NPB 10 - Final

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Function of immune system

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1

Function of immune system

protects against infections caused by diseases

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2

What causes diseases?

bacteria, viruses, large parasites, fungi

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3

Viruses can enter our cells which can cause ____ _____ when viruses come out.

cell death

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4

What are cancer cells?

our cells with mutations

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5

What do cancer cells cause?

Increase in cell proliferation (uncontrolled)

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6

What can large clump of cancer cells interfere with?

Normal organ function

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7

What do mutated genes do?

Build proteins that look different and are detectable by immune system

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8

What does our immune system distinguish?

Self from non-self

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9

What are the primary immune sites?

bone marrow and thymus

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10

What cells are born in the bone marrow?

all blood cells

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11

What cells mature in the bone marrow?

B Cells

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12

What cells mature in the thymus?

T Cells

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13

What is maturation?

Cells learn to distinguish self from non-self

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14

If maturation is not done well, what can happen?

Auto-immune disease

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15

Where do immune cells go after maturation?

Secondary immune sites

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16

What happens at secondary immune sites?

Immune cells can meet pathogens and become activated if they do meet

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17

What are the secondary immune sites?

Spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, peyer's patches

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18

What does the spleen do?

Cleans blood of debris and dead cells

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19

What do lymph nodes do?

Connected by ducts, similar to veins with valves

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20

What do tonsils do?

check food for pathogens in mouth

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21

What is branch 1 of the immune system?

innate immune system, we are born with this ready

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22

What does Branch 1 recognize?

PAMPS, pathogen associated molecular proteins

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23

What is Branch 1's advantage?

acts really fast

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24

What is Branch 1's disadvantage?

it cannot remember a specific pathogen

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25

What is branch 2 of the immune system?

Adaptive immune system/acquired immune system

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26

Why does branch 2 act more slowly?

it has to learn to recognize a small piece of pathogen extremely well

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27

What does Branch 2 build a response to?

Antigen

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28

What is an antigen?

A small piece of pathogen

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29

What are the cells of the immune system?

Granulocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes

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30

What are granulocytes?

Filled with granules (packets of immune active substances)

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31

What are neutrophilic granulocytes?

Most common white blood cell that eat cells

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32

Which protein in the neutrophilic granulocyte presents the antigen?

MHC/HLA

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33

T/F: MHC/HLA is involved in transplant rejection.

True

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34

What is eosinophil?

chemicals that attack large parasites

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35

What is basophil?

Secretes histamine functions to cause vasodilation. This helps recruit other immune cells by bringing in more blood.

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36

What happens during anaphylactic shock?

too much histamine, blood vessels dilate, BP drops

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37

What are macrophages?

Large cells that eat other cells

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38

Where do macrophages initially travel? then what?

Blood (monocyte) then crawl out and live in between other cells (macrophage)

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39

What are lymphocytes?

Small and round cells

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40

What are the types of lymphocytes?

B Cells, T Cells, NK Cells

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41

What does "NK" mean?

natural killer

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42

What do B Cells do?

Make antibodies

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43

What are antibodies?

large proteins, multiple parts

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44

Our body makes millions of different anitbodies but each B Cell only makes...

one type

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45

What are antibodies secreted into?

Blood

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46

What does the variable domain (top part) of an antibody do?

Can bind to antigen

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47

What does the constant domain (bottom) of an antibody do?

Talks to our cells

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48

What do antibodies do?

Serve as a tag for destruction

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49

What is the main goal of vaccination?

to have B Cells make antibodies

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50

What do T Cells do?

Need to see antigens presented to them by cells our of immune system on MHC proteins

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51

What are the two types of T Cells?

T-Helper Cells and Cytotoxic Cells

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52

What do T-helper cells do?

organize the response by sending a message to cytokine

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53

What do cytotoxic T Cells do?

Kill cells of our body that are virus infected or tumor cells

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54

What cells does HIV attack to cause AIDs?

T-Helper cells

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55

What group of immune cells are related to innate immune functions?

granulocytes, macrophages, NK cells

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56

What group of immune cells are related to adaptive immune functions?

B Cells and T Cells

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57

When we are trying to get an adaptive immune response, the variable domain is known as the B Cell receptor but in the future, it will become an ______

antibody

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58

What are the two steps to activate a B Cell?

  1. Bind to pathogen 2. Receive signals from T Helper cells

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59

Once a B cell is active, how does it copy itself?

cell division

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60

When B Cells are copied, what can the copies become?

Plasma cells or memory B Cells

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61

What do plasma cells that were copied from B cells do?

produce a lot of antibody and die after a few days

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62

What do memory B Cells that were copied from B Cells do?

they do not produce antibody and become dormant for months/years

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63

When we are re-exposed, what do our memory B-Cells do?

They wake up and quickly copy themselves and the cycle repeats

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64

After your second exposure to an antibody (vaccine) do you feel sick shorter or longer than the first time (first shot)?

Shorter

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65

What do vaccines do?

Reduce spread of disease in a population that helps infants who are too young to get vaccinated and old people

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66

What is herd immunity?

Large enough % of population is immune and protects the rest

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67

(Vaccination 1) A vaccine is injected into our muscle. What will it build?

Spike protein

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68

(Vaccination 2) What will the RNA do in the muscle cell?

it will present for a short while the spike proteins will be on the edges of the muscle cell

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69

(Vaccination 3) What does the B Cell do to the spike protein?

It will bind to it

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70

(Vaccination 4) What does the T Cell do to the spike protein?

it will bind to the spike protein which is being presented by MHC

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71

What are immune system signals?

Important cytokines from T Cells needed for B Cell activation

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72

What will other cytokines calm down?

Immune system responses

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73

Where do macrophages live?

In our tissues

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74

What do macrophages do?

phagocytosis (eat bacterium) then destroys it and antigen presentation on surface

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75

What do macrophages send out to attract other immune cells?

Chemokines

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76

When chemokines are sent out, what happens?

granulocytes will crawl out of blood vessel and into tissue to find macrophage by looking for more concentrated chemokine

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77

What do macrophages secrete?

pyrogens

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78

What do pyrogens do?

can travel to brain and increase temperature setpoint in brain to cause fever

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79

High body temperature is a positive immune function, why?

It is a negative pathogen function

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80

What temperature should our body not exceed?

105

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81

What are interferons?

They are secreted by all our cells and can interfere with virus production

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82

If there is a virus in a body cell, the interferon will enter and make _____ _____

antiviral protein

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83

Why do our cells secrete interferons?

They do this when they are virus infected to warn neighbors

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84

What happens when a lot of interferons are present?

Reaches brain to cause fever

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85

What chromosomes are female?

XX

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86

What chromosomes are male?

XY

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87

What are the female gonads?

Ovaries

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88

What are the male gonads?

Testes

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89

T/F Ovaries are the default and testes develop if Y chromosome is present (expresses testes determining factor TDF).

True

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90

What is the purpose of ovaries/testes?

Make gametes

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91

What are gametes?

sperm/eggs (ova)

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92

How many pairs of chromosomes do all non-gamete cells have?

23 pairs

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93

Gametes do meiosis. What is meiosis?

Cell division that reduces the chromosomes to 23 half pairs (single)

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94

What is the purpose of meiosis?

adds more genetic diversity

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95

How much sperm is made in a day?

100-200 million, most is low quality

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96

What does the head of sperm contain?

DNA

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97

What does the neck of sperm have?

Mitochondria

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98

What does the tail of sperm do?

Swim

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99

At the tip of the head of the sperm there is acrosome. What does it do?

Carries enzymes to enter the egg

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100

What is the shaft of the penis?

long device to bring sperm inside uterus

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