microbio exam 4

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characteristics of life

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viruses!!!!

182 Terms

1

characteristics of life

organization, homeostasis, growth and metabolism, response to stimuli, heredity, reproduction, evolution, and adaptation

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2

organization

being structurally composed of one or more cells

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3

homeostasis

regulation of an internal environment for stability

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4

growth and metabolism

  • increasing in size in all of its parts rather than simply accumulating matter

  • performs anabolism and catabolism

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5

anabolism

transformation of energy by converting chemicals and energy into cellular components

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6

catabolism

decomposing organic matter

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7

properties that viruses share with life

  • organization

  • genetic material

  • replicative life cycle

  • evolution over time

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8

properties of life that viruses lack

  • not comprised of cells

  • lack homeostasis

  • have no growth or metabolism

  • do not respond to stimuli

  • cannot reproduce without the use of host cell machinery

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9

virus

non-living obligate intracellular parasite

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10

virion

a virus that is extracellular

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11

genome

  • DNA or RNA varies considerably in size and organization

  • controls the virus replication strategy

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12

central dogma

antisense DNA → (transcription) → sense RNA (translation) → proteins

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13

sense DNA

  • (+)

  • non-template strand of DNA

  • IS NOT transcribed

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14

antisense DNA

  • (-)

  • template strand of DNA

  • IS transcribed

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15

template strand

strand of DNA that IS transcribed

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16

non-template strand

strand of DNA that IS NOT transcribed

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17

sense RNA

  • (+)

  • mRNA that IS translated into a protein

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18

antisense RNA

  • (-)

  • RNA that is a complimentary strand to the translated mRNA

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19

DNA viruses (9)

  • Adenovirus

  • EBV

  • HSV-1

  • Parvovirus

  • VZV

  • CMV

  • HPV

  • HSV-2

  • Variola virus

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20

RNA viruses (23)

  • Dengue fever

  • Enterovirus

  • Hantavirus

  • Influenza virus

  • Measles virus

  • Mumps virus

  • Poliovirus

  • Rhinovirus

  • RSV

  • SARS-CoV

  • West Nile virus

  • Zikavirus

  • EBOV

  • HAV

  • HCV

  • MARV

  • MERS-CoV

  • Norovirus

  • Rabies virus

  • Rotavirus

  • Rubella virus

  • SARS-Cov-2

  • Yellow Fever virus

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21

retro viruses (2)

  • HIV

  • HBV

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22

adenovirus

  • DNA virus

  • causes the common cold

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23

EBV

  • DNA virus

  • stands for Epstein-Barr virus

  • causes 90% of mono cases

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24

HSV-1

  • DNA virus

  • stands for herpes simplex virus

  • causes cold sores

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25

parvovirus

  • DNA virus

  • causes eczema

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26

VZV

  • stands for varicella-zoster virus

  • causes chicken pox and shingles

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27

CMV

  • DNA virus

  • stands for cytomegalovirus

  • causes 10% of mono cases

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28

HPV

  • DNA virus

  • stands for human papillomavirus

  • causes STIs and cervical cancer

  • family of 170 naked DNA viruses

  • most common STI in the world

  • vaccine prevents cervical cancer

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29

HSV-2

  • DNA virus

  • stands for herpes simplex virus

  • causes herpes

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30

variola virus

  • DNA virus

  • causes smallpox

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31

dengue fever

  • RNA virus

  • causes dengue fever

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32

enterovirus

  • RNA virus

  • causes viral meningitis

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33

hantavirus

  • RNA virus

  • causes hemorrhagic fever

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34

influenza virus

  • RNA virus

  • causes the flu

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35

measles virus

  • RNA virus

  • causes measles

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36

mumps virus

  • RNA virus

  • causes mumps

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37

poliovirus

  • RNA virus

  • causes polio

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38

rhinovirus

  • RNA virus

  • causes the common cold

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39

RSV

  • RNA virus

  • stands for respiratory syncytial virus

  • causes bronchiolitis and pneumonia

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40

SARS-CoV

  • RNA virus

  • causes COVID

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41

west nile virus

  • RNA virus

  • causes fever, headaches, body aches, joint pains, vomiting, diarrhea or rash

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42

zikavirus

  • RNA virus

  • causes fever, rash, headache, joint pain, red eyes, muscle pain

  • in rare cases, it causes birth defects and is linked to guillian-barre syndrome

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43

EBOV

  • RNA virus

  • stands for ebola virus

  • causes ebola

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44

HAV

  • RNA virus

  • stands for hepatitis-A

  • causes liver inflammation and damage

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45

HCV

  • RNA virus

  • stands for hepatitis-C

  • causes liver inflammation and damage; ranges from mild illness to chronic illness

