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Study terms and definitions
5 Characteristics of Life
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Consists of 1 or more cells
Capable of replication/reproduction
Is a Product of Evolution
All organisms are made of cells and all cells come from pre-existing cells
5 Core Concepts of Biology
Structure and Function
Information Flow, Exchange, and Storage
Pathways & Transformation of Energy & Matter
number of electrons in an atom’s outer shell
a metal and non-metal lose and gain electrons respectively to become more stable, which creates electrically attracted ions
2 non-metals share electrons to achieve stability
Polar Covalent Bonds
2 non-metals with unequal electronegativities
Non-polar Covalent Bonds
2 non-metals with equal electronegativities
specific kind of intermolecular force where Hydrogen bonds to Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine
liquid that other substances are dissolved in (Ex: Water in a glass of salt water)
Water loving, will dissolve and interact with water
Water fearing, will not dissolve or interact with water
Molecules stick to one another
molecules stick to polar or charged surfaces
What allows water to resist changes in temperature?
Polarity and Hydrogen Bonding
In a glass of pure water, list 2 different kinds of bonds occurring and indicate strongest & weakest.
Polar Covalent (Strongest) and Hydrogen Bonds (Weakest)
Why does ice float?
Liquid water is denser than solid water (ice) due to hydrogen bonding
What makes something an Organic Molecule?
Contains at least 1 C-H Bond
What does pH stand for?
Acids are found ______________ on the pH scale because they have a ___________ concentration of Hydrogen (H+) ions
from 1-6.999, higher
Bases are found ______________ on the pH scale because they have a ___________ concentration of Hydrogen (H+) ions
from 7.001-14, lower
What substance has a pH of 7?
How many bonds can carbon form?
What Functional Group is this?
Condensation Reactions ___________ a bond and ___________ a molecule of water
Hydrolysis Reactions ___________ a bond and ___________ a molecule of water
Which functional groups act as acids?
Which functional group acts as a base?
Sulfhydryl Functionals groups can link together via _____________ bonds
Name some of the functions of Proteins
structure, energy storage, movement, transport, catalysis, defense, and signaling
What kind of protien catalyzes reactions?
Enzymes (they usually end in “-ase”
Define Amino Acid.
monomer of proteins
What part of the Amino Acid determines identity?
If the R group has a negative charge, it’s __________
If the r group has a positive charge, it’s ____________
If the r group contains Oxygen it’s _________
If the r group isn’t charged and doesn’t contain Oxygen, it’s probably
What kind of bond links Amino Acids
Is a peptide bond a hydrolysis or condensation reaction?
Protein’s Primary Structure
Protein’s Secondary Structure
α-helix or β-pleated sheets
Protein’s Tertiary Structure occurs when the α-helix or β-pleated sheets begin to fold in on themselves. What causes this?
Hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, Van Der Waals forces, and disulfide bonds
What is protein’s quaternary structure?
Multiple proteins linked together and functioning as a unit
Proteins must be ____________ correctly or they cannot function
What do Prions do?
cause protiens to misfold in brain cells, leading to death
What is a nucleotide?
monomer of nucleic acids
What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide?
5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base
Which part of a nucleotide determines identity?
How do we number the carbons on our 5-carbon sugar?
starting with the carbon linked to the nitrogenous base and moving clockwise
List the 5 Nitrogenous bases
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cuytosine, and Uracil
Which nitrogenous base is ONLY found in RNA?
Which nitrogenous base is ONLY found in DNA?
Adenine pairs with_____ and ________
thymine and uracil
Guanine Pairs with
Purines (double ring)
Adenine and Guanine
Pyrimidines (single ring)
Thymine, Uracil, and Cytosine
What is the bond that links 2 nucleotides?
How does a Phosphodiester Linkage form?
The 3’ carbon on the 5-carbon sugar links to the phosphate group of the nucleotide being added.
The 5’ end always has an exposed ______________ group
The 5’ end always has an exposed ______________
New nucleotides are always added to the 3’ end of the strand
Primary Structure of Nucleic Acids
2 DNA strands together form a ______________, the secondary structure of nucleic acids
Complementary DNA strands run __________
In RNA, a single strand doubles back on itself to form a ___________
What bond forms between 2 nitrogenous bases?
Is a phosphodiester linkage a condensation or hydrolysis reaction?
Polar molecules are hydro_________
Non-polar molecules are hydro_________
Carbohydrates contain what elements?
C, O, and H
What is the monomer of a carbohydrate?
Most Carbohydrates end in ________
How many carbons do typical carbohydrates have?
Minimum 3, Rarely more than 6
Carbohydrates can be _________ or _____________
linear, ring structure
If a carbonyl group is in the middle of the carbon chain, then it’s an _______
If a carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon chain, then it’s a _______
How are monosaccharides bonded together?
If the 2 carbons involved in bonding have the same stereochemistry, it’s an __________
α-1,4 Glycosidic Linkage
If the 2 carbons involved in bonding have different stereochemistry, it’s a ____________________
β-1,4 Glycosidic Linkage