Sociology Test 1

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How do we explain and study social life

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112 Terms
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How do we explain and study social life

test theory through research and conduct research to develop theory.

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2 main methodological approaches

positivism and interpretivism

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positivist approach - positivism

Believes that sociology can and should use the same methods and approaches to study both the physical and social world.

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interpretivist approach - interpretivism

people understand the social world differently; methods in natural science not applicable to social world studies (opposite of positivism) - starts with making observations

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verstehen

meaningful understading - the concept of putting yourself in the shoes of others in order to see things from their perspective and understand them better.

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deductive reasoning

theory>hypothesis>observation>confirmation

social researchers test a theory by collection empirical evidence and making observations.

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Inductive reasoning

observation > pattern > hypothesis > theory

social researchers start with collecting observations and then posit a theory.

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nomothetic explanation

Generalizations or laws that apply to a population or a category of phenomena in a quantitative way and is preferred by sociologists.

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idiographic explanation

describes the study of that individual in a qualitative way and historians prefer this.

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quantitative method

deductive

generalizable

number

1 in 30

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qualitative method

inductive

not general

words

I feel happy

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indigenous methodologies

aimed at producing relational knowledge not individual

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the petal flower

an indigenous methodology that uses a flower in search for knowledge.

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roots of the petal flower

foundational elements

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flower centre of the petal flower

self as central to search

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Leaves of the petal flower

journey, process, transformation

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Stem of the petal flower

Backbone and support

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Petals of the petal flower

diverse ways of search

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environment of the petal flower

academic context

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indigenous research method

respectful of and includes indigenous protocols, values, and beliefs that are important to the community involved.

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sharing circle

narrative research method in line with indigenous research framework; gathering of stories through sharing circles to capture lived experiences. Sometimes used as a focus group in a more sacred approach.

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photo voice reflection

a visual research methodology where cameras are used to document and communicate issues of concern. aka participatory action research

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Symbol based reflection

use of paintings and art to tell a story

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what are social researchers obligated to do?

strike a proper balance between risks and benefits of research

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5 rights of research particpants

  1. safety

  2. confidentiality and privacy

  3. voluntary participation

  4. informed consent

    1. social justice

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3 ethical issues

milgrams obedience study

tearoom trade

tuskegee syphilis experiment

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Milgrams Obedience study

fake test subject faking pain while a instructor tells the actual test subject to administer shocks at a lethal level.

shares the idea that ordinary people are likely to follow orders if given by an authority figure. Includes deception and distress.

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tearoom trade

in the 1960s laud humphreys studied men having same sex affairs in the bathroom. Includes deception, lies, and deceit.

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tuskegee syphilis experiment

examined the natural progression of untreated syphilis in rural Alabama men. Ethical issued involved injustice and deception.

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ethical requirement of social justice

ensures no person/group should be exploited in the research process or excluded from its benefits.

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ethics in indigenous research

often used as objects of research rather than authorities in the research

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why statistics

  1. patterns or generalizations

  2. policy

  3. valuable skill set

    1. critical assessment

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Who introduced the social imagination

C. wright mills

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What is the social imagination

connection between personal troubles and societal issues and understanding the bigger picture.

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what does “the ability to see the forest beyond the trees” mean

the tree is individualistic thinking

the forest is sociological thinking

you cant tell what the relation is by just looking at one tree, you have to look at the whole society to see the problem.

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sociological thinking

relates to understanding that everything we do or experience happens in relation to a social context of some kind.

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social lens

how a person views certain situations based on

  • gender

  • sexuality

  • social class

  • race

  • culture

    • religion

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can society make you do something?

no but it can influence a choice based on your lens within society

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how do we decolonize our sociological gaze

challenge eurocentric way s

elevate indigenous perspective

draw attention to issues

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world view

a collection of attitudes, values, stories and expectations about the world around us.

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indigenous worldview

many truth

relatedness

land is scared

time is circle

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western worldview

having one truth

compartmentalized

land is a resource

time is linear

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two-eyed seeing

learning to see from one eye with the strengths of indigenous knowledge; strengths of mainstream knowledge from the other. Using both together.

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Social Theories

Frameworks used to explain social stuff and act as roadmaps that give us direction.

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4 main theoretical approaches

  1. Functionalism

  2. Conflict Theory

  3. Symbolic Interactionism

  4. Feminist Theory

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How do theoretical approaches differ

focus on social relations

  • Micro (face to face)

  • Meso (group or organization)

  • Macro (community or society)

  • Global (internationally)

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Functionalism

  • level:

  • key figure:

  • key concept:

  • main premise:

  • macro

  • Emile Durkheim

  • functions

    • society is a complex system of interrelated parts and all vital functions in maintaining stability.

