Anatomy and Positioning: Chapter 2 and Chapter 5

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What is contained in the thoracic cavity?

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What is contained in the thoracic cavity?

Pleural membranes, lungs, heart, pericardium, esophagus, trachea

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What is contained in the abdominal cavity?

Peritoneum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, stomach, intestines, kidneys, uterus

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How many regions are there in the abdominal cavity?

9

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What is located in the superior region of the abdominal cavity?

Right hypochondrium, epigastrium, left hypochondrium

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What is located in the middle region of the abdominal cavity?

Right lateral, umbilical, left lateral

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What is located in the inferior region of the abdominal cavity?

Right inguinal, hypogastrium, left inguinal

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What areas are affected by body habitus?

Heart, lungs, colon, diaphragm, stomach, gallbladder

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What are the 4 areas and their percentages of body habitus?

Sthenic (50%) Hyposthenic (35%) Asthenic (10%) Hypersthenic (5%)

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What is osteology?

Study of bones

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How many bones are there in your body?

206 bones

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What are the 2 main groups of bones?

Axial (80 bones) Appendicular (126 bones)

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What does the axial bones support?

Head and trunk. Middle part of the body

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What does the appendicular bones support?

Upper and lower extremities. Allows for movement.

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What are 2 features that comprise a bone?

Compact and spongy bone

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What is the compact bone?

Dense outer layer of bone

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What is the spongy bone?

Inner, less dense layer. Contains speculated network of trabeculae.

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What is trabeculae?

Filled with yellow and red marrow. Kind of looks like a spider web

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What is the medullary cavity?

Central cavity for long bones, contains trabecular filled with yellow marrow, red marrow found in ends of long bone.

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What is the endosteum?

The lining of the medullary cavity

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What is the periosteum?

A tough fibrous connective tissue. Covers all bony surface except the articular surfaces (ends)

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What is the articular cartilage?

Located at the end of the bones, connects the joints together.

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What is ossification?

Process of bone formation (forming, developing)

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When does ossification begin?

Second month of embryonic life

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What are the 2 processes of bone development?

Intermembranous and endochondrial

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Which process of bone development is before birth and why?

Intermembranous so that the child's head is not squashed during childbirth

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What bone is formed from intermembranous ossification?

Flat bones

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What bones are formed by endochondrial ossification?

Short, irregular, long bones

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What are the 2 centers of development from endochondrial ossification?

Primary and secondary ossification

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What is primary ossification?

Begins before birth and forms long central shaft in long bones

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What is secondary ossification?

After birth when bones begin to separate and develop at both ends of long bones.

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What are the ends of bones called

Epiphyses

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Where are common sites of fractures in children?

At the epiphyses of the bone, because it is not fused together with the diaphysis.

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What are some examples of a long bone?

Humerus and femur

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What are some examples of flat bones?

Sternum and cranium

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What are some examples of irregular bones?

Vertebrae and facial bones

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What are some examples of a sesamoid bone?

Patella or big toe

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What is arthrology?

Study of joints or articulations between bones

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What are the 2 ways arthrology can be classified as?

Functional and structural

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What are the 3 types of connective tissue from structural classification?

Fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial

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What are the 3 types of joints in the fibrous joints category?

Syndesmosis, suture, and gomphosis

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Is a syndesmosis moveable?

only very slightly moveable, or immoveable

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Suture and gomphosis are both _&___ joints.

Immoveable & fibrous

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What are the 2 types of cartilaginous joints?

Symphysis and synchodrosis

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What are the 6 types of synovial joints? (Free range of motion; moveable)

Gliding, hinge, pivot, ellipsoid, saddle, and ball and socket

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Where can gliding joints be found in the body?

Intercarpal and intertarsal joints (hand and feet)

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Where can a hinge joint be found in the body? (hinge of a door)

Elbow and knee

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Where can the pivot joint be found in the body? (rotation)

atlantoaxial joint (C1-C2). rotates head back and forth

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Where can the ellipsoid joint be found in the body? (circular,adduction,abduction,flexion,extension)

Radiocarpal joint (wrist)

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Where can the saddle joint be found in the body?

Carpometacarpal joint between trapezium and first metacarpal. Base of the thumb

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Where can the ball and socket joint be found in the body?

Hip and shoulder

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What are the 4 different types of fractures?

Closed, open, nondisplaced, displaced

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What is a closed fracture?

When a break in the bone does not break through the skin

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What is an open fracture?

When a break in the bone breaks through the skin.

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What is a nondisplaced fracture?

When the bone still remains it its normal position

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What is a displaced fracture?

When the bone is out of normal alignment

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What are the 8 common classifications of fractures?

compression, compound (open), simple (closed), greenstick, transverse, spiral/oblique, comminuted, and impacted

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Radiographs are usually viewed in ___________________ position

anatomical (palms up)

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What position are you located in when you are lying face down: trendelenburg, fowler, recumbent, prone, supine, upright

Prone

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What position are you located in when you are lying supine with the head higher than the feet: trendelenburg, fowler, recumbent, prone, supine, upright

Fowler

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What position are you located in when you are lying on your back: trendelenburg, fowler, recumbent, prone, supine, upright

Supine

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What position are you located in when you are lying supine with your head lower than your feet: trendelenburg, fowler, recumbent, prone, supine, upright

Trendelenburg

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What position are you located in when you are lying down in any position: trendelenburg, fowler, recumbent, prone, supine, upright

Recumbent

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What position are you located in when you are erect or marked by a vertical position: trendelenburg, fowler, recumbent, prone, supine, upright

Upright

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On which hand surface should the hand be rested when performing the lateral projection image of the fourth or fifth hand: lateral(radial), posterior(dorsal), medial(ulnar), anterior(palmar)

Medial (ulnar)

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For the lateral projection of the wrist, how should the elbow be positioned? fully extended, flexed 45 degrees, flexed 90 degrees

Flexed 90 degrees

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How much should the wrist be rotated for the PA oblique projection? 35 degrees, 45 degrees, 25 degrees

45 degrees

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How many interphalangeal joints are found in one upper extremity? 9,14,8,10

9

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Which bones comprises the palm of the hand? carpals, phalanges, metacarpals, metatarsals

Metacarpals

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What bones are classified as short bones?

Carpals

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A cephalad angle means that the xray tube is angled toward the head. True or false

True

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A horizontal xray beam denotes (indicates) a decubitus position. True or false

True

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The cranium is considered a flat bone. True or false

True, the cranium and sternum are considered flat bones

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What is it called when the movement of the foot is turned outward at the ankle joint.

Eversion

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What is it called when the turn of the forearm so that the palm of the hand faces forward (think anatomical position)

Supinate (holding soup)

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What is it called when the movement of the foot is turned inward at the ankle joint

Inversion

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What is it called when the movement of a part toward the central axis of a body or body part

Adduction

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What is it called when you a turning away from the regular standard or course

Deviation

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Forced or excessive flexion of a body part

Hyperflexion

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What is it called when turning the forearm so that the palm of the hand faces backward (think anatomical position)

Pronate

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What is it called when the movement of a part is that the sagittal plane is angled so that it is not parallel with the long axis of the body

Tilt

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What is it called when there is forced or excessive straightening of a joint.

Hyperextension

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What is it called when there is a circular movement of a limb

Circumduction

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What is it called when you are turning an axis

Rotate

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What is it called when there is bending movement of a joint whereby the angle between the contiguous bones are diminished

Flexion

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