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46

MARV

  • RNA virus

  • stands for Marburg virus

  • causes hemorrhagic fever

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47

MERS-CoV

  • RNA virus

  • stands for middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus

  • causes COVID symptoms

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48

norovirus

  • RNA virus

  • causes crew ship virus

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49

rabies virus

  • RNA virus

  • causes rabies

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50

rotavirus

  • RNA virus

  • causes diarrhea in kids

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51

rubella virus

  • RNA virus

  • causes German measles

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52

SARS-CoV-2

  • RNA virus

  • causes severe, acute COVID symptoms

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53

HIV

  • RNA retrovirus

  • stands for human immunodeficiency virus

  • causes AIDS

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54

HBV

  • RNA retrovirus

  • stands for hepatitis-B

  • causes either acute liver inflammation or chronic liver disease

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55

mutation rate of viruses

high rate because viral genomes have little to no repair mechanisms

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56

capsid

  • protein coat protecting the genome

  • may carry accessory proteins

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57

accessory proteins

composed of capsomeres and are found in the capsid

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58

capsomeres

composed of protomers and are found in accessory proteins

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59

protomers

the building blocks for capsomeres that are found in accessory proteins

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60

four basic viral shapes

  • helical

  • spherical

  • polyhedral

  • complex

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61

helical

  • repeated capsomeres that form a filamentous capsid that surround the genome

  • can also be referred to as filamentous

  • not always strictly helical

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62

examples of helical viruses

  • ebola virus

  • mumps virus

  • tobacco mosaic virus

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63

spherical

  • has a spherical capsid and/or envelope

  • capsid holds the spherical shape even if the envelope does not

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64

examples of spherical viruses

  • influenza virus

  • COVID

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65

polyhedral

  • capsomeres that form 20 faces, 12 vertices, and 30 edges

  • also referred to as icosahedral, cubic, regular or isometric

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66

examples of polyhedral viruses

  • adenovirus

  • herpesvirus

  • mastadenovirus

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67

complex

a “catch-all” group for viruses with no real pattern, or have a mixture of several shapes

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68

examples of complex viruses

  • t4 bacteriophage

  • variola virus

  • rabies virus

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69

envelope

  • host-derived lipid membrane that contains both the host and viral proteins

  • not found in every single virus

  • doesn’t determine the shape of the virus

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70

naked virus

virus without an envelope

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71

attachment proteins

  • also called spike proteins

  • glycoproteins that recognize one or more specific host cell receptors

  • controls viral tropism

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72

viral tropism

the spectrum of cells of a host that a virus may infect

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73

cellular tropism

viruses that recognize receptors in macrophages and neurons

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74

tissue tropism

virus that recognize receptors in the lungs and the brain

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75

host tropism

viruses that recognize receptors in certain hosts such as humans, rabbits, etc

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76

gp120

  • part of the attachment protein in HIV

  • binds to the T-cells in the human body

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77

CCR5 or CXCR4

  • part of the receptor protein

  • co-receptor used to aid in the attachment of HIV

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78

HIV mutations

  • occur in the CCR5 receptor

  • renders the virus unable to attach to the target cell

  • people are immune to HIV-1

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79

bone marrow transplant

procedure that “gives” people immunity to HIV

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80

stages in viral replication cycle

  • attachment

  • penetration

  • uncoating

  • synthesis

  • assembly

  • release

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81

attachment

  • the first stage in the replication cycle

  • the actual binding of spike proteins on the virus to the host cell receptors

  • naked and enveloped viruses go through attachment

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82

rabies virus targets

  • muscles

  • neurons

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83

human papilloma’s (HPV) targets

differentiating keratinocytes

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84

hepatitis A/B/C’s target

liver, specifically hepatocytes

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85

human herpes simplex 1/2 target

mucoepithelium

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86

influenza a’s target

respiratory epithelium

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87

rotavirus and norovirus target

intestinal epithelium

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88

cytomegalovirus’ target

  • epithelium

  • monocytes

  • lymphocytes

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89

rhinovirus target

nasal epithelium

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90

poliovirus target

intestinal epithelium

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91

epstein-barr virus target

b cell

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92

penetration

  • also called viral entry

  • can occur by breaking through the membrane, endocytosis, or membrane fusion

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93

endocytosis

process of a cell membrane engulfing a virus

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94

receptor-mediated endocytosis

  • claritin-mediated

  • caveolin-mediated

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95

uncoating

  • can occur simultaneously with penetration

  • involves the capsid breaking open and the viral genomic material being released

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96

direct penetration

virus cuts into the host membrane and injects the viral genome into the cell

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97

synthesis

  • sometimes called biosynthesis or viral replication

  • the actual creation of viral genomic material and viral proteins

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98

DNA polymerase

used during DNA replication

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99

RNA polymerase

transcribes DNA into RNA

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100

reverse transcriptase

transcribes RNA back into DNA

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