correct PSYA02 final

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1

preferential looking

a research technique that involves giving an infant a choice of what object to look at

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2

when do babies achieve adult-like acuity?

6 months after birth

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3

what do newborn's reflexes consist of?

grasping

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sucking

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rooting

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swallowing

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tonic neck reflex

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8

cephalocaudal rule

the "top-to-bottom" rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet (significant changes occur in the brain and the head before changes happen in the extremities)

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9

proximodistal rule

the "inside-to-outside" rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery (significant development occurs first at centrally located features, such as the heart or the lungs, before occurring at more peripheral locations, including the hands or fingers)

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10

When are teratogens most harmful?

the period of embryo

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11

The period of fetus

From 9 weeks after conception to birth, classified as a period of growth and minor refinements. The fetus gains weight and moves into the head down position that is preferred for child birth. fetal brains develop sulci and gyri

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12

constructivist

children are active contributors to their own learning, that is, they construct their own knowledge

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13

dialectical

the growth of cognitive structures occurs when individuals encounter conflicting information that alters their existing perspectives on the world

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14

what are the four stages of children's cognitive development?

sensorimotor stage

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15

pre-operational stage

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concrete operational stage

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formal operational stage

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18

theory of mind

the understanding that human behavior is guided by mental representations, and that these mental representations differ across individuals

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19

what task is used to measure theory of mind?

false belief task

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20

attachment

the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver

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21

Mary Main identified three attachment styles in adults that parallel those observed in infants. What are they?

secure or autonomous, anxious or preoccupied, and avoidant or dismissive

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22

attachment style can predict what outcomes in adulthood?

academic achievement

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emotional health

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relationship quality

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self esteem

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26

positivity bias

young children almost always describe themselves positively

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27

young children describe themselves...

in physical terms and almost always positively

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28

why does positivity bias decline quickly at school age?

social comparison begins

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29

cognitive skills increase (perspective-taking increases)

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school begins objective evaluations

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31

rank order stability

children with lower self-esteem tend to have lower self-esteem as adults

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32

identity formation

the chief task of adolescence

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33

achievements in adolescence

abstract thinking and self-socialization

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34

challenges in adolescence

personal fable and imaginary audience

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35

identity confusion

an incomplete and sometimes incoherent sense of self that often occurs in Erikson's stage of identity versus identity confusion

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36

identity foreclosure

premature commitment to an identity without adequate consideration of other options

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37

negative identity

identity that stands in opposition to others/social norms

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38

Which of the two declines more quickly? Episodic or semantic memory?

Episodic memory

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39

Why do older adults feel happier?

They tend to remember positive stimuli better than negative stimuli

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40

Their amygdalae are more activated by positive emotions than negative ones

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41

Why do older adults tend to value having close social groups?

it is related to their shorter futures

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42

Binet-Simon intelligence test consists of...

puzzles

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object-naming

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counting

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45

IQ scores positively correlated with protective factors. What are they?

high parental involvements, stimulating physical environment etc

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46

IQ scores negatively correlated with risk factors. What are they?

low socio-economic status, low maternal education etc

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47

three of the eight types of intelligence in Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences are tested in standard IQ tests. What are they?

linguistic intelligence

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48

logical-math intelligence

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spatial intelligence

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50

Evidence for Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences

the areas of intelligence have different developmental patterns

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51

damage to a specific brian area may impact only one type of intelligence and not other

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52

What does emotional intelligence consist of?

the ability to reason about emotions and to use emotions to enhance reasoning

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53

description of one's own emotions

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54

management of one's own emotions

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55

detection of other's emotions

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56

the two dimensions of emotions

valence (positive or negative)

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57

psychological arousal (severity)

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58

two major neural structures related to emotion

the amygdala and prefrontal cortex

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59

the universality hypothesis

facial expressions are evolved in order to aid in survival and therefore may be somewhat universal in the human population

