Arteries and veins

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What are the branches of the aorta?

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What are the branches of the aorta?

brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid, left subclavian

<p>brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid, left subclavian</p>
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branches oof the subclavian artery

vertebral artery, internal thoracic artery, thyrocervical trunk

<p>vertebral artery, internal thoracic artery, thyrocervical trunk</p>
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what foramen does the vertebral artery travel through?

transverse foramen

<p>transverse foramen</p>
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what structures does the internal thoracic artery supply?

the anterior chest wall and breasts

-GOLD standard for use in CABG surgery

<p>the anterior chest wall and breasts</p><p>-GOLD standard for use in CABG surgery</p>
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what is the most important branch of the thyrocervical trunk?

inferior thyroid artery which supplies the thyroid gland and larynx

<p>inferior thyroid artery which supplies the thyroid gland and larynx</p>
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branches of the common carotid artery

internal and external carotid arteries

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what branches does the internal carotid artery give off?

gives off NO branches in the neck; it ascends and enters the skull through the carotid canal

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what structures does the external carotid artery supply?

neck, face, thyroid, pharynx, and side of the head

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name the branches of the external carotid artery

superior thyroid, ascending pharyngeal, lingual, facial, occipital, posterior auricular, maxillary, superficial temporal

some anatomists like freaking out poor medical students

<p>superior thyroid, ascending pharyngeal, lingual, facial, occipital, posterior auricular, maxillary, superficial temporal</p><p></p><p>some anatomists like freaking out poor medical students</p>
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facial artery

-branch of external carotid

-supplies the superficial structures of the face

<p>-branch of external carotid</p><p>-supplies the superficial structures of the face</p>
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maxillary artery

supplies many of the internal structures of the face

-branch of external carotid

<p>supplies many of the internal structures of the face</p><p>-branch of external carotid</p>
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what is the course of the maxillary artery

-starts in the infra temporal fossa and then travels medially to go to the pterygopalatine fossa and into the nasal cavity

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what are the three important branches off of the maxillary artery

middle meningeal, sphenopalatine, inferior alveolar

McDonald’s Sprite is Interesting to the max!

<p>middle meningeal, sphenopalatine, inferior alveolar</p><p></p><p>McDonald’s Sprite is Interesting to the max!</p>
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course of the middle meningeal artery

branch of maxillary artery; can be found in the infratemporal fossa between two roots of the auriculotemporal nerve

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supply by the middle meningeal artery

supplies most of the dura and calvaria

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what artery is involved with epidermal hematoma

-middle meningeal artery

-emergency treatment usually involves decompression of the hematoma

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list the veins of the thorax

azygos vein, accessory hemiazygos vein, hemiiazygos vein (superior -→inferior)

<p>azygos vein, accessory hemiazygos vein, hemiiazygos vein (superior -→inferior)</p>
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what are the boundaries of the axillary artery?

lateral border of the first rib to the inferior border of the trees major

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describe the first part of the axillary artery

-proximal to the pec minor

-has 1 branch

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describe the 2nd part of the axillary artery

-posterior to the pec minor

-2 branches

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3rd part of the axillary artery

distal to pec minor

-3 branches

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what nerve runs with the lateral thoracic artery?

long thoracic nerve

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what is the continuation of the subscapular artery?

thoroacodorsal artery

-supplies the latissimus doors

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list the branches of the axillary artery

supreme thoracic, thoracoacromial, lateral thoracic, anterior humeraal circumflex posterior humeral circumflex, sub scapular

save the lions and protect the species

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what are the branches of the thoracoacromial?

clavicular, acromial, deltoid, and pectoral

cadavers are dead people

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whaat is the importance of the quadrangular space?

The quadrangular space is an anatomical region located in the posterior aspect of the shoulder. It serves as a passageway for the axillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral artery, which are important structures that innervate and vascularize the shoulder joint and surrounding muscles. Damage to these structures due to trauma or compression within the quadrangular space can result in shoulder weakness, numbness, and pain.

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what artery runs with the axillary nerve

the posterior humeral circumflex artery in the quadrangular space

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where does the axillary artery become the brachial artery?

past the teres major

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deep brachial artery

branch of the brachial artery in the shoulder area that a pieces the triceps and travels with the radial nerve

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what are the two major branches of the brachial artery in the forearm?

radial and ulnar arteries

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what is anastomosis

A surgical connection between two structures, such as blood vessels, intestines, or nerves, to allow the flow of fluids or information.

