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major structures of urinary system

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Biology

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1

major structures of urinary system

kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra

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2

function of urinary system

elimination of wastes/toxins, regulation of fluid and other levels/substances

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3

relationship with cardiovascular system

production of RBCs (EPO), regulation of BP/fluid content/electrolytes, regulation of calcium

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4

what wastes does the urinary system eliminate

metabolic wastes, N containing compounds (urea), hormones, drugs

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5

where does urea/uric acid come from

breakdown of proteins in the liver

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6

what electrolytes are in the blood

Na+, K+, PO4 3+

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7

what does calcitriol do

increase in blood Ca2+

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8

gluconeogenesis location

live and kidney cortex

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9

when does gluconeogenesis happen

during extended fasting or starvation

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10

what does gluconeogenesis do

produce glucose from non-carbohydrates, maintains BGL and protect the brain

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11

kidney location

retroperitoneal

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12

anterior surface of kidney covered by

parietal peritoneum

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13

kidney covered by

fibrous capsule, perinephric fat, renal fascia, paranephric fat

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14

what happens in the cortex

production of EPO and urine

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15

what makes up the medulla

pyramids and major/minor calyxes

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16

what does the medulla do

collect urine

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17

renal corpuscle

glomerulus and bowmans capsule

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18

renal tubule

proximal convoluted tubule, nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule

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19

where does reabsorption happen

proximal convoluted tubule

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20

principal cells

bind aldosterone and ADH

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21

intercalated cells location

distal convoluted tubule

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22

type A intercalated cells

H+

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23

type B intercalated cells

HCO3-

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24

cortical nephrons

in cortex, 85%

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25

juxtamedullary nephrons

corticomedullary junction, 15%

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26

what do juxtamedullary nephrons do

salt balance, activity of ADH

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27

what are granular cells made of

modified smooth muscle

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28

what do granular cells do

produce and store renin, restore perfusion in kidneys

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29

where is the macula dense

distal convoluted tubule near afferent arteriole only

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30

what does the macula dense do

detect NaCl concentration, release renin

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31

what does filtration do

monitor BP and components, flow of blood in and out of kidneys, flow though nephron and other structures

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32

what does reabsorption do

movement of water/substances back into plasma, a balancing act from tubules

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33

glomerular filtration

water and solutes (no protein), pressure differences

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34

tubular reabsorption

into the blood, passive and active processes, pertubular capillaries and vasa recta

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35

tubula secretion

into urine

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36

filtration details

materials from the fenestrated capillaries move thru the membrane

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37

what does the filtration membrane block

formed elements (endothelium), large proteins (basement membrane), small proteins (slits)

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38

mesangial cell location

capillary loops in capsule

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39

what do mesangial cells release

cytokines, prostaglandins

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40

what do mesangial cells do

phagocytize macromolecules

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41

hydrostatic pressure in glomerulus

HPg

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42

blood colloid osmotic pressure

OPg

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43

capsular hydrostatic pressure

HPc

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44

intrinsic controls of filtration pressure

mean arterial pressure, afferent arteriole response

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45

extrinsic controls that adjust rate

decrease to glomerular filtration rate

ANS- decreased blood flow from afferent arteriole, mesangial cells contract

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46

results of extrinsic controls

decreased urine production, retain fluid, maintain BP

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47

small plasma proteins

insulin and angiotensin II

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48

transmembrane proteins

thresholds determined by # of proteins, reabsorb all nutrients

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49

reabsorption of glucose

active transport

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50

reabsorption of Na+

facilitated diffusion

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51

reabsorption of H2O

thru aquaporins, follows Na+

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52

reabsorption of ADH

independent

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53

reabsorption of K+

passive transport, concentration gradient set up by movement of Na+ and H2O

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54

where is 10-20% of K+ reabsorbed

nephron loop

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55

what are affected by aldosterone

collecting tubules and ducts

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56

effect of ADH

reabsorb H2O

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57

where does the exchange of water and salt occur

nephron loop, vasa recta, interstitial area

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58

renal plasma clearance

volume of plasma that can be cleared in a given amount of time (1 min), useful for medicine dosage

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59

how much of the kidney is renal failure

90%, damage to glomerulus and blood vessels

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60

treatments of renal failure

peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, kidney transplant

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61

urine composition

95% H2O and 5% solutes

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62

urine pH

4.5-8

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63

urine volume

1-2L/day

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64

what is specific gravity

solutes

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65

decrease urine volume

increase ADH and aldosterone, decrease ANP/fluid intake/BP, increase in fluid output

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66

increase urine volume

decrease ADH and aldosterone, increase ANP/fluid intake/BP, diabetes mellitus and diuretics

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67

micturition- sympathetic division of ANS

contraction of internal sphincter, inhibits detrusor muscle, storage reflex, reduce filtration in glomerulus, suppress urination

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68

micturition- parasympathetic division of ANS

relaxation of internal sphincter, contraction of detrusor muscle, urination

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69

where is the micturition center

pons

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70

at what mL does urination occur

500-600mL

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71

storage reflex

autonomic and somatic control, allows filling of bladder, detrusor muscle relaxes, internal sphincter contracts

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72

intracellular fluid

K+, Mg2+, PO4 3-, 60%

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73

extracellular fluid

Na+, Ca2+, Cl-, HCO3-, plasma and interstitial fluid, 40%

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74

what causes fluid movement

hydrostatic pressure, osmosis

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75

fluid depletion

hemorrhage, burns, vomiting, hyper secretion of aldosterone

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76

dehydration

profuse sweating, diabetes mellitus, hypo secretion of ADH, cold exposure

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77

hypotonic hydration

hyper secretion of ADH, more usually drinking excess water

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78

edema

changes in cardiovascular and lymphatic system, changes in net filtration pressure at capillaries

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79

ascites

accumulation of fluid in peritoneal cavity

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80

pericardial effusion

fluid in pericardial cavity

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81

pleural effusion

fluid in pleural cavity

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82

where is the thirst center

hypothalamus → cerebral cortex

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83

activation of thirst center

decreased salivary secretions, increased blood osmolarity, decreased blood volume → pressure

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84

what does the release of renin do

angiotensin II → signals thirst center

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85

deactivation of thirst center

distention of stomach, inhibition of thirst center, increased salivary secretions, decreased blood osmolarity, increased blood volume

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86

hormonal control of fluid output

angiotensin II, ADH, aldosterone, ANP

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87

nonelectrolytes

do not disassociate in water, do not form ions (glucose, urea, creatine)

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88

electrolytes

disassociate in water (salts, ions, negatively charged proteins, acids, bases)

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89

sodium balance

99% in ECF, maintained by pumps, NaHCO3 and NaCl

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90

potassium balance

98% in ICF, control of heart rhythm, regulation complicated by other cations

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91

Cl-

most abundant anion in ECF, regulated with Na+

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92

Ca2+

stored in bones and teeth with PO4 3-, removed from cells or stores in muscle

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93

PO4 3-

most abundant anion in ICF

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94

Mg2+

stored in bone and cells

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95

what produces constant angiotensinogen

liver

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96

angiotensin II

increases BP and volume, response to decrease in blood volume or pressure and SNS stimulation

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97

ADH

increase thirst and retain fluid, responds to low blood volume/pressure and increased osmolarity

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98

aldosterone

decreased urine output and increased blood volume/pressure; responds to increased angiotensin II, decreased plasma Na+ levels, increased K+ levels

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99

atrial natural peptide (ANP)

decreased urine output and increase blood pressure and volume; responds to increased angiotensin II and plasma K+ levels, decreased plasma Na+ levels

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100

blood pH

7.35-7.45

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