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Functionalism’s 5 concepts

  1. social solidarity

  2. functionalist criminology

  3. Strain theory

  4. Social disorganization

  5. social (bond)theory

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Social solidarity

the bond between individuals based on common goals

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2 concepts of social solidarity

  • mechanical solidarity

  • organic solidarity

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mechanical solidarity

  • pre modern

  • sameness

  • pre-industrial

  • each district in panem

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Organic Solidarity

  • Modern

  • different

  • interdependent

  • panem as a whole

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Functionalist Criminology

crime and deviance have positive functions for society

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4 concepts of functionalist criminology

  1. clarify social issues

  2. define moral boundaries

  3. reinforce social norms

  4. allow useful social change

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Strain Theory

Merton

society teaches people to value material success but does not provide enough opportunities for everyone to succeed, causing criminals to innovate.

breaking bad

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Social Disorganization

Shaw and McKay

Crime and deviance are highest in socially disorganized areas (poverty)

gotham city

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Social Control (Bond) Theory

Hirschi

Strong bonds = lower chance of deviant behaviour

Bonds include:

  • attachement (family)

  • commitment (job)

  • belief (morals)

  • involvement (clubs)

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Conflict theory

  • level

  • key figure

  • key concept

  • main premise

  • macro

  • karl max

  • inequality

  • societies are inherently unequal based on power differences related to class, race, gender and age

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concept under conflict theory

conflict criminology

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conflict criminiology

focuses on the connection between power and crime.

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symbolic interaction

  • level

  • key figure

  • key concenpt

  • main premise

  • micro

  • mead, cooley, weber

  • meaning

  • societies are on the product of everyday interaction and interpretation. it focuses on symbolic meanings relied upon in interaction.

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6 concepts of symbolic interaction

  1. role taking

  2. development of self

  3. differentiation association

  4. labelling theory

  5. medicalization of deviance

  6. moral panic

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Role taking

mead

we develop a sense of self and our place in society by taking the role of the other

avatar - jake see’s pandora through neytiri

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development of self

mead

we gain a concept of self through our interactions with other people.

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Differential association

sutherland

criminal behaviour is learned by interacting with close friends and family members

the sopranos - the son entering the family business.

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Labelling theory

deviance in reponse to others - constant labelling leads to the internalization of the deviant behaviour.

if they believe im that, i will be that

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medicalization of deviance

making deviant behaviour medical problems.

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moral panic

periods of heightened social concern that are disproportionate to the actual threat; fueled by media.

hellfire club in stranger things

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Feminist Theory

  • level

  • key figure

  • concept

  • main premise

  • macro and micro

  • many

  • patriarchy

  • societies are patriarchal. feminists highlight this ideology and encourage female empowerment.

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concepts in feminist theory

  1. patriarchy

  2. matriarchy

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patriarchy

men have power and privileges over women

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Matriarchy

society politically led by women and not the opposite of patriarchy.

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Culture

The way you think, act and interact

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9 components of culture

  1. language

  2. norms

  3. production

  4. Artifacts

  5. norms

  6. Values

  7. Rituals

  8. Heroes

  9. stories

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threats to endangered languages

  1. globalization

  2. increase of digital world

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Sapir-Word Hypothesis

language influences how we see the world.

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gendered languages

reflect value and beliefs associated with gender and gender roles.

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norms

Shared expectations and rules that guide the behaviour of people within social and cultural groups.

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Folkway Norm

right vs rude (jeepwave)

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Mores Norm

Right vs wrong

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Taboos norm

right vs forbidden

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Laws norm

right vs illegal

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Criminology Norm (Law)

norms written down and enforced

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Criminology norm (crime)

Deviance that breaks the law

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Criminology norm (deviance)

breaking a norm

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ethnomethodology

Using everyday conversation and gestures to construct a common sense view of the world.

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according to Harold Garfinkel

We can discover the normal social order of a society by disturbing it.

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Flash mob

A group of people who suddenly assemble, preform an act, and then disperse.

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material culture

physical objects that people create and use (books or cars)

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non-material culture

non-physical ideas that people have about their culture. (ideas and rules)

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cultural lag

changes in non-material culture tend to lagbehind culture changes in material culture.

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multiculturism

respect for cultural diversity

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first nations

the original inhabitants of Canada, South of the Arctic Circle

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Turtle Island

The continent of NA or the whole world.

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Metis

Have mixed European and Indigenous ancestry, and for the most part live in Ontario and Prairie Provinces.

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Inuit

Occupy the northern regions within the arctic circle.

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ethnocentrism

a cultural bias - the tendency to judge another culture by the standards of our own culture.

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Xenophobia

a cultural bias - the fear of strangers

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