Bio 160 Fall 2023: Exam 1

studied byStudied by 3 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

5 Characteristics of Life

1 / 175

Tags & Description

First 6 Weeks of Bio 160 at UTK, Prep for 1st exam

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
176
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
176 Terms
1
New cards

5 Characteristics of Life

  1. Consists of 1 or more cells

  2. Processes Information

  3. Capable of replication/reproduction

  4. Processes Energy

  5. Is a Product of Evolution

New cards
2
New cards

Cell Theory

All organisms are made of cells and all cells come from pre-existing cells

New cards
3
New cards

5 Core Concepts of Biology

  1. Evolution

  2. Structure and Function

  3. Information Flow, Exchange, and Storage

  4. Pathways & Transformation of Energy & Matter

  5. Systems

New cards
4
New cards

Valence Electrons

number of electrons in an atom’s outer shell

New cards
5
New cards

Ionic Bond

a metal and non-metal lose and gain electrons respectively to become more stable, which creates electrically attracted ions

New cards
6
New cards

Covalent Bond

2 non-metals share electrons to achieve stability

New cards
7
New cards

Polar Covalent Bonds

2 non-metals with unequal electronegativities

New cards
8
New cards

Non-polar Covalent Bonds

2 non-metals with equal electronegativities

New cards
9
New cards

Hydrogen Bonding

specific kind of intermolecular force where Hydrogen bonds to Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine

New cards
10
New cards

Solvent

liquid that other substances are dissolved in (Ex: Water in a glass of salt water)

New cards
11
New cards

Hydrophilic

Water loving, will dissolve and interact with water

New cards
12
New cards

Hydrophobic

Water fearing, will not dissolve or interact with water

New cards
13
New cards

Cohesion

Molecules stick to one another

New cards
14
New cards

Adhesion

molecules stick to polar or charged surfaces

New cards
15
New cards

What allows water to resist changes in temperature?

Polarity and Hydrogen Bonding

New cards
16
New cards

In a glass of pure water, list 2 different kinds of bonds occurring and indicate strongest & weakest.

Polar Covalent (Strongest) and Hydrogen Bonds (Weakest)

New cards
17
New cards

Why does ice float?

Liquid water is denser than solid water (ice) due to hydrogen bonding

New cards
18
New cards

What makes something an Organic Molecule?

Contains at least 1 C-H Bond

New cards
19
New cards

What does pH stand for?

Potential Hydrogen

New cards
20
New cards

Acids are found ______________ on the pH scale because they have a ___________ concentration of Hydrogen (H+) ions

from 1-6.999, higher

New cards
21
New cards

Bases are found ______________ on the pH scale because they have a ___________ concentration of Hydrogen (H+) ions

from 7.001-14, lower

New cards
22
New cards

What substance has a pH of 7?

Pure Water

New cards
23
New cards

How many bonds can carbon form?

4

New cards
24
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>
New cards
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>

What Functional Group is this?

Amino Group

New cards
25
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>
New cards
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>

What Functional Group is this?

Carbonyl Group

New cards
26
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>
New cards
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>

What Functional Group is this?

Carboxyl Group

New cards
27
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>
New cards
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>

What Functional Group is this?

Hydroxyl Group

New cards
28
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>
New cards
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>

What Functional Group is this?

Phosphate Group

New cards
29
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>
New cards
<p>What Functional Group is this?</p>

What Functional Group is this?

Sulfhydryl Group

New cards
30
New cards

Condensation Reactions ___________ a bond and ___________ a molecule of water

form, release

New cards
31
New cards

Hydrolysis Reactions ___________ a bond and ___________ a molecule of water

break, use/require

New cards
32
New cards

Which functional groups act as acids?

Carboxyl, Hydroxyl

New cards
33
New cards

Which functional group acts as a base?

Amino

New cards
34
New cards

Sulfhydryl Functionals groups can link together via _____________ bonds

Disulfide bonds

New cards
35
New cards

Name some of the functions of Proteins

structure, energy storage, movement, transport, catalysis, defense, and signaling

New cards
36
New cards

What kind of protien catalyzes reactions?

Enzymes (they usually end in “-ase”

New cards
37
<p>Define Amino Acid.</p>
New cards
<p>Define Amino Acid.</p>

Define Amino Acid.

monomer of proteins

New cards
38
New cards

What part of the Amino Acid determines identity?

The side-chain

New cards
39
New cards

If the R group has a negative charge, it’s __________

acidic

New cards
40
New cards

If the r group has a positive charge, it’s ____________

basic

New cards
41
New cards

If the r group contains Oxygen it’s _________

polar

New cards
42
New cards

If the r group isn’t charged and doesn’t contain Oxygen, it’s probably

Non-polar

New cards
43
New cards

What kind of bond links Amino Acids

Peptide Bond

New cards
44
New cards

Is a peptide bond a hydrolysis or condensation reaction?

Condensation

New cards
45
New cards

Protein’s Primary Structure

Peptide Chain

New cards
46
New cards

Protein’s Secondary Structure

<p><span style="font-family: Roboto, sans-serif">α-helix or β-pleated sheets</span></p>

α-helix or β-pleated sheets

<p><span style="font-family: Roboto, sans-serif">α-helix or β-pleated sheets</span></p>
New cards
47
New cards

Protein’s Tertiary Structure occurs when the α-helix or β-pleated sheets begin to fold in on themselves. What causes this?

Hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, Van Der Waals forces, and disulfide bonds

New cards
48
New cards

What is protein’s quaternary structure?

Multiple proteins linked together and functioning as a unit

New cards
49
New cards

Proteins must be ____________ correctly or they cannot function

folded

New cards
50
New cards

What do Prions do?

cause protiens to misfold in brain cells, leading to death

New cards
51
New cards

What is a nucleotide?

monomer of nucleic acids

New cards
52
New cards

What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide?

5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base

New cards
53
New cards

Which part of a nucleotide determines identity?

Nitrogenous base

New cards
54
New cards

How do we number the carbons on our 5-carbon sugar?

starting with the carbon linked to the nitrogenous base and moving clockwise

New cards
55
New cards

List the 5 Nitrogenous bases

Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cuytosine, and Uracil

New cards
56
New cards

Which nitrogenous base is ONLY found in RNA?

Uracil

New cards
57
New cards

Which nitrogenous base is ONLY found in DNA?

Thymine

New cards
58
New cards

Adenine pairs with_____ and ________

thymine and uracil

New cards
59
New cards

Guanine Pairs with

Cytosine

New cards
60
New cards

Purines (double ring)

Adenine and Guanine

New cards
61
New cards

Pyrimidines (single ring)

Thymine, Uracil, and Cytosine

New cards
62
New cards

What is the bond that links 2 nucleotides?

Phosphodiester Linkage

New cards
63
New cards

How does a Phosphodiester Linkage form?

The 3’ carbon on the 5-carbon sugar links to the phosphate group of the nucleotide being added.

New cards
64
New cards

The 5’ end always has an exposed ______________ group

Phosphate

New cards
65
New cards

The 5’ end always has an exposed ______________

3’ carbon

New cards
66
New cards

New nucleotides are always added to the 3’ end of the strand

New cards
67
New cards

Primary Structure of Nucleic Acids

Polynucleotide

New cards
68
New cards

2 DNA strands together form a ______________, the secondary structure of nucleic acids

Double Helix

New cards
69
New cards

Complementary DNA strands run __________

Anti-parallel

New cards
70
New cards

In RNA, a single strand doubles back on itself to form a ___________

hairpin

New cards
71
New cards

What bond forms between 2 nitrogenous bases?

hydrogen bonds

New cards
72
New cards

Is a phosphodiester linkage a condensation or hydrolysis reaction?

Condensation

New cards
73
New cards

Polar molecules are hydro_________

philic

New cards
74
New cards

Non-polar molecules are hydro_________

phobic

New cards
75
New cards

Carbohydrates contain what elements?

C, O, and H

New cards
76
New cards

What is the monomer of a carbohydrate?

Monosachharides

New cards
77
New cards

Most Carbohydrates end in ________

-ose

New cards
78
New cards

How many carbons do typical carbohydrates have?

Minimum 3, Rarely more than 6

New cards
79
New cards

Carbohydrates can be _________ or _____________

linear, ring structure

New cards
80
New cards

If a carbonyl group is in the middle of the carbon chain, then it’s an _______

aldose

New cards
81
New cards

If a carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon chain, then it’s a _______

ketose

New cards
82
New cards

How are monosaccharides bonded together?

Glycosidic Linkages

New cards
83
New cards

If the 2 carbons involved in bonding have the same stereochemistry, it’s an __________

α-1,4 Glycosidic Linkage

New cards
84
New cards

If the 2 carbons involved in bonding have different stereochemistry, it’s a ____________________

β-1,4 Glycosidic Linkage

New cards
85
New cards

Glycosidic linkages always occur between which carbons?

1 and 4

New cards
86
New cards

What other macromolecule contains a monosaccharide?

Nucleotide

New cards
87
New cards

Which polysaccharides store chemical energy?

Starch and Glycogen

New cards
88
New cards

Which polysaccharides are present in cell walls?

Cellulose, Chitin, and Peptidoglycan

New cards
89
New cards

Starch’s monosaccharide is __ glucose

α

New cards
90
New cards

Glycogen’s monosaccharide is __ glucose

α

New cards
91
New cards

Cellulose’s monomer is ___________

β-glucose

New cards
92
New cards

Chitin’s monomer is _______

NAG

New cards
93
New cards

Peptidoglycan’s monomers are _______ & __________

NAG and NAM

New cards
94
New cards

Does Glycogen form arrays or helices

Helices

New cards
95
New cards

Does Starch form arrays or helices

Helices

New cards
96
New cards

Does Celluose form arrays or helices

arrays

New cards
97
New cards

Does Chitin form arrays or helices

arrays

New cards
98
New cards

Does Peptidoglycan form arrays or helices

arrays

New cards
99
New cards

Parallel strands in Cellulose are joined by______________

hydrogen bonds

New cards
100
New cards

Parallel strands in Chitin are joined by______________

Hyrdogen bonds

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1651 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(13)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 61 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard76 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard153 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard77 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard166 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard74 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)