Diversity of Form and Function Final

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What name describes how animals obtain nutrients?

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1

What name describes how animals obtain nutrients?

Heterotrophs

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2

What types of nutrients do animals need?

Glucose, some AAs, some fatty acids, vitamins, and fiber

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3

What are acetyl groups used for in animals?

Synthesis of steroid hormones, AAs, heme, and fatty acids

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4

Undernourished

Not eating enough to meet energy needs

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5

Overnourished

Eating exceeds energy needs

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6

Malnourished

Lacking components of diet for mass needs

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7

Deficiency of amino acids

Kwashikor

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8

Deficiency of thiamine

Beriberi

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9

Deficiency of vitamin C

Scurvy

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10

Deficiency of vitamin D

Rickets

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11

Deficiency of iodine

Goiter

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12

Deficiency of iron

anemia

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13

In what forms can energy be stored?

Fat, sugar, and carbohydrates

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14

Which type of storage holds the most amount of energy per molecule?

Fat

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15

Where is sugar stored?

Liver and muscle

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16

Path of food

Mouth, stomach, small and large intestines

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17

What types of digestion take place in the mouth?

Mechanical and chemical

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18

What digestive enzymes are present in the mouth? What are their functions?

Amylase- starts digestion of sugar Lingual lipase- starts digestion of lipids

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19

What types of digestion take place in the stomach?

Mechanical (churning) and chemical

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20

What type of pH does the stomach have and how does it achieve this pH

Low pH: CO2 + H2O -> H2CO3

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21

Parietal cells

Cells that produce CO2 in the stomach

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22

What enzyme digests proteins? Where is it located

Pepsinogen -> pepsin In the stomach

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23

What enzyme is present in the stomach to produce carbonic acid?

Carbonic anhydrase- another example of differential gene expression

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24

Why does the stomach have a low pH?

To denature proteins and increase their surface area

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25

What are the roles of the intestines?

Emulsification of fat, chemical digestion, absorption

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26

Break down of fat into micelles

Emulsification

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27

What is broken down in the intestines?

Proteins, carbohydrates, and fats

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28

What does the small intestine absorb?

Amino acids and fatty acids

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29

What does the large intestine absorb?

Water and ions

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30

Hepatic portal vein

Vein in liver through which blood rich in nutrients travel

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31

What are the functions of the liver?

Detoxification pf ingested material, storage of excess carbohydrates, conversion of molecules to facilitate transport/reuptake into other tissue, and production of bile salts

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32

What do bile salts do?

Emulsify fats

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33

What is produced by the pancreas?

Pancreatin

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34

What is pancreatin?

Fluid that contains digestive enzymes used in small intestines and bicarbonate ions to neutralize acidity of material arriving from stomach

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35

What is the role of microorganisms in the gut?

Facilitate the digestion of molecules

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36

Hormone in charge of digestion in mammals

Gastrin

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37

Ammonotelic

Nitrogen excretion; secrete ammonia directly; cheap; cannot store NH3

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38

What types of animals are ammonotelic?

Aquatic animals

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39

Ureotelic

Nitrogen excretion; secrete urea; uses ATP; done in liver; can store some urea

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40

What types of animals are ureotelic?

Mammals

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41

Uricotelic

Nitrogen excretion; very expensive; not toxic; secreted as paste

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42

What types of animals are uricotelic?

Birds and reptiles

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43

How do flatworms excrete waste?

Flame cell cilia generate negative pressure and the body generates positive pressure to draw material to tubes. Tube cells modify composition of filtrate. Filtrate is less concentrated than EC fluid, so there is a net flow of water out of the flatworm.

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44

How do earthworms excrete waste?

Blood with waste is filtered into the coelom of each segment. Coelomic fluid is swept into tubule. Fluid is diluted into urine.

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45

How do spiders excrete waste?

Tubules empty into the gut. There is active transport of nitrogenous waste and ions into tubules, and water follows by osmosis. In the rectum, ions are pumped out and water follows. The concentrated mixture of feces and uric acid are defecated.

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46

Nephron

Functional unit of kidney

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47

Bowman's capsule

Used for filtration in kidney

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48

Glomerulus

Used for for filtration in kidney

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49

Antidiuresis

More concentrated urine with less water. Collecting ducts are permeable to water.

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50

During antidiuresis, is ADH present?

Yes.

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51

Diuresis

Less concentrated urine. Collecting ducts are not permeable to water.

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52

During diuresis, is ADH present?

No.

