NSC EXAM 1

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

neuron doctrine

1 / 256

Tags and Description

Neuroscience

257 Terms

1

neuron doctrine

brain composed of independent cells; signals transmit on synapses (gaps)

New cards
2

#unipolar

single extension with receptive pole and output zone

New cards
3

#bipolar

one axon, one dendrite; USUALLY SENSORY

New cards
4

#multipolar

one axon, many dendrites; MOST COMMON

New cards
5

#input zone (at dendrites)

collect and integrate info from environment or cells

New cards
6

#integration zone (soma to axon)

decide to make the neural signal

New cards
7

#conduction zone (along axon)

info transmits long distances

New cards
8

#output zone (at terminal buttons)

transfer info to other cells

New cards
9

#what are the two types of brain cells?

neurons and glial cells

New cards
10

#sensory neurons

respond to environment; light, odor, touch

New cards
11

#motoneurons

contact muscles or glands

New cards
12

#interneurons

receive input from and send input to other neurons (most neurons in CNS)

New cards
13

#what are the four types of glial cells?

astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, microglia

New cards
14

#astrocytes

most numerous glial cell, fill space between neurons for support; regulate ECM composition; stabilizes, brain moves together

New cards
15

#oligodendrocytes

wrap several axons, inside brain and spinal cord; at nodes of Ranvier

New cards
16

#microglia

phagocytes that clean up dying neuron debris; not from the brain, are "immigrants" and clean up; PAC MAN!

New cards
17

#ependymal cell

secrete and absorb cerebral spinal fluid; lines ventricles

New cards
18

#synapse

where two neurons communicate in one direction

New cards
19

#presynaptic neuron

on the terminal buttons of neuron transmitting info

New cards
20

#postsynaptic neuron

on dendrites of neuron receiving info

New cards
21

#neural plasticity

dendritic spines have; immune system cells also able to do this

New cards
22

#dendritic spines form from

DNA and microtubules

New cards
23

#synapse

New cards
24

#peripheral nervous system

include cranial and spinal nerves

New cards
25

#preganglionic neurons

from CNS to autonomic ganglia

New cards
26

#postganglionic neurons

from autonomic ganglia to targets in body

New cards
27

#innervate sympathetic chain

preganglionic cells in spinal cord

New cards
28

#ipsilateral

same side

New cards
29

#anterior

head end

New cards
30

#proximal near center

dorsal toward back

New cards
31

#contralateral

opposite side

New cards
32

#distal

toward periphery

New cards
33

#ventral

toward belly

New cards
34

#posterior

tail end

New cards
35

#afferent flow

sensory; carries impulse into region

New cards
36

#efferent flow

motor, carries impulse away from region

New cards
37

#white matter

made of axon bundles; white because myelin sheaths cover axons

New cards
38

#gray matter

made of cell body clusters

New cards
39

#four cortical lobes

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal

New cards
40

#midsagittal view

right and left hemisphere

New cards
41

#basal ganglia

movement control; coordination, posture

New cards
42

#limbic system

emotional memory, regulation; emotions that guide that movement; thalamus = CENTER of brain

New cards
43

#cerebral cortex

surrounds limbic system, which surrounds basal ganglia, which surrounds thalamus

New cards
44

#diencephalon

first brain in evolution; powers REFLEXIVE control of behavior; thalamus, hypothalamus, mammillary bodies

New cards
45

#reticular formation

sleep and arousal; temperature and motor control

New cards
46

#pons

has motor and sensory nuclei to face

New cards
47

#medulla

transition of brain to spinal cord; heart rate and breathing

New cards
48

#cerebellum

motor coordination and learning; underneath occiptal lobe

New cards
49

#meninges

brain wrappings; CONNECTIVE TISSUE that covers the brain

New cards
50

#dura mater

topmost layer of brain; tough hard protective

New cards
51

#subdural space

right under dura mater

New cards
52

#in between dura mater and pia mater is

CSF (made by ependymal cells); fluid flows inside to outside

New cards
53

#arachnoid membrane

bottom of subdural space;

New cards
54

#subarachnoid space

under arachnoid membrane and above pia mater; BLOOD VESSELS run here, full of CSF

New cards
55

#pia mater

pia = soft, soft mother, keeps brain moist right above the artery and brain surface

New cards
56

#cerebral ventricles

make CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) to surround and cushion brain

New cards
57

#cerebral cortex layers

neocortex; 6 layers, white matter at top - myelin

New cards
58

#pachygyria

only 3 cortical layers; have profound mental retardation

New cards
59

#Computerized axial tomography (CT)

