informatics midterm

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health informatics

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130 Terms

1

health informatics

intersection of information science, computer science, and health care. Deals with resources, devices, and methods required to optimize acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of information in health

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2

health is...

subjective, individual, and most important characteristic of life itself

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3

medicine is..

multidisciplinary, based on the natural sciences in its study of disease

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4

bioinformatics

analysis of biological information using computers and statistical techniques

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5

what is the information hierarchy?

the organization and structure of health-related data and information.

starting from the base: data, information, knowledge, wisdom

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6

what is data?

unorganized information

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7

what is information?

organized data

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8

what is knowledge?

what you learned

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9

what is wisdom?

experience

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10

levels of data

level 1: nonelectric data (paper forms)

level 2: unstructured, viewable electronic data (scans of paper forms)

level 3: structured, viewable electronic data (electronically entered data that cannot be computed by other systems)

level 4: computable electronic data (electronically entered data that can be computed by other systems)

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11

Health information technology (HIT)

the use of technology, particularly information systems and digital tools, to manage and exchange health information. encompasses the acquisition, storage, management, and retrieval of patient information to support patient care and improve the efficiency of healthcare delivery.

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12

what is DICOM?

(Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine)

a set of rules, or protocols, that allows imaging systems to share info on a network

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13

what is HL7?

Health Level 7 - standards that aid in the exchange of data among hospital systems

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14

Information brokerage

sharing of a variety of information back and forth between people and healthcare entities

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15

what is EHR?

electronic health record; contains a patient's lifelong medical records.

accessible to the patient via the internet and is transferable to other providers

the records are stored must be secure from intrusion and reliable

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16

what is the goal of HIT?

improve communication and quality of care, reduce medical errors, standardize medical care, accelerate access to care, protect privacy and ensure security

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17

who are the key players involved in health informatics?

patients, clinicians and nurses, support staff, public health, federal and state governments, medical educators, insurance companies (payers), hospitals, medical researchers, technology vendors; Institute of medicine (IOM), Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)

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18

how many deaths occur yearly due to medical errors?

98,000

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19

what is the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)?

improve medical quality, patient saftey, healthcare efficiency and reduce health disparities; engage patients and families; improve care coordination; ensure adequate privacy and security of personal health information; improve population and public health

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20

what barriers to health information technology (HIT) adoption?

Inadequate time, inadequate information, inadequate expertise and workforce, cost, lack of interoperability, change in workflow, privacy, legal, behavioral change

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21

what is interoperability?

communication

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22

what are the key elements of informatics?

acquisition, storage, communication, manipulation, display

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23

what is a bit?

A binary digit, a 0 or a 1.

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24

what is a byte?

8 bits

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25

what is a character?

several bytes

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26

what is a string?

A sequence of characters

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27

what are file formats?

A file format is a layout for how data and information is stored and organized.

-image: JPG, GIF, PNG

-text: txt, doc

-sound files: WAV, MP3

-video files: MPG

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28

what is the difference between informatics and IT and computer science?

Informatics manipulates information and looks at the application of information and technology in various domains while IT searches and sorts data and manages and maintains technology infrastructure

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29

what are the methods that convert data to information to knowledge?

conceptual model and computational model

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30

conceptual model

the model of an application that the designers want users to understand. Users build a model in their minds of how it works

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31

computational model

the use of computers to simulate and study complex systems using mathematics, physics, and computer science

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32

what helps to convert data into information?

vocabularies

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33

clinical data warehouse

a shared database that collects, integrates and stores clinical data from a variety of sources

warehouse that stores information

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34

what are clinical records composed of?

structured data (lab results, billing codes), unstructured data (free text, clinical notes)

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35

how is clinical data collected?

by electronic health records

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36

van der Lei

Data shall be used only for the purpose for which they were collected. This law has a collateral: If no purpose was defined prior to the collection of the data, then the data should not be used.

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37

what is EHR designed for?

real time updating of individual data

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38

in health care, what is a search called?

data mining

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39

what is a noscomal infection?

hospital acquired infection

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40

how are CDW used as a clinical resource?

monitor quality to query for specific quality measures in specific patient populations

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41

what does "make clinical data meaningful" mean?

turn data to information

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42

algorithm

a set plan to follow to treat patients

can be used to learn a representation of features that characterize annotated positive and negative cases

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43

what makes informatics difficult?

semantic gap

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44

what is semantic gap?

the difference between data and information = meaning

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45

in healthcare, computers and programming languages process...

discrete symbols according to precise formal rules. they do not make sense of a highly ambiguous information

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46

Network

interconnected collections of autonomous computers and peripheral devices. Can monitor and control users access to resources

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47

what is LAN?

