HIST 1020 Exam 1

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Asia, America, Africa

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Asia, America, Africa

What contents were the large ruling empires in the world around 1200-1500?

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there were disjointed individual kingdoms/provinces/duchies fighting for power and control

What was going on in Europe in 1200-1500?

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strong ruling empires and religion

What were the two unifying factors during 1200-1500?

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they develop isolated from each other bc they did not know the other existed yet

What happened before 1492 in the Western and Eastern hemispheres?

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Afro-Eurasia in 1491

<p>What is this a map of?</p>

What is this a map of?

<p>What is this a map of?</p>
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Temujin--aka Genghis Khan

Who was the leader of the Mongols?

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Pax Mongolica

What created stability in regions where the Mongols ruled?

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Kublai Khan

Who was the founder of the Yuan Dynasty?

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Silk Road Stability

<p>What route does this image display?</p>

What route does this image display?

<p>What route does this image display?</p>
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Marco Polo’s

<p>Whose journey is this?</p>

Whose journey is this?

<p>Whose journey is this?</p>
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plague

What is the illness with the symptoms of fever, weakness, and headaches?

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Yersinia perstis

What kind of bacterium caused the plague?

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Bubonic, Septicemic, Pneumonic

What are the 3 main strains of plague?

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contact with the infected, touching pus, blood, water droplets, mucus, other discharges

How was the plague transmitted?

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flea bites and rats

What was the most common cause of the plague?

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the ultimate collapse of feudalism and the end of serfdom

What were the consequences in Europe?

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-new professional classes such as artisans and merchants

-agricultural workers were able to earn higher wages

-less people meant higher demands for labor

-food prices went down-less people meant more food availability

-land became cheaper and more available

-renewed interest in faith and Christianity

-plague never leaves- flareups for centuries, death toll never as high

What emerged in Europe out of the end of feudalism?

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-Yuan Dynasty collapses, within a generation, due to social and economic turmoil

What were the consequences in Asia caused by the plague?

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social and economic turmoil

What caused the Yuan Dynasty to collapse?

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the Ming

What new dynasty emerges in Asia after the Yuan?

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Khanates

Which Dynasty across Eurasia slowly succumbs to instability and collapses?

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the Mongols

Which people group created a massive empire across Eurasia?

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order and stability in lands they conquered through brutal warfare tactics

What did the Mongols establish in Eurasia and how?

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true

Stability created by large empires is fragile and can collapse if a large enough disaster occurs. (T/F?)

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Khanates

Which people group did the Pax Mongolica bring stability and order to?

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false

The Pax Mongolica did not extend to the old Silk Road trade networks. (T/F?)

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70-200 million people

About how many people did the Black Death kill in the 1350s?

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The Black Death

What plague led to massive social and political transformations in Europe and Asia?

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The leader of the Ottomans

Who was Osman I?

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Mehmed II "the conqueror”

Who was responsible for the Siege of Constantinople in 1453?

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because the Ottomans controlled to Silk Road Networks

Why did Europeans begin to seek alternative routes to Asian markets?

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Portugal

Which country led European exploration efforts?

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China

Which country conducted their own expeditions?

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Who was Vasco da Gama?

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Cartaz

“protection money” that Portuguese forced traders in the Indian Ocean to pay in order to prevent excessive Portuguese hostility

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they had strategic locations to trade outposts as well as choke points in water routes

What did Portugal do instead of making large land claims?

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bc they were only grown in this region

-consisted of: pepper, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, ginger

Why did Europeans want the spice islands?

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-Chinese explorer during the Ming dynasty

-led the largest ships in the world on seven voyages of exploration to the lands around the Indian Ocean, demonstrating Chinese excellence at shipbuilding and navigation

Who was Zheng He?

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a series of campaigns by Christian states to recapture territory from the Muslims (Moors), who had occupied most of the Iberian Peninsula in the early 8th century

-Medeval Spain and Portugal

What was the Reconquista? Where did it take place?

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a marriage alliance between Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon

What caused the Kindoms of Castille and Aragon to unite?

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it was a judicial institution that was established to determine the legitamacy of those claiming to be Christians in Spain

-served to consolidate power in the monarchy of the newly unified Spanish kingdom

-was achieved through brutal methods.

What was the Spanish Inquisition?

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Convencia

What was the relative peace called that Jews, Christians, and Muslims lived together under before the Spanish Inquisition?

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Catholic Monarchs

Who did away with the Convencia and ordered non-Christians to legitimately convert, leave Spain, or risk torture/death

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Alhambra Decree

What was the decree that Jews ordered to convert or leave

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the Ottomans; by creating fear and anxiety in Europeans during the conquest of Constantinople

Who became the dominant power in the eastern Mediterranean and West Asia?

How did they achieve their power?

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in order to avoid paying the Ottomans taxes/tribute

Why did the Europeans begin to undertake new exploration methods?

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Ming China

Who sent out their own voyages to collect tribute form neighboring kingdoms near and far?

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the Moors’ defeat and Spain unified under the Catholic King and Queen, Ferdinand and Isabella

What did the Reconquista conclude with>

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the legitimacy of Catholic claims by using force to determine if people were not truthful

What did the Spanish Inquisition investigate?

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Christopher Columbus’s first voyage report

This is a Primary source from who?

