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Antonie van leeuwenhoek

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Biology

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1

Antonie van leeuwenhoek

Improved the first microscope

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2

Who invented the first microscope

Zaccharias Janssen

Han Janssen

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3

Robert Hooke

Coined the term Cells

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4

Who is the Father of microscopy

Robert Hooke

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5

Superphylum Stramenopila

Includes diatoms and brown and yellow algae

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6

Stramenopila characteristics of movement

Two whip-like flagellae

Has hair like extensions that enhance movement

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7

Colonial

Organisms that make identical copies of themselves and live together as a colony

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8

How do stramenopoles get their energy

Convert light energy to chemical energy

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9

Photoautotrophs

Do not consume other organisms for energy and use light energy

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10

Primary producers

The base of the food chain on which all other animals depend

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11

What type of producers are stramenopiles

Primary producers

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12

Where are Protista viridiplantae found

Both marine and freshwater habitats

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13

What type of producers are viridiplantae

Primary

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14

Are viridiplantae parasitic

some of them are

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15

What is a synapomorphy of Viridiplantae

presence of chlorophyll a and b

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16

Examples of viridiplantae

Volvox globator

Euglena gracillis

Trypanosoma cruzi

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17

Zooids

Cells that form an outer parameter

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18

Is Volvox globator asexual or sexual

colonies can form sexually or asexually

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19

How do Volvox globator swim

Flagella

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20

What is Euglena gracilis characterized by

Two heterokont flagella

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21

Pellicle

A specialized structure of the cell wall that is organized like aluminum siding to give protection

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22

Where is E.gracilis commonly found

fresh water ponds and lakes

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23

What are transparent parts of the cell

Vacuole

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24

Obligate parasites

Must have a host to live

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25

What disease does T. cruzi cause

Chagas disease

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26

What disease does T. brucei cause

Sleeping sickness

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27

What vector causes Chagas disease

Kissing bug

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28

What vector causes sleeping sickness

Tsetse flies

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29

What does T.cruzi attack

Muscle tissue

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30

What does T.brucei attack

Nervous tissue

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31

Leukocytes

White blood cells

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32

What is a synapomorphy of Superphylum Aveolata

The presence of a distinct sac-like alveolus or depression on the cell surface

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33

What is the only parasitic Protozoan in Superphylum Avleolata

Plasmodium falciparum

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34

Where are Avleolates normally found

Fresh or marine water

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35

Cilia

Hair like projections off the cell that help them move

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36

Dinoflagellates

Alveolates with a very distinctive morphology

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37

What habitat are Dinoflagellates found

Marine but some have adapted to freshwater

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38

Red tides

Dinoflagellates can build up neruotoxins and can kill off other marine life near them

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39

Zooxanthillae

Symboinots to sea anemones and corals they provide protection to the Zooxanthillae

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40

Plasmodium falciparum

Protist that causes malaria

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41

Apical complex

What differs P. falciparum from other protists

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42

What represents the Superphylum Parabasalida

Trichomanas vaginalis

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43

What is a synapomorphy of T. vaginalis

Axostyle

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44

What synapomorphys do amoebas have

none

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45

Pseudopodia

Arm like appendages amoebas have that pull it forward

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46

Hyaline cap

The tip of the pseudopodium in amoebas is also fluid and also appears glassy

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47

Asymmetry

A condition in which an animal cannot be cut into two equal portions

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48

Asymmetry example

Phylum Porifera

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49

Radial symmetry

Occurs when there are two or more ways in which an animals body could only be cut to produce equal halves that are mirror images of each other

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50

Biradical symmetry

an animal that can be cut with two planes to produce equal halves

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51

Radial symmetry examples

Jellyfish, sea anemones, sea stars, sand dollars

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52

Bilateral symmetry examples

Humans

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53

Bilateral

A body can split into two equal halves left and right

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54

Cephalized

Animals with bilateral symmetry that have all of their sense organs in their head and typically only move one direction

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55

Radial plane

In radially symmetry animals any plane that can divide the body into equal halves

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56

Oblique plane

Any plane that does not divide the body into equal halves

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57

What is the oral surface of a jellyfish

Subumbrellar

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58

Oral surface

The surface of the body where the mouth is located

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59

Aboral surface

The opposite of the oral surface

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60

Umbrellar surface

The aboral surface in jellyfish

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61

Proximal

Close to the central core

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62

Distal

Far from the core

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63

Embryogenesis

Most of young animals also differentiate into the basic type of embryotic tissues that will eventually be used to construct body tissues

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Morula

Embryo after a zygote divides into two daughter cells

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65

Cleavage

The cells divide to form eight cells then sixteen and so on

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66

Blastula

hollow sphere of the cell after cleavage

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67

Blastomeres

Cells of a morula or blastula

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68

Polar bodies

The three excess cells produced during meiosis in the female

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69

Gastrulation

Formation of the stomach

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70

Endoderm

Deepest levels of tissue and lines the lumen of he Archenteron

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71

Ectoderm

The outermost layer and lies in direct contact with the environment

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72

Mesoderm

A layer that is situated between the ectoderm and endodermal layers

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73

Cellular grade

Constructed by loosely articulating clusters of cells

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74

Ablastic

The arrangement of cellular grade organisms

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75

Diploblastic

A distinct deep layer endoderm and a distinct superficial layer ectoderm. Also lacks a mesodermal layer

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76

Triploblastic

Has all three types of embryonic tissue

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77

Four basic categories of adult tissues

Epithelial tissues

Connective tissue

Muscle tissues

Nervous tissues

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78

Epithelial tissues

specialized layers of cells that provide a protective barrier between the outside of an animal and other tissues of the animal or different regions of the same animal

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79

Basal lamina

The layer of cells is attached to a common sheet of protein fibers that serves to align the cells

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80

Apical end

The surface of each cell facing the space

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81

What are different types of epithelia named for

Number of cell layers in the epithelium

Shape of cells

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82

Stratified

If multiple layers in the epithelia are evident

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83

Pseudostratified

Cells of an epithelium are of variable size but in which all cells contact the basal lamina

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84

Squamous

Flat rectangular or cigar shaped cells

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85

Columnar

Tall rectangular cells

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86

Cuboidal

Cells that are square and round

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87

Ligaments

Connective tissue that binds skeletal elements together

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88

Tendons

Connective tissue that binds muscles to skeletal elements

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89

Skeletal muscle

Responsible for the movement of the bones

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90

Dark bands

A bands

dArk

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91

Lighter bands

I bands

l(I)ght

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92

Nervous tissue

Responsible for rapid transmission of information

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93

Dendrite

Point of each neuron

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94

Choanocyte

filters food for the sponge

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95

Three grades of complexity among sponges

Asconoid

Syconoid

Leukonoid

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96

Megascleres

The elements used to classify sponges into larger taxonomic levels

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97

What synapomorphies are Class Calcarea Class Hexactinllida an Class Demospongaie all have

Spicules made of calcium carbonate

Presence of oscular spicules

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98

What are members of Class Hexactinnelida commonly known as

Glass sponges

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99

What synapomorphies do members of Class hexactinnelida have

Spicules compose of silicon and hexaxonix

Spicules are joined together and for a solid scaffold

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100

Class hexactinnelida examples

Venus flower basket

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