Bio 160 Fall 2023: Exam 1

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5 Characteristics of Life

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Biology

First 6 Weeks of Bio 160 at UTK, Prep for 1st exam

176 Terms

1

5 Characteristics of Life

  1. Consists of 1 or more cells

  2. Processes Information

  3. Capable of replication/reproduction

  4. Processes Energy

  5. Is a Product of Evolution

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2

Cell Theory

All organisms are made of cells and all cells come from pre-existing cells

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3

5 Core Concepts of Biology

  1. Evolution

  2. Structure and Function

  3. Information Flow, Exchange, and Storage

  4. Pathways & Transformation of Energy & Matter

  5. Systems

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4

Valence Electrons

number of electrons in an atom’s outer shell

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5

Ionic Bond

a metal and non-metal lose and gain electrons respectively to become more stable, which creates electrically attracted ions

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6

Covalent Bond

2 non-metals share electrons to achieve stability

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7

Polar Covalent Bonds

2 non-metals with unequal electronegativities

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8

Non-polar Covalent Bonds

2 non-metals with equal electronegativities

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9

Hydrogen Bonding

specific kind of intermolecular force where Hydrogen bonds to Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine

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10

Solvent

liquid that other substances are dissolved in (Ex: Water in a glass of salt water)

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11

Hydrophilic

Water loving, will dissolve and interact with water

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12

Hydrophobic

Water fearing, will not dissolve or interact with water

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13

Cohesion

Molecules stick to one another

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14

Adhesion

molecules stick to polar or charged surfaces

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15

What allows water to resist changes in temperature?

Polarity and Hydrogen Bonding

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16

In a glass of pure water, list 2 different kinds of bonds occurring and indicate strongest & weakest.

Polar Covalent (Strongest) and Hydrogen Bonds (Weakest)

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17

Why does ice float?

Liquid water is denser than solid water (ice) due to hydrogen bonding

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18

What makes something an Organic Molecule?

Contains at least 1 C-H Bond

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19

What does pH stand for?

Potential Hydrogen

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20

Acids are found ______________ on the pH scale because they have a ___________ concentration of Hydrogen (H+) ions

from 1-6.999, higher

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21

Bases are found ______________ on the pH scale because they have a ___________ concentration of Hydrogen (H+) ions

from 7.001-14, lower

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22

What substance has a pH of 7?

Pure Water

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23

How many bonds can carbon form?

4

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24
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>

What Functional Group is this?

Amino Group

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25
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>

What Functional Group is this?

Carbonyl Group

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26
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>

What Functional Group is this?

Carboxyl Group

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27
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>

What Functional Group is this?

Hydroxyl Group

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28
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>

What Functional Group is this?

Phosphate Group

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29
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>

What Functional Group is this?

Sulfhydryl Group

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30

Condensation Reactions ___________ a bond and ___________ a molecule of water

form, release

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31

Hydrolysis Reactions ___________ a bond and ___________ a molecule of water

break, use/require

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32

Which functional groups act as acids?

Carboxyl, Hydroxyl

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33

Which functional group acts as a base?

Amino

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34

Sulfhydryl Functionals groups can link together via _____________ bonds

Disulfide bonds

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35

Name some of the functions of Proteins

structure, energy storage, movement, transport, catalysis, defense, and signaling

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36

What kind of protien catalyzes reactions?

Enzymes (they usually end in “-ase”

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37
<p>Define Amino Acid.</p>

Define Amino Acid.

monomer of proteins

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38

What part of the Amino Acid determines identity?

The side-chain

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39

If the R group has a negative charge, it’s __________

acidic

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40

If the r group has a positive charge, it’s ____________

basic

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41

If the r group contains Oxygen it’s _________

polar

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42

If the r group isn’t charged and doesn’t contain Oxygen, it’s probably

Non-polar

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43

What kind of bond links Amino Acids

Peptide Bond

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44

Is a peptide bond a hydrolysis or condensation reaction?

