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Function of immune system
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protects against infections caused by diseases
What causes diseases?
bacteria, viruses, large parasites, fungi
Viruses can enter our cells which can cause ____ _____ when viruses come out.
What are cancer cells?
our cells with mutations
What do cancer cells cause?
Increase in cell proliferation (uncontrolled)
What can large clump of cancer cells interfere with?
Normal organ function
What do mutated genes do?
Build proteins that look different and are detectable by immune system
What does our immune system distinguish?
Self from non-self
What are the primary immune sites?
bone marrow and thymus
What cells are born in the bone marrow?
all blood cells
What cells mature in the bone marrow?
What cells mature in the thymus?
What is maturation?
Cells learn to distinguish self from non-self
If maturation is not done well, what can happen?
Where do immune cells go after maturation?
Secondary immune sites
What happens at secondary immune sites?
Immune cells can meet pathogens and become activated if they do meet
What are the secondary immune sites?
Spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, peyer's patches
What does the spleen do?
Cleans blood of debris and dead cells
What do lymph nodes do?
Connected by ducts, similar to veins with valves
What do tonsils do?
check food for pathogens in mouth
What is branch 1 of the immune system?
innate immune system, we are born with this ready
What does Branch 1 recognize?
PAMPS, pathogen associated molecular proteins
What is Branch 1's advantage?
acts really fast
What is Branch 1's disadvantage?
it cannot remember a specific pathogen
What is branch 2 of the immune system?
Adaptive immune system/acquired immune system
Why does branch 2 act more slowly?
it has to learn to recognize a small piece of pathogen extremely well
What does Branch 2 build a response to?
What is an antigen?
A small piece of pathogen
What are the cells of the immune system?
Granulocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes
What are granulocytes?
Filled with granules (packets of immune active substances)
What are neutrophilic granulocytes?
Most common white blood cell that eat cells
Which protein in the neutrophilic granulocyte presents the antigen?
T/F: MHC/HLA is involved in transplant rejection.
What is eosinophil?
chemicals that attack large parasites
What is basophil?
Secretes histamine functions to cause vasodilation. This helps recruit other immune cells by bringing in more blood.
What happens during anaphylactic shock?
too much histamine, blood vessels dilate, BP drops
What are macrophages?
Large cells that eat other cells
Where do macrophages initially travel? then what?
Blood (monocyte) then crawl out and live in between other cells (macrophage)
What are lymphocytes?
Small and round cells
What are the types of lymphocytes?
B Cells, T Cells, NK Cells
What does "NK" mean?
What do B Cells do?
What are antibodies?
large proteins, multiple parts
Our body makes millions of different anitbodies but each B Cell only makes...
What are antibodies secreted into?
What does the variable domain (top part) of an antibody do?
Can bind to antigen
What does the constant domain (bottom) of an antibody do?
Talks to our cells
What do antibodies do?
Serve as a tag for destruction
What is the main goal of vaccination?
to have B Cells make antibodies
What do T Cells do?
Need to see antigens presented to them by cells our of immune system on MHC proteins
What are the two types of T Cells?
T-Helper Cells and Cytotoxic Cells
What do T-helper cells do?
organize the response by sending a message to cytokine
What do cytotoxic T Cells do?
Kill cells of our body that are virus infected or tumor cells
What cells does HIV attack to cause AIDs?
What group of immune cells are related to innate immune functions?
granulocytes, macrophages, NK cells
What group of immune cells are related to adaptive immune functions?
B Cells and T Cells
When we are trying to get an adaptive immune response, the variable domain is known as the B Cell receptor but in the future, it will become an ______
What are the two steps to activate a B Cell?
Bind to pathogen 2. Receive signals from T Helper cells
Once a B cell is active, how does it copy itself?
When B Cells are copied, what can the copies become?
Plasma cells or memory B Cells
What do plasma cells that were copied from B cells do?
produce a lot of antibody and die after a few days
What do memory B Cells that were copied from B Cells do?
they do not produce antibody and become dormant for months/years
When we are re-exposed, what do our memory B-Cells do?
They wake up and quickly copy themselves and the cycle repeats
After your second exposure to an antibody (vaccine) do you feel sick shorter or longer than the first time (first shot)?
What do vaccines do?
Reduce spread of disease in a population that helps infants who are too young to get vaccinated and old people
What is herd immunity?
Large enough % of population is immune and protects the rest
(Vaccination 1) A vaccine is injected into our muscle. What will it build?
(Vaccination 2) What will the RNA do in the muscle cell?
it will present for a short while the spike proteins will be on the edges of the muscle cell
(Vaccination 3) What does the B Cell do to the spike protein?
It will bind to it
(Vaccination 4) What does the T Cell do to the spike protein?
it will bind to the spike protein which is being presented by MHC
What are immune system signals?
Important cytokines from T Cells needed for B Cell activation
What will other cytokines calm down?
Immune system responses
Where do macrophages live?
In our tissues
What do macrophages do?
phagocytosis (eat bacterium) then destroys it and antigen presentation on surface
What do macrophages send out to attract other immune cells?
When chemokines are sent out, what happens?
granulocytes will crawl out of blood vessel and into tissue to find macrophage by looking for more concentrated chemokine
What do macrophages secrete?
What do pyrogens do?
can travel to brain and increase temperature setpoint in brain to cause fever
High body temperature is a positive immune function, why?
It is a negative pathogen function
What temperature should our body not exceed?
What are interferons?
They are secreted by all our cells and can interfere with virus production
If there is a virus in a body cell, the interferon will enter and make _____ _____
Why do our cells secrete interferons?
They do this when they are virus infected to warn neighbors
What happens when a lot of interferons are present?
Reaches brain to cause fever