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60

four strategies to hide our emotions

intensification

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de-intensification

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masking

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neutralizing

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64

reliable muscles

facial muscles that are resistant to conscious change

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65

duration of sincere facial gesture

0.5 to 5 seconds

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66

motivation

the psychological reason for producing an action

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67

hedonic principle

all motivation extends from attraction to pleasure and avoidance of pain

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68

drives & incentives

drives are basic needs for nuitrition and sex and incentives are ways we satisfy the drives

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69

three psychological dimensions of motivation

intrinsic vs extrinsic

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conscious vs unconscious

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approach vs avoidance

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72

three major stages of prenatal development

the period of the zygote, the period of the embryo and the period of the fetus

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73

the primary characteristic of the period of the zygote

rapid cell division

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74

ectopic pregnancy

a pregnancy that results from the implantation of the blastocyst into one of the fallopian tubes instead of the uterine wall

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75

why are ectopic pregnancies dangerous?

Whereas the uterus is a muscle that can expand (as the zygote grows) and contract (to expel the fetus during childbirth), the fallopian tubes do not have this ability. For this reason, pregnant women may have to terminate their pregnancy to avoid the possibility of a ruptured fallopian tube, which can result in death.

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76

monozygotic twins

Also known as "identical" twins, monozygotic twins have 100% shared genetics. During conception, one egg was fertilized by one sperm and then splits into two separate cells with identical DNA. Identical twins are always the same sex.

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dizygotic twins

Also known as "fraternal" twins or non-identical twins. In relatively rare cases a woman's ovaries will release more than one egg at a time. Dizygotic twins occur when two eggs are each fertilized by separate sperm cells. The level of shared genetics is approximately 50% and is similar to any siblings born apart from the same parents. Fraternal twins may be of different sexes.

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78

assimilation

the incorporation of new information into existing cognitive structures

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79

accommodation

the creation of new cognitive structures to house new information

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80

equilibration

states in which cognitive structures agree with external realities

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81

disequilibration

states in which cognitive structures do not agree with external realities. when this occurs, cognitive structures must be modified through assimilation or accommodation

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82

primary circular reactions

in the second sub stage of sensorimotor development, infants learn about the world by repeatedly engaging in actions on their own bodies

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83

secondary circular reactions

in the third sub stage of sensorimotor development, infants learn about the world by repeatedly engaging in actions outside their own bodies

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84

tertiary circular reactions

in the fifth substage of sensorimotor development, infants learn about the world through their activities as "little scientists" they actively explore the world using different combinations of items to see how these changes affect their observed outcomes

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85

mental representation

in the final substage of sensorimotor development, infants remember and re-enact situations and events that happened previously without any ongoing perceptual supports

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86

concrete operational period

The third stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, lasting from ages 7 to 11, marked by increased cognitive ability in reasoning about concrete events. They can evaluate and make sense of what they can physically see in the world around them, but thinking about hypothetical situations is difficult.

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87

three transformative principles children learn during the concrete operational period

identity

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compensation

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inversion

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object permanence

an understanding that objects and individuals continue to exist even if they cannot be seen, a development that occurs around nine months of age

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91

preoperational period

the second stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, lasting from ages two to seven: this stage is marked by a child's increasing ability to use symbols and engage in logical thinking

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92

two sub stages of preoperational period

preconceptual thinking and intuitive thinking

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symbolic thinking

The ability to use symbols (e.g., language) to stand for other things (e.g., complex feelings, ideas).

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94

animism

preschooler belief that stuffed toys and other inanimate objects have feelings

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95

egocentrism

difficulty of children in adopting the perspective of another individual

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96

sociocultural theory

cognitive development is a continuous process that is intimately linked to the context in which children are raised

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97

scaffold

Cognitive support offered by a teacher to a learner to assist the learner to acquire new skills or knowledge. Such support is withdrawn when the learner can perform the skill on his/her own.

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98

zone of proximal development

the distance between what a child can accomplish alone and what a child can accomplish with some assistance.

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99

What was Harry Harlow's experiment about?

examine whether attachment to a "mother" was based on sustenance (the provision of food) or comfort (the provision of warmth and the ability of the mother to serve as a secure base

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