DENSITY; X-ray absorption shows tissue density; denser = whiter; ONLY STRUCTURE

New cards
60

#what is between the bone and brain, denser than brain, not as dense as bone?

blood

New cards
61

#Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

  1. strong magnets cause protons in brain tissue to line up parallel

  2. pulse of radio waves knocks protons over

  3. protons reconfigure, emit radio waves that differ by tissue density

ONLY STRUCTURE *white areas = abnormal

New cards
62

#Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

brain activity; use radioactive chemicals in bloodstream and maps destinations by emissions (shows activity) ; which regions contribute to specific functions; functional CT

New cards
63

#Functional MRI (fMRI)

METABOLIC ACTIVITY; detect brain metabolism changes, like oxygen use; can show how networks of structures collab; FUNCTIONAL activity of brain (super useful)

New cards
64

#nucleus

DNA in chromosomes, mRNA transcribe from DNA, gene expression

New cards
65

#rough ER

membranes with ribosomes, site of protein synthesis

New cards
66

#smooth ER

regulate cytoplasm

Golgi - stacks of flat membrane compartment packaging products for shipment

New cards
67

#neuron membrane

lipid bilayer surrounds cell and separates cytoplasm from ECM; charge separator

New cards
68

#instrinsic proteins

receptors, ion channels; gives properties for signaling

New cards
69

#microtubules

spirals of tubulin; tracks for movement within neuron; railroad tracks (STATIONARY)

New cards
70

#neurofilaments

static support structures

New cards
71

#microfilaments

associated w/cell membrane; double helix actin

New cards
72

#anterograde transport (what protein?)

kinesin is the enabling protein that allows material to move from soma to terminals along microtubules; MOST MOLECULES are using kinesin

New cards
73

#retrograde transport (what protein?)

dynein enables material from terminals to soma along microtubules

New cards
74

#vesicles have

neurotransmitters

New cards
75

#neuron cytoskeleton

New cards
76

#larger axon characteristics

more complexity, more distance, faster signal

New cards
77

#sequence of signals

synapse to synaptic cleft to neuronal membrane to ion channel

New cards
78

#electrostatic pressure

causes ions to flow to oppositely charged areas (electrical gradient)

New cards
79

#resting potential

selectively permeable to K+; at rest K+ ions move into negative inside and build up, will diffuse out along concentration gradient (-60 mV)

New cards
80

#sodium potassium pump

pumps Na+ out and K+ in to maintain resting potential; uses 40% of your brain's energy; if fails, brain dies

New cards
81

#graded potentials in dendrites

doors open to Na+, rush inside, door closes

New cards
82

#depolarizing response

positive into the negative cell

New cards
83

#hyperpolarizing response

adding negative into the negative cell

New cards
84

#when membrane reaches threshold

triggers action potential; inside cell becomes briefly positive

New cards
85

#all or none action potential

action potentials increase in frequency with increased stimulus strength

New cards
86

#hillock (soma to axon)

action potential starts here

New cards
87

#action potentials increase in what, when stimulus is strengthened?

frequency

New cards
88

#graded potentials start at the

synaptic site of the dendrite

New cards
89

#during the absolute refractory period of the Na+ channel

the inactivation gate closes and blocks Na+ from passing

New cards
90

#action potentials travel in one direction because of

refractory state after depolarization

New cards
91

#channelopathy

genetic abnormality of ion channels; epilepsy, migraine, weakness

New cards
92

#when the neurotransmitter binds to the postsynaptic receptor it will cause an

EPSP (more Na+ enters) or IPSP (more Cl- enters)

New cards
93

#if all IPSPs and EPSPs balance, the determination of action potential will depend on

how close the Na+ ion channel or Cl- ion channel is to the axon hillock; the closer will dictate the event that occurs

New cards
94

#at the axon hillock there needs to be

enough charge at that location exactly to fire

New cards
95

#transmitters can bind to presynaptic autoreceptors which

decrease the release of the transmitter; after binding will degrade or reuptaken

New cards
96

#electrical synapses

ion flow directly into adjacent neurons; no time delay,; faster, synchronized, saves energy (in epilepsy there is a chemical change to this kind of structure); ions pass freely between (problem: every room has the door open; no selectivity)

New cards
97

#ligands fit receptors to

activate or block them; lock and key

New cards
98

#endogenous ligands

neurotransmitters and hormones (ex. ACh)

New cards
99

#exogenous ligands

drugs and toxins from outside body

New cards
100

#up-regulation

increase in number of receptors (ex: NICOTINE receptors when start smoking; sensitization)

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 211 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 181 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 34 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard53 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard145 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard72 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard100 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard89 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)