Local Area Network - a network that connects computers within a limited area such as a school or office

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48

what is WAN?

Wide Area Network; uses long-range telecommunication, links across country or continent

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49

what is a centralized computer network?

a closed system. computing takes place on the mainframe

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50

what is a decentralized computer network?

a open system. computing takes place on client/server (LAN,WAN)

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51

what are transmission media?

wired media (phone line, DSL), ethernet cable, coaxial cable, fiber optic media, radio media

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52

RJ45

phone line; slowest transmission media; travels at 10 megabits/sec

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53

DSL

phone line on steroids; travels at 50 megabits/sec

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54

ethernet cable

wired network connections; travels at 100 megabits/sec

(cat 5,6,7,8); max cable length is 320 ft

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55

COAX

tv line; travels at 100 megabits/sec; very susceptible to interference

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56

fiber optics

thin glass fibers that use total internal reflection to carry light; orange; travels at 1000 megabits/sec; once cut, will never work again; high cost and difficult to install

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57

what are transmitters/receivers?

network interface cards, modems, bridges, gateways, routers

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58

what is a network operating system?

manages communication over a network; authentication, file security, connection to resources

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59

what is wired media?

analog; data is transmitted along these conductors in the form of changing electrical voltages

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60

what is the slowest media?

RJ45

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61

what is the fastest media?

fiber optic

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62

what are network interface cards?

takes the digital signal and puts it into the computer

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63

what is a modem?

changes signal from analog to digital

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64

what is a router?

traffic cops; controls speed and stop collisions

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65

what controls the server?

network operating server

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66

what is a gateway?

allows access on the same address; failitate connections between two or more networks employing similar protocols

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67

what is a bridge?

connects two different addresses

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68

what is a firewall?

protects the network

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69

what allows access on the same address?

gateway

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70

what allows access on two different addresses?

bridges

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71

what ensures network security and safeguards the integrity of data?

firewall

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72

wireless communication

The transfer of information between two or more points that are handheld and portable

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73

what are the wireless speeds?

a, b, c, g, n, x

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74

what is the fastest wireless speed?

x

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75

what is the slowest wireless speed?

a

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76

What is the speed of light?

186,000 miles per second

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77

what is bandwith?

speed; how much data CAN be pushed can be pushed across a connection in a given amount of time

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78

what are protocols?

how the connection is made between the machines; a set of rules that defines a method for transmitting data between different devices over a network.

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79

understanding where information comes from...

ensures that a healthcare professional will maximize the information resource

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80

what is the purpose of an information system?

to automate- so you don't have to interact

to control

to simplify- less than 3 clicks

to maximize productivity- patients in, patients out; need to make money

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81

what is ENIAC?

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, developed in 1946

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82

what are the computer types?

personal computer- not too powerful

workstation- quad processors

mainframes- centralized

supercomputer- powerful; bioinformatics

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83

what is the most powerful computer type?

supercomputer

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84

what are servers?

decentralized, powerful machines that serve many users and handle many transactions

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85

what are digital devices?

combinations of 0's and 1's

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86

what are analog devices?

measures physical property or quantity

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87

what serve many users and handle many transactions?

servers

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88

1024 bytes

1 kilobyte

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89

digital points of reference conversions

1024 bytes= 1 kilobyte

1024 kilobytes= 1 megabyte

1024 megabyte= 1 gigabyte

1024 gigabyte= 1 terabyte

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90

How many bytes are there in a kilobyte?

1024 bytes

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91

what is a CPU?

Central Processing Unit; the brain of the computer; responsible for executing instructions and performing calculations

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92

what are the parts of a CPU?

ALU, Control Unit

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93

what is a control unit?

part of the CPU that controls the glow of data between various parts of the CPU

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94

what is a ALU?

Arithmetic logic unit, component of CPU that performs arithmetic/logical operations

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95

what executing instructions and performing calculations on a computer?

CPU

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96

what is a harddrive?

device on the computer that stores all of the application

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97

what are two enemies of the computer?

dust, heat, magnet

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98

what is RAM?

Random Access Memory; stores temporary information for quick access

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99

DRAM is...

dynamic random access memory; it is volatile memory; provides high speed data access to the CPU

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100

DRAM is organized into...

a matrix of rows and columns; needs to be divisible by two

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