Unit 1 AP Psychology

studied byStudied by 82 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

empiricism

1 / 109

Tags and Description

110 Terms

1

empiricism

the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation

New cards
2

structuralism

an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind

New cards
3

functionalism

a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish

New cards
4

experimental psychology

the study of behavior and thinking using the (scientific) experimental method

New cards
5

behaviorism

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)

New cards
6

humanistic psychology

historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth

New cards
7

psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes

New cards
8

nature-nurture issue

the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture

New cards
9

natural selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival with most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

New cards
10

level of analysis

the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

New cards
11

biopsychosocial approach

an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

New cards
12

biological psychology

a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes

New cards
13

evolutionary psychology

the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection

New cards
14

psychodynamic psychology

a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders

New cards
15

behavioral psychology

the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning

New cards
16

cognitive psychology

the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicatin

New cards
17

social-cultural psychology

the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking

New cards
18

psychometrics

the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits

New cards
19

basic research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

New cards
20

developmental psychology

the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

New cards
21

educational psychology

the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning

New cards
22

personality psychology

the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting

New cards
23

social psychology

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

New cards
24

applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

New cards
25

industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

New cards
26

human factors psychology

the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments

New cards
27

counseling psychology

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being

New cards
28

clinical psychology

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

New cards
29

psychiatry

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy

New cards
30

SQ3R Method

method which includes survey, questions, read, recite and review reading passage

New cards
31

testing effect

enhanced memory after retrieving (for a test), rather than simply rereading, information

New cards
32

community psychology

a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups

New cards
33

positive psychology

the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive

New cards
34

cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

New cards
35

hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

New cards
36

double blind procedure

An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies

New cards
37

independent variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated--the variable whose effect is being studied

New cards
38

dependent variables

The outcome factor -- the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

New cards
39

mode

The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

New cards
40

mean

The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtaining by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores

New cards
41

median

The middle score in a distribution--half the scores are above it and half are below it

New cards
42

standard deviations

A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

New cards
43

random assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance ,thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups

New cards
44

random sampling

A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

New cards
45

scatter plot

A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation

New cards
46

illusory correlation

The perception of a relationship where none exists

New cards
47

case study

An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

New cards
48

naturalistic observation

Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

New cards
49

correlation

A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to +1

New cards
50

experiment

A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effects on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant variable

New cards
51

replication

Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

New cards
52

statistical significance

A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

New cards
53

operational definition

A statement of the procedures used to define research variables.

New cards
54

critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.

New cards
55

theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations

New cards
56

hypothesis

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

New cards
57

population

all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

New cards
58

correlation coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)

New cards
59

placebo

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

New cards
60

placebo effect

the phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior

New cards
61

experimental group

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

New cards
62

control group

in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

New cards
63

confounding variable

a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.

New cards
64

range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

New cards
65

normal curve/distribution

a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (68% fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer near the extremes

New cards
66

inferential statistics

numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance

New cards
67

culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

New cards
68

informed consent

an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

New cards
69

debriefing

the post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants

New cards
70

longitudinal study

researchers follow the same subjects over an extended period of time.

New cards
71

confirmation bias

experimenter might consciously or unconsciously look to confirm what they already believe about their hypothesis

New cards
72

descriptive statistics

describe the basic features of the data in a study. They provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures.

New cards
73

variance

measures how far a data set is spread out. The technical definition is "The average of the squared differences from the mean."

New cards
74

survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group

New cards
75

sampling bias

a flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample

New cards
76

skewed distribution

a representation of scores that lack symmetry around their average value

New cards
77

histogram

a bar graph depicting a frequency distribution

New cards
78

validity

the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

New cards
79

gestalt

an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.

New cards
80

introspection

the process of looking inward in an attempt to directly observe one’s own psychological processes.

New cards
81

behavior genetics

the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.

New cards
82

Wilhelm Wundt

Set up the first psychology laboratory in an apartment near the university at Leipzig, Germany in 1879, cited as the beginning of scientific psychology

New cards
83

G. Stanley Hall

Known as the founder of educational psychology and child psychology, shaped adolescent themes in psychology.

New cards
84

Edward Bradford Titchener

he used introspection to search for the mind’s structural elements

New cards
85

William James

wrote the Principles of Psychology and is the founder of functionalism. He created the James

New cards
86

Charles Darwin

Developed theories of evolution and natural selection, inspire the evolutionary approach in psychology.

New cards
87

Mary Whiton Calkins

The first female president of the American Psychological Association, created self-psychology, which emphasized a self-evaluation of one’s personal experiences.

New cards
88

Margaret Floy Washburn

The first woman granted a Ph.D. in psychology.

New cards
89

John B. Watson

The father of behaviorism, famous for the controversial Little Albert experiment.

New cards
90

B.F. Skinner

A behaviorist psychologist, created the theory of operant conditioning where he studied how consequences shape behavior.

New cards
91

Sigmund Freud

the father of psychoanalysis

New cards
92

Carl Rogers

A humanist psychologist who created client-centered therapy where the therapist guides personal growth.

New cards
93

Abraham Maslow

developed a hierarchy of needs, which includes physiological needs (i.e. food, water, shelter), safety, belonging and love, esteem, and self

New cards
94

Ivan Pavlov

Known for his work in classical conditioning

New cards
95

Jean Piaget

Created stages of development for children including the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operation phases.

New cards
96

Dorothea Dix

An advocate for the mentally ill by highlighting the deplorable conditions in asylums, created the first mental hospitals in America.

New cards
97

Gestalt psychology

the study of how our mind pieces together various pieces of information to create a meaningful whole

New cards
98

psychoanalysis

look at the influence the unconscious has on personality, completely based on Freud's theory of personality

New cards
99

Participant bias

a tendency for research participants to respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed or they believe they know what the researcher wants.

New cards
100

Correlational study

seeks the relationship between two variables

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 95 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6346 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(49)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard43 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard65 terms
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard382 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard88 terms
studied byStudied by 77 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(7)
flashcards Flashcard39 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard58 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard136 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)