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physiologic examples of anastomosis

superficial palmar arch and deep palmar arch, circle of willis, anterior and posterior inter ventricular artery

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pathologic examples of anastomosis

fistulas, intestines

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possible types of anastomosis

arterioarterial, venovenouos, arteriovenous

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formation of the superior palmar arch in the hand

-ulnar artery

-completed laterally by superficial branches of the radial artery

<p>-ulnar artery</p><p>-completed laterally by superficial branches of the radial artery</p>
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what forms the deep palmar arch in the hand?

radial artery

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list the superficial veins of the arm and forearm

basilic, cephalic, antecubital

<p>basilic, cephalic, antecubital</p>
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antecubital vein

median cubital vein

-used to obtain blood or administer IV fluids

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important branches of the descending aorta

-bronchial arteries

-phrenic arteries

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what are the paired branches off of the abdominal aorta

gonadal and renal

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order of the femorals

femoral nerve, femoral artery, femoral vein

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what is the main branch of the femoral artery?

deep femoral artery

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what rarer the branches of the deep femoral artery?

medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries

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course of the branches of the deep femoral artery

-medial passes posteriorly to the femur

-lateral pasases anterioly

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supply by the medial circumflex artery

the main artery that supplies the head and neck of the femur

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clinical significance of medial circumflex femoral artery

damage to this artery following a femoral neck fracture can result in avascular necrosis of the femoral head

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when does the femoral artery become the popliteal artery?

past the adductor hiatus

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location of the popliteal artery

runs between the two heads of the gastrocnemius and gives rise to the tibia arteries

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name the branches of the popliteal artery

anterior tibial, posterior tibial, a bunch of genicular arteries

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what artery gives rise to the dorsals pedis artery?

anterior tibial (branch of popliteal)

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what artery gives rise to the fibular artery?

posterior tibial (branch oof popliteal)

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clinical significance of dorsals pedis artery

-on the anterior side of the ankle

-major source of blood supply to the foot and its pulse can be palpated

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what arteries give rise to the arterial circle (circle of willis) in the brain?

internal carotid and vertebral

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what are the arteries that make up the circle of willis?

anterior cerebral, anterior communicating, posterior cerebral, posterior communicating, internal carotids

NO middle cerebral arteries

<p>anterior cerebral, anterior communicating, posterior cerebral, posterior communicating, internal carotids</p><p>NO middle cerebral arteries</p>
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define sinuses

veins that drain the brain

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where do dural sinuses eventually drain?

the internal jugular vein

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location of cavernous sinus

runs with internal carotid artery

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which cranial nerves can go through the cavernous sinus?

III, IV, V1, V2, and VI

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clinical manifestation of tumors in cavernous sinus

can adversely effect the cranial nerves that travel through this sinus

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name the superficial veins

great saphenous vein and small saphenous vein

<p>great saphenous vein and small saphenous vein</p>
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great saphenous vein empties what?

femoral vein

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small saphenous vein empties into what?

popliteal vein

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examples of deep veins in the upper limb

brachial, axillary, subclavian

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examples of deep veins in the lower limb

femoral vein, deep femoral vein, popliteal vein, anterior and posterior tibial vein

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deep vein thrombosis

-a blood clot in a deep vein

-symptoms: pain, swelling, nonspecific

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what is the most serious complication of a DVT?

aa blood clot can break off and travels through the blood stream to the lungs causing a pulmonary discipline

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name the warning signs of pulmonary embolism

shortness of breath, chest discomfort, general sense of anxiety

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what is the role of the lymphatic system?

-ducts collect toxins, dead cells, extra fluid, and fat

-content is returned to the venous system via two asymmetrical lymph vessels

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what are the main two lymphatic vessels

thoracic duct, right lymphatic duct

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where does the right lymphatic duct drain?

into the right subclavian

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where does the thoracic duct drain?

drains into the junction of left subclavian and left internal jugular vein

-drains a much larger portion of the body

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cisterna chyli

drains the lymph from the lower limbs and the intestines (right and left lumbar trunks and the instestinal trunk)

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what are the tributaries to the superior vena cava?

-right brachiocephalic vein

-left brachiocephalic vein

-azygoous vein

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what does the azygous vein drain?

RIGHT posterior thorax and posoterior intercostal veins

-tributary of svc

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what arteries are direct branches from the aorta

brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid, left subclavian, left coronary artery, right coronary artery

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what nerve travels alongside middle meningeal artery?

auriculotemporal nerve in the infratemporal fossa

-CN IX

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what is the superficial palmar arch formed from?

ulnar artery

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what are the branches of the popliteal artery?

anterior tibial artery, posterior tibial, vehicular arteries

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label the circle of willis

A circulatory system structure found at the base of the brain, consisting of arteries that supply blood to the brain and surrounding structures. It includes the anterior cerebral arteries, posterior cerebral arteries, and the internal carotid arteries.

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For example, when the

_____ has an obstructed blood \n flow, the _____ can supply blood flow to the anterior \n compartment of the brain through ____.

internal carotid

vertebral artery

basilar artery

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which dural sinuses drain into the confluence of sinuses?

superior and inferior sagittal sinus

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what does the accessor hemiazygos and hemiazygos veins drain?

left posterior thorax and posterior intercostal

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CT manifestation of PE

the diameter of the RV is enlarged and bigger than the LV

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what vessel is the gold standard for use in CABG surgery?

internal thoracic artery, branch of subclavian

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