EXSC 2510 Exam 4

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Endocrine system

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170 Terms

1

Endocrine system

composed of endocrine organs and structures that produce and secrete hormones. It regulates and controls bodily functions

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endocrine glands

glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream

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3

exocrine glands

Glands that secrete substances outward through a duct and outside the body

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nervous system

brain, spinal cord, nerves

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5

target cells

cells that have receptors for a particular hormone

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6

target organs

organs that respond to a particular hormone

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7

Feedback in the endocrine system

how hormone secretion is regulated

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negative feedback

the affected hormone or product causes the process to slow down

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9

positive feedback

the affected hormone or product causes the process to speed up

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10

infundibulum

connects pituitary gland to hypothalamus

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11

Hypothamalus

Regulates basic biological needs (ex. hunger, thirst, temperature control)

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12

pituitary gland

endocrine gland at the base of the brain

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13

regulatory hormones

Control release of hormones from anterior pituitary

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14

anterior pituitary hormones

Growth hormone (GH) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH) Prolactin (PRL)

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15

releasing hormones

chemical that stimulates other glands to release their hormones

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16

inhibiting hormones

prevent synthesis and secretion of hormones from the anterior lobe

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17

posterior pituitary gland

Does not produce its own hormones but it stores 2 hormones: oxytocin and antidiuretic.

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18

Antidiruetic hormone (ADH)

helps control the balance of water in the body

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19

Oxytocin (OT)

Stimulates contraction of the uterus and release of milk from breast.

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20

adrenal medulla

secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine

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21

anterior lobe of pituitary gland

<ul><li><p></p></li></ul>
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22

posterior lobe of pituitary gland

<ul><li><p></p></li></ul>
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23

pars distalis

the largest and most anterior portion of the pituitary gland

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24

pars intermedia

scant region between the pars distalis and the posterior pituitary

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25

pars tuberalis

wraps around infundibulum

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26

hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system

portal veins that shunt blood carrying regulatory hormones from hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary

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27

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

stimulates thyroid gland

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28

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate maturation of the egg cell (ovum)

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29

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

secreted by the pituitary gland to promote ovulation

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30

Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)

Released by pituitary in response to CRH by hypothalamus

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31

tropic hormones

hormones that stimulate other glands to release their hormones

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32

Thyrotropic cells

secrete thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

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33

gonadotropic cells

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)

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34

corticotropic cells

secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

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somatotropic cells

secrete growth hormone, stimulates cell growth, and affects most body cells

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Growth Hormone (GH)

regulates the growth of the body

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37

nontropic hormones

directly stimulate cellular metabolism and other activities

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38

Mammotropic cells

secrete prolactin (PRL)

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39

Prolactin (PRL)

stimulates milk production

<p>stimulates milk production</p>
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40

pars nervosa

posterior pituitary

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41

infundibular stalk

connects hypothalamus to pituitary

<p>connects hypothalamus to pituitary</p>
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42

supraoptic nucleus

part of the hypothalamus that controls the release rate of vasopressin

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43

paraventricular nucleus

produces oxytocin

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44

neurosecretory cells

Neurons that secrete neurohormone rather than neurotransmitter.

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45

parafollicular cells

produce calcitonin

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46

Calcitonin

Lowers blood calcium levels

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47

chief cells

secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH)

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48

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism

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zona glomerulosa

aldosterone

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50

mineralocorticoids

Promote reabsorption of Na+ and excretion of K+ in kidneys

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51

zona fasciculata

glucocorticoids (cortisol)

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52

thyroid gland

produces hormones that regulate metabolism, body heat, and bone growth

<p>produces hormones that regulate metabolism, body heat, and bone growth</p>
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53

follicular cell

knowt flashcard image
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parafollicular cell

knowt flashcard image
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follicle cell

knowt flashcard image
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Thyroglobulin

secreted by follicle cells; binds with iodine to produce T4 and T3

<p>secreted by follicle cells; binds with iodine to produce T4 and T3</p>
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thyroid hormone

modulates activity of growth hormone, ensuring proper proportions

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thyroid hormone precursor

Iodine

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parathyroid hormone

reacts to low blood calcium levels and increases them

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60

parathyroid gland

posterior surface of the thyroid gland

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61

calcitriol

active form of vitamin D

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62

adrenal gland

secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress (adrenaline)

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63

capsule of adrenal gland

#1

<p>#1</p>
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64

adrenal cortex

2

<p>2</p>
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Corticosteroids

A group of hormones, including cortisol, released by the adrenal glands at times of stress

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66

zona reticularis

produces gonadocorticoids

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hypothalamus

brain region controlling the pituitary gland

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chromaffin cells

the cells in the adrenal medulla that secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine

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69

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells that transport oxygen

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70

buffy coat

white blood cells and platelets

<p>white blood cells and platelets</p>
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Plasma

Liquid part of blood

<p>Liquid part of blood</p>
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interstitial fluid

fluid between cells

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Leukocytes

white blood cells

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Platelets

help with blood clotting

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blood smear

evaluation of the appearance and number of blood cells and the different types of white blood cells

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hematocrit

percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells

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Hemoglobin

Oxygen carrying pigment in red blood cells

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globin chains

joined to heme to form a hemoglobin unit

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Erythrocyte life span

120 days

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80

antigen

A protein that, when introduced in the blood, triggers the production of an antibody

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antibody

a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body

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surface antigens

cell surface proteins that identify cells to immune system

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ABO blood groups

based on having an A, B, both or no antigens on red blood cells

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ABO blood type

2 surface antigens

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Type A blood

A antigens and B antibodies

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Type B blood

B antigens and A antibodies

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Type O blood

no antigens, A and B antibodies

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Type AB blood

A and B antigens, no antibodies

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A can receive

A or O

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B can receive

B and O

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O can receive

O

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AB can receive

A, AB, B, O

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Rh factor

antigen on red blood cells of Rh-positive individuals

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94

Rh blood

Can receive only Rh- blood

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Rh positive

presence of antigens

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Rh negative

absence of antigens

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97

Diapedis

WBCs are able to move into and out of blood vessels

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98

chemotaxis

Cell movement that occurs in response to chemical stimulus

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99

granulocytes

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

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100

Agranulocytes

lymphocytes and monocytes

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