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Filial piety

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146 Terms

1

Filial piety

respect shown by children for their parents and elders

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2

Artifacts

object made by human beings, either hand-made or mass-produced

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3

Hominids

humans and other creatures that walk upright

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4

Nomads

a member of a people having no permanent abode, and who travel from place to place to find fresh pasture for their livestock.

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5

Prehistoric

before recorded history

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6

Cuneiform

A form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge shaped stylus and clay tablets.

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7

Ziggurat

massive pyramidal stepped tower made of mud bricks. It is associated with religious complexes in ancient Mesopotamian cities, but its function is unknown.

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8

Anthropology

science dealing with the origin, races, customs, and beliefs of humankind

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9

3 periods of Ancient Egypt

Old, Middle, New

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10

Shang Dynasty

Second Chinese dynasty (about 1750-1122 B.C.) which was mostly a farming society ruled by an aristocracy mostly concerned with war. They're best remembered for their art of bronze casting.

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11

Zhou Dynasty

(1050BC-400BC) Longest dynasty in Chinese history. Established a new political order with king at the highest level, then lords and warriors and then peasants.

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12

Hammurabi

Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 BC)

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13

Hieroglyphics

Egyptian writing that involved using pictures to represent words.

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14

Phoenicians

located on eastern Mediterranean coast; invented the alphabet which used sounds rather than symbols like cuneiform

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15

Aryans

nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system

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16

Sanskrit

the most important language of ancient India

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17

Mandate of Heaven

a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source

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18

Monarchy

A government ruled by a king or queen

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19

Republic

A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting

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20

Tyrant

a leader who held power through the use of force

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21

Aristocracy

the highest class in certain societies, especially those holding hereditary titles or offices.

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22

Homer

A Greek poet, author of the Iliad and the Odyssey

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23

Pericles

Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.

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24

Sophocles

Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex and Antigone

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25

Spartan warrior vs. Athenian scholar

spartan life of military service vs Athenian life of seeking knowledge

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26

Battle of Marathon

Greek victory over the Persian army that ended the First Persian War

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27

Demosthenes

Athenian orator who tried to unite the Greeks against Philip and his army

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28

Philip II

Macedonian king who sought to unite Greece under his banner until his death or murder. He was succeeded by his son Alexander.

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29

Alexander the Great

Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East.

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30

Darius

The third king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. He ruled the empire at its peak. He organized the empire by dividing it into provinces and placing satraps to govern it. He organized a new uniform money system, along with making Aramaic the official language of the empire. He also worked on construction projects throughout the empire.

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31

Euclid

(circa 300 BCE), Greek mathematician. Considered to be the father of modern geometry.

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32

Aristarchus

(310?-250? BCE) Greek scientist who first stated that the Earth revolved around the Sun, and rotated on its axis.

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33

Archimedes

scientist/inventor; invented lever and the pulley

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34

Pythagoras

Greek philosopher and mathematician who proved the Pythagorean theorem

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35

Plato

Socrates' most well known pupil. Founded an academy in Athens.

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36

Herodotus

Greek Historian, considered the father of History. He came from a Greek community in Anatolia and traveled extensively, collecting information in western Asia and the Mediterranean lands.

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37

Socrates

(470-399 BCE) An Athenian philosopher who thought that human beings could lead honest lives and that honor was far more important than wealth, fame, or other superficial attributes. He was put to death for questioning the religion

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38

Hinduism

A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms

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39

Legalism

A Chinese philosophy that was devoted to strengthen and expand the state through increased agricultural work and military service.

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40

Daoism

A religion in China which emphasizes the removal from society and to become one with nature.

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41

Confucianism

The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.

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42

Buddha

Means "Enlightened One." He is said to have found a path for overcoming suffering.

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43

Brahmin

the highest of the four classes of the caste system, traditionally made up of priests

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44

Reincarnation

In Hinduism and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn continuously until it achieves perfect understanding

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45

Dynastic Cycle

rise and fall of Chinese dynasties according to the Mandate of Heaven

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46

Mahabharata

the longest single poem in the world, about a war fought between two branches of the same family. One of India's greatest epics written between 1000 and 700 BC

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47

Moksha

Becoming liberated for the cycle of reincarnation in Hinduism.

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48

Nirvana

The state of englightenment for Buddhists.

