USDA consider to be one serving size of protein (1oz)?

1oz cooked lean meat, poultry, seafood; 1 egg; 1tbsp peanut butter; 1/2oz nuts or seed

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39

What does the USDA consider to be one serving size of milk and milk products (1c)?

1c milk, yogurt, fortified soy milk; 1 1/2oz natural cheese; 2oz processed cheese

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40

What does the USDA consider to be one serving size of oils (1tsp -- not a food group but it contributes Vit E & essential fatty acids)?

1tsp veg oil; 1tbsp low fat mayo; 2tbsp light salad dressing

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41

Food label interpretation

  • Nutritional facts: the serving size & number of servings per container; serving size reflects portions typically eaten not those recommended (in large bold type)

  • Calories: calorie info and quantities of nutrients per serving in g and mg; kcal per serving in large bold type

  • % daily value: quantities of nutrients as "%DV" based on a 2,000 calorie energy intake

  • Ingredients

....

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42

Types of claims on food packaging labels

nutrient, health, structure function

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43

Claim that characterizes the level of a nutrient in the food

nutrient claim

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44

What type of claim is "fat free" or "less sodium"?

nutrient claim

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45

Claim that characterizes the relationship of a food or nutrient to a disease or health related condition

health claim

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46

What type of claim is "soluble fiber from oatmeal daily in a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease" or "a diet low in total fat may reduce the risk of some cancers"?

health claim

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47

Claim that describes the effect that a substance exerts on the structure or function of the body and does not refer to diseases

structure function claim

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48

What type of claim is "supports immunity and digestive health" or "builds strong bones"?

structure function claim

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49

Basics of Dietary Guideline for Americans (not sure if this is right??)

eating patterns must change throughout life to meet the needs of each life stage, appropriate eating patterns support good health today and lay the foundation for continued good health at later stages

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50

An educational tool created by the USDA to illustrate the 5 food groups

MyPlate

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51

What is in the anatomy of the digestive system?

mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

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52

What is the function of the mouth in the digestive system?

chewing breaks down food, fluids from salivary glands blend with food and liquid to ease swallowing

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53

What is the function of the esophagus in the digestive system?

the two esophageal sphincter muscles controls the movement of the food sliding down in to the stomach

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54

What are the two sphincter muscles of the esophagus?

upper esophageal sphincter and lower esophageal sphincter

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55

Which esophageal sphincter is at the entrance of the stomach and closes behind the bolus so that it proceeds forwards and doesn't slip back into the esophagus?

lower

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56

What is the function of the stomach in the digestive system?

churns the food and adds digestive juices to make chyme

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57

A semi liquid mass made when the stomach adds digestive juices (acid, enzymes, fluids) to the churned food

chyme

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58

The stomach releases chyme little by little into the small intestine through the

pyloric sphincter

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59

What is the function of the small intestine in the digestive system?

secretes enzymes that digest all energy yielding nutrients to smaller nutrient particles

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60

Cells in the wall of the small intestine absorbs nutrients into the ____ and ____

blood and lymph

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61

3 segments of the small intestine

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

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62

The common bile duct drips fluids from the ____ & ____

pancreas, gallbladder

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63

What is the function of the larger intestine (colon) in the digestive system?

absorbs water and nutrients; passes waste along with water to the rectum

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64

What waste is passed by the large intestine?

fiber, bacteria, unabsorbed nutrients

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65

What happens in the large intestine/colon?

