Anatomy and Positioning: Chapter 2 and Chapter 5

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What is contained in the thoracic cavity?

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101 Terms

1

What is contained in the thoracic cavity?

Pleural membranes, lungs, heart, pericardium, esophagus, trachea

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2

What is contained in the abdominal cavity?

Peritoneum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, stomach, intestines, kidneys, uterus

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3

How many regions are there in the abdominal cavity?

9

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4

What is located in the superior region of the abdominal cavity?

Right hypochondrium, epigastrium, left hypochondrium

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5

What is located in the middle region of the abdominal cavity?

Right lateral, umbilical, left lateral

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6

What is located in the inferior region of the abdominal cavity?

Right inguinal, hypogastrium, left inguinal

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7

What areas are affected by body habitus?

Heart, lungs, colon, diaphragm, stomach, gallbladder

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8

What are the 4 areas and their percentages of body habitus?

Sthenic (50%) Hyposthenic (35%) Asthenic (10%) Hypersthenic (5%)

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9

What is osteology?

Study of bones

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10

How many bones are there in your body?

206 bones

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11

What are the 2 main groups of bones?

Axial (80 bones) Appendicular (126 bones)

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12

What does the axial bones support?

Head and trunk. Middle part of the body

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13

What does the appendicular bones support?

Upper and lower extremities. Allows for movement.

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14

What are 2 features that comprise a bone?

Compact and spongy bone

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15

What is the compact bone?

Dense outer layer of bone

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16

What is the spongy bone?

Inner, less dense layer. Contains speculated network of trabeculae.

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17

What is trabeculae?

Filled with yellow and red marrow. Kind of looks like a spider web

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18

What is the medullary cavity?

Central cavity for long bones, contains trabecular filled with yellow marrow, red marrow found in ends of long bone.

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19

What is the endosteum?

The lining of the medullary cavity

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20

What is the periosteum?

A tough fibrous connective tissue. Covers all bony surface except the articular surfaces (ends)

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21

What is the articular cartilage?

Located at the end of the bones, connects the joints together.

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22

What is ossification?

Process of bone formation (forming, developing)

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23

When does ossification begin?

Second month of embryonic life

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24

What are the 2 processes of bone development?

Intermembranous and endochondrial

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25

Which process of bone development is before birth and why?

Intermembranous so that the child's head is not squashed during childbirth

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26

What bone is formed from intermembranous ossification?

Flat bones

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27

What bones are formed by endochondrial ossification?

Short, irregular, long bones

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28

What are the 2 centers of development from endochondrial ossification?

Primary and secondary ossification

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29

What is primary ossification?

Begins before birth and forms long central shaft in long bones

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30

What is secondary ossification?

After birth when bones begin to separate and develop at both ends of long bones.

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31

What are the ends of bones called

Epiphyses

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32

Where are common sites of fractures in children?

At the epiphyses of the bone, because it is not fused together with the diaphysis.

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33

What are some examples of a long bone?

Humerus and femur

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34

What are some examples of flat bones?

Sternum and cranium

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35

What are some examples of irregular bones?

Vertebrae and facial bones

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36

What are some examples of a sesamoid bone?

Patella or big toe

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37

What is arthrology?

Study of joints or articulations between bones

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38

What are the 2 ways arthrology can be classified as?

Functional and structural

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39

What are the 3 types of connective tissue from structural classification?

Fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial

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40

What are the 3 types of joints in the fibrous joints category?

Syndesmosis, suture, and gomphosis

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41

Is a syndesmosis moveable?

only very slightly moveable, or immoveable

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42

Suture and gomphosis are both _&___ joints.

Immoveable & fibrous

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43

What are the 2 types of cartilaginous joints?

Symphysis and synchodrosis

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44

What are the 6 types of synovial joints? (Free range of motion; moveable)

Gliding, hinge, pivot, ellipsoid, saddle, and ball and socket

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45

Where can gliding joints be found in the body?

Intercarpal and intertarsal joints (hand and feet)

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46

Where can a hinge joint be found in the body? (hinge of a door)

Elbow and knee

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47

Where can the pivot joint be found in the body? (rotation)

atlantoaxial joint (C1-C2). rotates head back and forth

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48

Where can the ellipsoid joint be found in the body? (circular,adduction,abduction,flexion,extension)

Radiocarpal joint (wrist)

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49

Where can the saddle joint be found in the body?

Carpometacarpal joint between trapezium and first metacarpal. Base of the thumb

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50

Where can the ball and socket joint be found in the body?

Hip and shoulder

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51

What are the 4 different types of fractures?

Closed, open, nondisplaced, displaced

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52

What is a closed fracture?

When a break in the bone does not break through the skin

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53

What is an open fracture?

When a break in the bone breaks through the skin.

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54

What is a nondisplaced fracture?

