Biology Chapters 11-14

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Monohybrid Cross

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121 Terms

1

Monohybrid Cross

The cross between plants that differ only in one trait

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2

Locus

Physical location of a trait or gene on a chromosome

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3

Dominant Allele

Allele that exerts its phenotype on a heterozygote; masks the expression of the recessive allele

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4

Recessive Allele

Allele that exerts its phenotype on a homozygote; masked by the dominant allele.

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5

Homozygous

Organism with two identical alleles

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Heterozygous

Organism with two different alleles at a gene locus

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7

Genotype

An individual's alleles received at fertilization

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8

Phenotype

They physical appearance of an individual; determine d by proteins produced by corresponding alleles

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9

Dihybrid Cross

Cross between plants that differ in two traits

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10

Law of Independent Assortment

Each pair of factors segregates independently of the other pairs, All possible combinations of factors can occur in the gametes

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11

Punnentt Square

Visual representation developed by Reginald Punnett that is used to calculate the expressed results of simple genetic crosses

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12

Testcross

Cross between an individual with a recessive phenotype and an individual with a dominant phenotype to see if it is homozygous or heterozygous dominant

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13

Autosome

Any chromosome other than a sex chromosome

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14

Carriers

Individuals that do not express the genetic disorder in their phenotype but are able to pass it onto their children because they still have it in their genotype

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15

Multiple Alleles

Inheritance pattern in which there are more than two alleles for a particular trait; blood type

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16

Codomiance

Inheritance pattern in which both alleles of a gene are equally expressed in a heterozygote

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17

Single Stranded Binding Proteins (SSB)

Attach to newly separated DNA to prevent it from re-forming the helix so replication can occur

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18

DNA Primase

Places short primers on the strands to be replicated

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19

DNA Ligase

"Glue" that mends okazaki fragments together and recombinant DNA together

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20

Replication Fork

V shape that forms wherever DNA is being replicated

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21

Uracil (U)

Pyrimidine in RNA with a single ring structure; complementary base pairs to Adenine

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22

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

Takes message from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm

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23

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

Transfers amino acids to the ribosomes

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24

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

Makes up the ribosomes where polypeptides are synthesized

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25

Transcription

Process of an RNA molecule being produced based on a DNA template

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26

Translation

mRNA transcript is read by a ribosome and converted into a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide

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27

Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

Processes that dictate the flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein in a cell; DNA - RNA - Protein; DNA - mRNA - polypeptide

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28

Genetic Code

Universal code that has existed for eons and allows for conversions of DNA and RNA's chemical code to a sequence of amino acids in a proten

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29

Triplet Code

three nucleotides in a genetic code

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30

RNA Polymerase

Joins nucleotides in RNA together in the 5' to 3' direction

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31

Promoter

Sequence of DNA in an operon that RNA polymerase binds to, to begin transcription; they signal the start of the operon and the location of transcription

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32

Incomplete Dominance

Inheritance patter in which offspring have an intermediate phenotype

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33

Incomplete Penetrance

Dominant alleles that are not present or fully expressed

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34

Pleiotropy

When a single mutant gene affects two or more distinct and seemingly unrelated traits

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35

Polygenetic Inheritance

When a single trait is governed by two or more sets of alleles

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36

Multifactorial Traits

Polygenic traits subject to environmental influences

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37

X-Linked

Genes that are carried on the x chromosome

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38

Hemizygous

An individual possessing only one allele for a gene on the x chromosome

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39

Adenine (A)

Purine double ring nucleotide base; complementary base pairs to Thymine

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40

Guanine (G)

Purine double ring nucleotide base; complementary base pairs to Cytosine

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41

Thymine (T)

Pyrimidine single ring nucleotide base; complementary base pairs to Adenine

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42

Cytosine (C)

Pyrimidine single ring nucleotide base; complementary base pairs to Guanine

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43

Double Helix

Double spiral, three dimensional shape of DNA

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44

Complementary Base Pairing

Hydrogen bonding between particular purines and pyrimidines

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45

DNA Replication

Process of copying a DNA molecule

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46

Template

A mold used to produce a shape complementary of itself

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47

Semiconservative replication

Process of DNA replication that results in two double helix molecules each having one parental strand and one new strand

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48

Codon

Also known as a triplet Codon; three nucleotides in a genetic code

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49

mRNA Transcript

mRNA molecule formed during transcription that has a sequence of bases complementary to a gene