The ascending colon rises upward toward the liver. It then becomes the transverse colon as it turns and crosses the body toward the spleen. The descending colon turns downward and becomes the sigmoid colon which extend to the rectum. Along the way, the colon mixes the intestinal contents, absorbs water and salts, and forms stool

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66

Secretions of the digestive system

saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice, bile, intestinal juice

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67

What does the secretion Saliva do?

carbohydrate digestion; protects the teeth and lining of mouth, esophagus, and stomach from corrosive substances; eases swallowing

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68

What does the secretion Gastric juice do?

mixes with the bolus; hydrochloric acid uncoils proteins and the enzyme break down proteins; mucous protects stomach cells

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69

What does the secretion Pancreatic juice do?

bicarbonate neutralizes acidic gastric juices; pancreatic enzymes break down carbs, proteins, fats

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70

What does the secretion Bile do?

emulsifies fats and oils for digestion

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71

Where is bile produced and stored?

produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder

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72

What does the secretion Intestinal juice do?

break down carb, fat, and protein fragments; mucous protects the intestinal wall

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73

Parts of the GI track where digestion takes place for each macronutrient

mouth, stomach, small intestine digests carbs, fats, and proteins

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74

What occurs in the absorption of blood stream bound nutrients?

After digestion, the water soluble nutrients move into the small intestinal wall and into the portal vein where they are carried into the blood. They travel to the liver where they are regulated then go to the heart and are pumped through the body

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75

What occurs in the absorption of lymphatic system bound nutrients?

After digestion, the fat soluble nutrients move through the small intestinal wall into a lymph vessel and into the blood stream at the hepatic vein. They then go to the heart and then the liver and body

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76

What are the 2 pathways for nutrient absorption? Which nutrients go to which?

water soluble and fat soluble; water soluble are carbs, water soluble vitamins, amino acids, simple sugars; fat soluble are fats and fat soluble vitamins

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77

3 basic types of absorption mechanisms

simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport

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78

Absorption mechanism: nutrients cross into intestinal cells freely

simple diffusion

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79

Which nutrients are absorbed via simple diffusion?

small lipids

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80

Absorption mechanism: nutrients need a specific channel or carrier to facilitate their transport from one side of the cell membrane to the other

facilitated diffusion

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81

Which nutrients are absorbed via facilitated diffusion?

water and water soluble nutrients

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82

Absorption mechanism: nutrients move against a concentration gradient

active transport

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83

Which nutrients are absorbed via active transport?

glucose and amino acids

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84

What does the hepatic portal vein do?

carries blood back to the liver

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85

What does the hepatic vein do?

returns blood to the heart

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86

What is gut microbiome? What is considered as gut microbiome?

healthy gut bacteria microbes; bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa

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87

Endocrine feedback loops for homeostasis: Gastrin

  • What does it respond to? Secreted from? Stimulates? Response?

food in the stomach; stomach wall; stomach glands; hydrochloric acid is secreted into the stomach to maintain an acidic pH

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88

Endocrine feedback loops for homeostasis: Secretin

  • What does it respond to? Secreted from? Stimulates? Response?

acidic chyme in the small intestine; duodenal wall; pancreas; bicarbonate rich juices are secreted into the small intestine to maintain a slightly alkaline pH

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89

Endocrine feedback loops for homeostasis: Cholecystokinin

  • What does it respond to? Secreted from? Stimulates? Response?

fat or protein in the small intestine; intestinal wall; gallbladder and pancreas; gallbladder: bile is secreted into the duodenum to emulsify fats, pancreas: bicarbonate and enzyme rich juices are secreted into the small intestine to maintain a slightly alkaline pH, digest fats and proteins, and slow GI tract motility

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90

A chemical reaction in which one molecule is split into two molecules -- hydrogen is added to one and a hydroxyl group is added to the other

hydrolysis

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91

The addition of water to break a molecule into smaller pieces

hydrolysis

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92

3 types of sugars

monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides

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93

Simple sugars

monosaccharides

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94

Ex of monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

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95

Pairs of monosaccharides

disaccharides

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96

Ex of disaccharides

maltose, sucrose, lactose

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97

What is maltose?

glucose and glucose

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98

What is sucrose?

glucose + fructose

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99

What is lactose?

glucose + galactose

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100

Ex of polysaccharides

glycogen, starch, fiber

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