When the bone still remains it its normal position

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55

What is a displaced fracture?

When the bone is out of normal alignment

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56

What are the 8 common classifications of fractures?

compression, compound (open), simple (closed), greenstick, transverse, spiral/oblique, comminuted, and impacted

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57

Radiographs are usually viewed in ___________________ position

anatomical (palms up)

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58

What position are you located in when you are lying face down: trendelenburg, fowler, recumbent, prone, supine, upright

Prone

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59

What position are you located in when you are lying supine with the head higher than the feet: trendelenburg, fowler, recumbent, prone, supine, upright

Fowler

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60

What position are you located in when you are lying on your back: trendelenburg, fowler, recumbent, prone, supine, upright

Supine

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61

What position are you located in when you are lying supine with your head lower than your feet: trendelenburg, fowler, recumbent, prone, supine, upright

Trendelenburg

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62

What position are you located in when you are lying down in any position: trendelenburg, fowler, recumbent, prone, supine, upright

Recumbent

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63

What position are you located in when you are erect or marked by a vertical position: trendelenburg, fowler, recumbent, prone, supine, upright

Upright

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64

On which hand surface should the hand be rested when performing the lateral projection image of the fourth or fifth hand: lateral(radial), posterior(dorsal), medial(ulnar), anterior(palmar)

Medial (ulnar)

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65

For the lateral projection of the wrist, how should the elbow be positioned? fully extended, flexed 45 degrees, flexed 90 degrees

Flexed 90 degrees

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66

How much should the wrist be rotated for the PA oblique projection? 35 degrees, 45 degrees, 25 degrees

45 degrees

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67

How many interphalangeal joints are found in one upper extremity? 9,14,8,10

9

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68

Which bones comprises the palm of the hand? carpals, phalanges, metacarpals, metatarsals

Metacarpals

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69

What bones are classified as short bones?

Carpals

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70

A cephalad angle means that the xray tube is angled toward the head. True or false

True

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71

A horizontal xray beam denotes (indicates) a decubitus position. True or false

True

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72

The cranium is considered a flat bone. True or false

True, the cranium and sternum are considered flat bones

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73

What is it called when the movement of the foot is turned outward at the ankle joint.

Eversion

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74

What is it called when the turn of the forearm so that the palm of the hand faces forward (think anatomical position)

Supinate (holding soup)

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75

What is it called when the movement of the foot is turned inward at the ankle joint

Inversion

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76

What is it called when the movement of a part toward the central axis of a body or body part

Adduction

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77

What is it called when you a turning away from the regular standard or course

Deviation

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78

Forced or excessive flexion of a body part

Hyperflexion

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79

What is it called when turning the forearm so that the palm of the hand faces backward (think anatomical position)

Pronate

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80

What is it called when the movement of a part is that the sagittal plane is angled so that it is not parallel with the long axis of the body

Tilt

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81

What is it called when there is forced or excessive straightening of a joint.

Hyperextension

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82

What is it called when there is a circular movement of a limb

Circumduction

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83

What is it called when you are turning an axis

Rotate

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84

What is it called when there is bending movement of a joint whereby the angle between the contiguous bones are diminished

Flexion

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85

What is it called when you are straightening a join

Extension

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86

What is it called when the flexion of the foot is toward the leg

Dorsiflexion

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87

What is the sagittal plane?

divides the body into left and right

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88

what is the coronal plane?

divides the body into front and back

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89

what is the horizontal plane?

divides the body into a top and bottom

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90

what is the oblique plane?

any angle

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91

anterior

towards the front of the body

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92

posterior

towards the back of the body

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93

caudad

parts away from the head

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94

superior

towards the head

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95

inferior

towards the feet

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96

distal

farthest from the point of attachment

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97

proximal

closes to the point of attachment

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98
<p>Which of the following is the X-ray showing and why?</p><p>Sthenic</p><p>Hyposthenic</p><p>Asthenic</p><p>Hypersthenic</p><p></p>

Which of the following is the X-ray showing and why?

Sthenic

Hyposthenic

Asthenic

Hypersthenic

Asthenic: Long lungs, elongated heart

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99
<p>Which of the following is the X-ray showing and why?</p><p>Sthenic</p><p>Hyposthenic</p><p>Asthenic</p><p>Hypersthenic</p>

Which of the following is the X-ray showing and why?

Sthenic

Hyposthenic

Asthenic

Hypersthenic

Sthenic: normal, clear

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100
<p>Which of the following is the X-ray showing and why?</p><p>Sthenic</p><p>Hyposthenic</p><p>Asthenic</p><p>Hypersthenic</p>

Which of the following is the X-ray showing and why?

Sthenic

Hyposthenic

Asthenic

Hypersthenic

Hyposthenic: Between Sthenic and asthenic (not as narrow as sthenic), normal-ish but less clear

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