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50

Introns

Intervening sequence found between exons in mRNA; removed by RNA processing before translation

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51

Exons

Segment of mRNA containing the protein coding portion of a gene that remains within the mRNA after splicing has occured

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52

Ribozyme

An enzyme made of RNA rather than just protein

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53

Anticodon

A group of three bases that is complementary and anitparallel to a specific mRNA codon

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54

Polyribosome

The entire complex of mRNA and multiple ribosomes

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55

Initiation

The step that brings all the translation components together

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56

Elognation

The stage during protein synthesis when a polypeptide increases in length one amino acid at a time

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Termination

The final step in protein synthesis that occurs at a stop codon

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Proteomics

The study of the structure, function, and interaction of cellular proteins

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59

Structural genes

The genes that code for the enzymes and proteins that are involved in the metabolic pathway of the operon

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60

Operon

Model to explain gene regulation in prokaryotes

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Regulator Gene

Gene that codes for the protein that acts as a repressor to control whether the operon is active or not

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Operator

a short portion of DNA located before the structural genes. If the repressor is attached to the it, the operon is not functional

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Inducer

Molecule that brings about activity of an operon by joining with a repressor and preventing it from binding to the operator

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64

Chromatin

A stringy material made up of DNA associated with a variety of proteins

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65

Barr Body

Highly condensed chromatin adhering to the inner edge of the nuclear membrane

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Epigenetic inheritance

Variations in the pattern of inheritance that are not due to changes in the sequence of the DNA nucleotides

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67

Transcriptional Control

Most critical level of control of gene expression with the use of transcription factors, and other proteins that regulate either the initiation of transcription or the rate at which it occurs

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68

Transcription Factors

Protein required for the initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase

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Transcription Activator

Protein that participates in the initiation of transcription by binding to the enhancer regulatory regions

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70

Enhancers

DNA sequence that acts as a regulatory element to increase the level of transcription when regulatory proteins, such as transcription activators, bind to it

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71

Posttranscriptional Control

Gene expression following transcription that regulates the way mRNA transcripts are processed

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72

Micro RNA (miRNA)

Small snippets of RNA that can bind to and disable the translation of mRNA in the cytoplasm

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73

Small-interfering RNA (siRNA)

Type of small RNA that joins with an enzyme to form an active silencing complex, which targets specific mRNAs in the cell for breakdown

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74

RNA Interference

Process of interfering with the normal gene expression pathway

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75

Translational control

Gene expression regulated by influencing the interaction of the mRNA transcripts with the ribosome

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Posttranslational Control

Alternation of gene expression by changing a protein's activity after it is translated

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77

Proteases

Enzymes that break down proteins

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78

Proteasomes

Special structures that proteases are typically found in

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79

Gene Mutation

Permanent change in the sequence of bases in DNA

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80

Spontaneous Mutations

Mutations that arise from abnormalities in normal biological processes

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81

Induced Mutations

Mutations that are caused from mutagens

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82

Mutagens

Environmental factors that can alter the base composition of DNA

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Carcinogens

Cancer-causing mutagens

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84

DNA Repair Enzymes

One of several enzymes that restore the original base sequence in an altered DNA strand

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85

Point Mutations

A change in a single DNA nucleotide

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86

Frameshift Mutations

One or more nucleotides are added or deleted from the DNA

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87

Gene Cloning

DNA cloning for the purpose of producing many copies

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88

Gene Therapy

The process of using of cloned genes to modify a human

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89

Transgenic Organisms

Non-human organisms that are genetically modified

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90

Recombinant DNA (rRNA)

DNA with tow or more different sources

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91

Vector

A means to transfer foreign genetic material into a cell

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92

Plasmids

Small accessory rings of DNA found in bacteria

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93

Restriction Enzyme

Enzyme the cleaves DNA

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94

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Used to accelerate the pace of genetic engineering by quickly creating many clones of a piece of DNA without inserting it into a plasmid

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95

Gel Electrophoresis

Process that separates DNA fragments according to their size

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96

DNA Fingerprinting (DNA Profiling)

Technology used to identify and distinguish among individuals based on variations in their DNA

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97

Short Tandem Repeat Sequences (STRs)

Short DNA sequences that are repeated many times in a row

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98

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

Transgenic bacteria, plants, and animals

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Biotechnology Products

The products that genetically modified organisms produce

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100

Gene Pharming

The use of transgenic farm animals to produce pharmaceuticals

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