“As soon as I had some into this sea, I took by force some Indins form the first island, in order that they might learn from us, and at the same time tell us what they knew about affairs in these regions. This succeeded admirably; for in a short time we understood them and they us both by gesture and sings and words; and they were of great service to us…”

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Columbus

“I saw no monsters, neither did I hear accounts of any such except in an island called Charis, the second as one crosses over from Spain to India, which is inhabited by a certain race reguarded by their neighbors as very ferocious. They eat human flesh, and make use of several kinds of boats by which they cross over to all the Indian islands, and plunder and carry off whatever they can…”

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Aztecs; feathered serpent god, Quetzalcoatl

<p>What people group made this artwork? </p><p>What is it depicting?</p>

What people group made this artwork?

What is it depicting?

<p>What people group made this artwork? </p><p>What is it depicting?</p>
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Inca

<p>In which society were silver llamas important?</p>

In which society were silver llamas important?

<p>In which society were silver llamas important?</p>
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Aztec and Inca

What wer the two American empires?

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Aztec human sacrifice

<p>What is being depicted in this art?</p>

What is being depicted in this art?

<p>What is being depicted in this art?</p>
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Tenochititlan, which is the Aztec

<p>What is this a map of?</p>

What is this a map of?

<p>What is this a map of?</p>
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Who was Hernán Cortés?

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Whose account of Tenohctitlan is this?

“This great city of Tenochititlan (Mexica) is situated in this salt lake, and from the main land to the denser parts of it, by whichever route one chooses to enter, the distance is two leagues…”

“This great city contains a large number of temples, or houses for their idols, very handsome edifices, which are situated in the different districts and the suburbs…”

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Conquistador

Which forces attacked the Tenochtitlan?

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Who was Francisco Pizarro?

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smallpox

What was the devastation of disease?

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Bartolomé de las Casas

Who said this?

Criticism against the spanish

“The natives are capable of Morality or Goodness and very apt to receive the principles of Catholic Religion; nor are they averse to Civility and good manners…, I myself have heard the Spaniards themselves declare that there was nothing wanting in them for the acquisition of eternal grace, but the sole Knowledge and Understanding of the Deity”

“The Spaniards first assaulted the innocent sheep,…”

“As to the firm land, we are certainly satisfied, and assured, that the Spaniards by their barbarous and execrable Actions have absolutely depopulated 10 Kingdoms, of greater extent than all Spain…”

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true

North and South American societies developed independently from Afro-Eurasia (T/F?)

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The Columbus expedition

What in 1492 made contact between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres?

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90%

Native American population groups post-contact saw upwards of __% reduction primarily due to disease

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true

Conquistadors marveled at cities like Tenochtitlan before destroying them. (T/F?)

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Spaniards

Who initiated an exploitive labor system to extract precious metals from American mines?

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a forced labor system within the silver mining at Potosi

What was the Mita?

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Encomienda

a grant by the Spanish Crown to a colonist in America conferring the right to demand tribute and forced labor from the Indian inhabitants of an area

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Tenochtitlan (modern day Mexico City)

What was the capital of the Aztec Empire?

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rebirth

What does “Renaissance” mean?

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a renewed interest in Greek and Roman Classics

What was the Renaissance a “rebirth” of?

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Humanism

a way of thinking and questioning what made humans human; sought to question previous understandings and explanations for human actions, most notably challening the notion that humans were inherently evil or sinful; humanism argued humans were good and had redeeming qualities

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Relic

What is referred to as parts of a Saint or Holy figure’s body or object they owned/touched?

-ex. bones, hair, nails, clothing, canes, jewelry

-kept in reliquaries

-popular pilgrimage sites during the Medieval Period

-trafficked and counterfeited

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Indulgences

<p>What are these images a mockery of?</p>

What are these images a mockery of?

<p>What are these images a mockery of?</p>
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Reformation

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Protestantism

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Printing Press

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Predestination

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Witchcraft

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da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man

<p>Artist? Title?</p>

Artist? Title?

<p>Artist? Title?</p>
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Raphael’s School of Athens

<p>Artist? Title?</p>

Artist? Title?

<p>Artist? Title?</p>
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Michelangelo’s David

knowt flashcard image
knowt flashcard image
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Michelangelo’s La Pieta

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Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel

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divine

Humanists also pondered human nature and its relation to the ____.

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the definitive authority and hierarchy of the Church and its seemingly monopolistic control over salvation

What did Christian humanism question?

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Latin

What was the Language of the Church but not the average person?

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because the people did not understand Latin and did not know what was being said at mass

Why did Christian humanists argue for the Bible to be translated from Latin into the vernacular?

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95 Theses

What did Martin Luther write?

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What was the German Peasants War?

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Edict of Nantes

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Thirty Years War

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Black Mass

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books that acted as guides for witch hunters and witch trials on what to do when they encountered suspected witches

What were demonology books?

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Malleus Malificarum

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witch

a person accused of communicating with the Devil/Satan, practicing magic, doing “un-Christian like” behavior; anyone acting strange or someone that the community ostracized

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both men and women; women more so were the targets of accusations and witch hunts

Who was accused of being a witch?

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Valais Witch Trials

-located in modern-day Switzerland

-first in the widespread hysteria

-accusations result from social and political upheaval

-men and women accused and executed

-iconic witch characteristics and depictions present in accusations

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Ursuline Nuns

group of people locked away from the community for an extended period of time

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