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49

Karma

(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation

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50

Dharma

In Hindu belief, a person's religious and moral duties

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51

Brahman

A single spiritual power that Hindus believe lives in everything

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52

Shi Huangdi

Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states and standardization. (163

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53

Confucius

(551-479 BCE) A Chinese philosopher known also as Kong Fuzi and created one of the most influential philosophies in Chinese history, confucianism

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54

Siddhartha Gautama

The prince who is said to have founded Buddhism.

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55

Carthage

City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by the expanding Roman Republic in the third century B.C.E.

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56

Punic Wars

A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.

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57

Greco-Roman

The cultural mixing of both ancient Greek and Roman traditions.

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58

Pompey

Roman general and statesman who quarrelled with Caesar and fled to Egypt where he was murdered (106-48 BC)

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59

Crassus

General who defeated Spartacus. Crucified 6,600 slaves on the Alpennine way. He later served in the First Triumvirate.

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60

Julius Caesar

Made dictator for life in 45 BCE, after conquering Gaul, assassinated in 44 BCE by the Senate because they were afraid of his power

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61

Augustus

Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC

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62

Marc Antony

One of Caesar's generals, Falls in love with Cleopatra, He and Cleopatra declare war on Rome in 31 BC which they lose, member of second triumvirate.

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63

Antony and Cleopatra

The story of a love affair and of the final Roman civil war, ending with Octavius' victory at Actium. The title character commits suicide when he falsely hears his lover is dead. His lover then kills herself with the bite of an asp rather than be made captive by Octavius.

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64

Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus

Urge the government to give back public land to the poor, both murdered by members of the senate

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65

Dictator

A ruler who has complete power over a country

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66

Twelve Tables of Rome

codified Roman laws; included concept of "innocent until proven guilty"; the codification of Roman law during the republic

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67

Pax Romana

200 year period of peace in Rome.

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68

Pantheon

Former roman temple for athena

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69

Scipio

Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second Punic War and defeated Hannibal at Zama (circa 237-183 BC)

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70

Cato

the Roman senator who feared Carthage would grow too strong and ended every speech with a cry, "Carthage must be destroyed!"

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71

Patricians

Powerful landowners who controlled Roman government and society

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72

Plebeians

the common people of ancient Rome

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73

Marcus Aurelius

last emperor of the Pax Romana

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74

Etruscans

the group of people who ruled Rome before Romans revolted

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75

Roman Senate

A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. Originally an advisory body to the early kings, in the era of the Roman Republic the Senate effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire.

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76

Roman Legion

The Armies of Rome. Rome's Military was its great strength. They build the Roads and kept the borders of the Empire safe. Loyal to their Generals.

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77

Monotheistic

Belief in one God

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78

Covenant

A solemn agreement between human beings or between God and a human being in which mutual commitments are made.

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79

Sabbath

a weekly day of worship and rest

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80

Diaspora

the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel

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81

Sect

A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.

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82

Messiah

Savior sent by God

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83

Martyr

A person who is killed because of their religious or other beliefs

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84

Heresy

against orthodox opinion

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85

Mecca

City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.

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86

Medina

city of the prophet

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87

Hajj

A pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims

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88

Jihad

a holy war undertaken as a sacred duty by Muslims

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89

People of the Book

what Muslims called Christians and Jews which means that they too only believe in one god

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90

Islam

A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.

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91

Muslim

A follower of Islam

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92

Jesus

Founder of Christianity

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93

Charles Martel

A Frankish leader who rallied warriors to push Muslims out of France and defeated them at the Battle of Tours

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94

Pepin the Short

He was Charles Martel's son. He was king and the Pope asked him for help against the Lombards who were invading. Pepin helps him and defeats them and in turn, the Pope names him king of the Franks. Then Pepin gives the Pope land called the Papal States.

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95

Clovis

5th century Frankish leader of a large kingdom who converted to Christianity

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96

Charlemagne

800 AD crowned by the Pope as the head of the Holy Roman Empire, which extended from northern Spain to western Germany and northern Italy. His palace was at Aachen in central Europe

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97

Pope Leo III

Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day, 800

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98

Pope Gregory I

This pope strongly emphasized the sacrament of penance and encouraged confession for the remission of sins which made people more dependent on the church for salvation.

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99

Pope Gregory VII

reformed a lot and determined to challenge secular authority. He caused a lot of conflict and was admired by many and hated by many. He banned lay investiture, which angered Henry IV

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100

Treaty of Verdun

843 Treaty that ended power struggle of Charlemagne's 3 sons after his death and split Franks into 3 kingdoms

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