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53

Glomeruli filtration rate (GFR)

If blood pressure is too low, more fluid is added to blood

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54

What does ADH do?

It promotes the retention of fluids by increasing the permeability of the collecting ducts in the kidneys.

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55

What secretes ADH?

Hypothalamus

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56

How can the skin perform excretion?

Through sweat and breathing

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57

Characteristics of innate behavior

Genetically encoded; every organism within species does activity the same way

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58

Example of innate behavior

Duck's mating display

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59

Fixed action pattern

Invariant innate behavior within a specific species; requires stimulus; ballistic; situation specific

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60

Example of a fixed action pattern

Egg retrieval of nesting geese: Stimulus is shape of egg; every time, the goose orients itself towards the egg, hooks the egg with its bill, and returns it to nest; goose still does this with other objects of same shape

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61

Characteristics of imprinting

Occurs during sensitive period during development; occurs in one or few exposures to stimulus; not unlearned

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62

Example of imprinting

From maternal following, ducklings learn the following: Learn attachment to arbitrary object; for males, exposure to mother image determines sexual preference

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63

Characteristics of learning

Method for dealing with unpredictable environment; limited by many factors (anatomy); reversible; teaching others what have learned

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64

What are the costs of behavior?

Energetic costs, risk costs, and opportunity costs

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65

Kinesis

Random movement occurs given the presence of a stimulus. Organism will tend to settle down in a region that is preferred by tending to move particularly when not present in the preferred location.

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66

Example of kinesis

Cockroaches scattering when light turns on

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67

Taxis

Move away or towards a stimulus

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68

Planktonic

Going with the flow

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69

Example of planktonic migration

Traveling in current or wind

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70

Piloting

Using landmarks to migrate

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71

Navigation

Uses internal (magnetic/electric) compass or stellar compass

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72

Inclusive fitness

Judging whether an organism can improve its overall genetic success by altruistic social behavior.

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73

Formula for inclusive fitness

b * r > c; b: reproductive benefit of recipient, r: relatedness of relative, c: reproductive cost to the indivudal

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74

Do most organism living in a group reproduce?

No

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75

Pros and cons of group living

Pros: Improved foraging, impede some predators for successfully attacking, specialization, better ability to transmit learned behavior; Cons: More easily found by predators, diseases spread quickly, more competition

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76

Examples of biotic factors in ecosystems

Predators, prey, competition

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77

Examples of abiotic factors in ecosystems

Space, humidity, temperature

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78

What does solar input affect?

Climate: Latitude and seasons; global circulation patterns that are driven by wind patterns

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79

Coastal zone

Holds densest populations

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80

Littoral zone

In coastal zone; area affected by wave action

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81

Pelagic zone

Open water above ocean floor

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82

Photic zone

Limit of sunlight penetration

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83

Benthic zone

Ocean floor

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84

Abyssal zone

Deepest ocean floor

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85

What do biomes depend on?

Temperature: latitude, altitude, proximity to large water mass Precipitation: latitude, local geographic features

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86

What is the climate like in deciduous forests?

Cold in winter; warm and moist during the summer

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87

What types of organisms are in deciduous forests?

Migrant birds, amphibians, grazing animals

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88

What is the climate like in temperate grasslands?

Drier; cold in winter and warmer and moister in summer

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89

Types of organisms in temperate grasslands

Grazing animals; not many birds

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90

Types of plants in prairies

Grasses and shrubs; not many trees

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91

Why does little erosion take place in prairies?

Fibrous roots hold rich top soil

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92

What is threatening prairies?

Herbicide from nearby farms; seed removal; expansion of roads; incursion of trees

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93

What types of disturbances can be beneficial in prairies?

Fires: removes trees; seeds germinate; grasses reestablish themselves; frees up area for vegetative growth

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94

What is the typical type of population and reproductive pattern of plants in prairies?

K-selected populations; vegetative (seeds not common); do not pollinate

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95

Equation for marked capture method to estimate population size

N = (n1 * n2)/(n1∩2)

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96

What does the type I survivorship curve look like?

Drops off exponentially with age

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97

What describes a type I survivorship population?

Mortality due to senescence; do not suffer from predation of environmental disturbances; well adapted to environment; invest in progeny

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98

Examples of type I survivorship populations

Humans, pets

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99

What does the type II survivorship curve look like?

Staight, decreasing line

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100

What describes a type II survivorship population?

Mortality constant throughout lifespan; animals subject to predation and environmental disturbances; undergo senescence if in safe environment

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