Condensation

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45

Protein’s Primary Structure

Peptide Chain

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46

Protein’s Secondary Structure

α-helix or β-pleated sheets

<p><span style="font-family: Roboto, sans-serif">α-helix or β-pleated sheets</span></p>
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47

Protein’s Tertiary Structure occurs when the α-helix or β-pleated sheets begin to fold in on themselves. What causes this?

Hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, Van Der Waals forces, and disulfide bonds

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48

What is protein’s quaternary structure?

Multiple proteins linked together and functioning as a unit

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49

Proteins must be ____________ correctly or they cannot function

folded

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50

What do Prions do?

cause protiens to misfold in brain cells, leading to death

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51

What is a nucleotide?

monomer of nucleic acids

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52

What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide?

5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base

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53

Which part of a nucleotide determines identity?

Nitrogenous base

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54

How do we number the carbons on our 5-carbon sugar?

starting with the carbon linked to the nitrogenous base and moving clockwise

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55

List the 5 Nitrogenous bases

Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cuytosine, and Uracil

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56

Which nitrogenous base is ONLY found in RNA?

Uracil

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57

Which nitrogenous base is ONLY found in DNA?

Thymine

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58

Adenine pairs with_____ and ________

thymine and uracil

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59

Guanine Pairs with

Cytosine

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60

Purines (double ring)

Adenine and Guanine

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61

Pyrimidines (single ring)

Thymine, Uracil, and Cytosine

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62

What is the bond that links 2 nucleotides?

Phosphodiester Linkage

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63

How does a Phosphodiester Linkage form?

The 3’ carbon on the 5-carbon sugar links to the phosphate group of the nucleotide being added.

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64

The 5’ end always has an exposed ______________ group

Phosphate

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65

The 5’ end always has an exposed ______________

3’ carbon

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66

New nucleotides are always added to the 3’ end of the strand

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67

Primary Structure of Nucleic Acids

Polynucleotide

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68

2 DNA strands together form a ______________, the secondary structure of nucleic acids

Double Helix

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69

Complementary DNA strands run __________

Anti-parallel

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70

In RNA, a single strand doubles back on itself to form a ___________

hairpin

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71

What bond forms between 2 nitrogenous bases?

hydrogen bonds

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72

Is a phosphodiester linkage a condensation or hydrolysis reaction?

Condensation

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73

Polar molecules are hydro_________

philic

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74

Non-polar molecules are hydro_________

phobic

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75

Carbohydrates contain what elements?

C, O, and H

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76

What is the monomer of a carbohydrate?

Monosachharides

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77

Most Carbohydrates end in ________

-ose

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78

How many carbons do typical carbohydrates have?

Minimum 3, Rarely more than 6

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79

Carbohydrates can be _________ or _____________

linear, ring structure

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80

If a carbonyl group is in the middle of the carbon chain, then it’s an _______

aldose

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81

If a carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon chain, then it’s a _______

ketose

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82

How are monosaccharides bonded together?

Glycosidic Linkages

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83

If the 2 carbons involved in bonding have the same stereochemistry, it’s an __________

α-1,4 Glycosidic Linkage

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84

If the 2 carbons involved in bonding have different stereochemistry, it’s a ____________________

β-1,4 Glycosidic Linkage

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85

Glycosidic linkages always occur between which carbons?

1 and 4

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86

What other macromolecule contains a monosaccharide?

Nucleotide

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87

Which polysaccharides store chemical energy?

Starch and Glycogen

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88

Which polysaccharides are present in cell walls?

Cellulose, Chitin, and Peptidoglycan

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89

Starch’s monosaccharide is __ glucose

α

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90

Glycogen’s monosaccharide is __ glucose

α

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91

Cellulose’s monomer is ___________

β-glucose

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92

Chitin’s monomer is _______

NAG

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93

Peptidoglycan’s monomers are _______ & __________

NAG and NAM

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94

Does Glycogen form arrays or helices

Helices

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95

Does Starch form arrays or helices

Helices

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96

Does Celluose form arrays or helices

arrays

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97

Does Chitin form arrays or helices

arrays

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98

Does Peptidoglycan form arrays or helices

arrays

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99

Parallel strands in Cellulose are joined by______________

hydrogen bonds

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100

Parallel strands in Chitin are joined by______________

Hyrdogen bonds

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