AP psych unit 9

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developmental psychology

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developmental psychology

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

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3 major issues in developmental psychology

nature and nurture, continuity and stages, stability and change

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nature-nurture issue

how much development is innate or caused by the environment

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continuity and stages issue

Is development a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages?

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stability-change issue

the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change

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temperament

a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity, these characteristics are stable and don't change over time

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Stages of baby development in the uterus

zygote, embryo, fetus

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Zygote

the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

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embryo

the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

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fetus

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

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Teratogens

(literally, "monster maker") agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions. example of teratogens

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alcohol has epigenetic effects

leaves chemical marks on DNA that switch genes abnormally on and off

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Habituation

decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner. (tests how babies think/ what they learn)

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Maturation

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

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pruning process

shuts down unused links and strengthens others

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cognition

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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ways of thinking

schema, assimilation, accommodation

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Schemas

Concepts or mental frameworks that organize and interpret information. group like things together

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Assimilation

interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

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accommodation

adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

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Piaget's stages of cognitive development

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

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sensorimotor stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities. through looking, touching, hearing, mouthing, grasping. development of object permanence. gradual appearance of symbolic thought. stranger anxiety

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object permanence

the understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of view. EX: show a 3 month old toy and place it under a pillow, the child won't look for it because they don't understand that the toy continues to exist under the pillow. - usually appears around around 4 to 8 months but not mastered until 18 months

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preoperational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. - pretend play. -development of symbolic thought marked by irreversibility, centration, egocentrism

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conservation

the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects. - If two identical glasses are filled with the same amount of water and then one is dumped to a taller, skinnier glass a child will think that the taller glass has more water in it. ( child focused on water line because they have not yet mastered conservation.)

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Centration (Piaget)

the act of focusing on one aspect of something. It is a key factor in the preoperational stage. (focus on water height, not the width) can't focus on several aspects of a problem at once

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Irreversibility

in Piaget's theory, the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action (can't think about what would happen if the water was poured back into the first beaker)

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Egocentrism

the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view. - fail to appreciate that there are points of view other than their own - cause animism, the belief that all things are living, attribute human qualities to inanimate objects

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theory of mind

people's ideas about their own and others' mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors. -impaired theory of mind, fail to read facial expressions, high functioning= normal intelligence but lack social communication -low spectrum= unable to use language at all - affects more boys

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concrete operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events. -comprehend mathematical transformation and conversation. - mastered reversibility and decentration. - decline in egocentrism and gradual mastery of conservation

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Reversibility

permits a child to mentally undo an action

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Decentation

focus on more than one feature of a problem simultaneously

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formal operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts. - systematic reasoning/ abstract thinking

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Leu Vygotsky

studied how children feeds on the language of social interaction, kids learn from help from other people, language development is key

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scaffold

a framework that offers children temporary support as they develop higher levels of thinking

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zone of proximal development

the difference between what children can do with assistance and what they can do alone

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stanger anxiety

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age -brain and social- emotional behavior develop together

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attachment

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

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Human Attachment

communication occurs via touch (soothing/ arousal) -consists of one person providing another with a secure base to explore a safe haven when distressed - feeling safe/ comfortable - thought attachment was because of nourishment but Harlow's experiment says otherwise

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critical period

an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development

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Imprinting

the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life -Konrad Lorenz -humans don't imprint like animals do

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sensitive period

A limited phase in an individual animal's development when learning of particular behaviors can take place. -Children become attached to what they know/ familiar - more time for babies to attach instead of right away like animals

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secure attachment

a relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver

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insecure attachment

anxiety or avoidance of trusting relationships - less likely to explore, cling to mother - when she leaves, cry loudly and remain upset upon departure and return

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temperament

a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity - biological rooted temperament helps form personality - overall mood - nature - born with it - caused different when it comes to parenting

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basic trust

according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers - 13 month old babies can be happy when seperated from parents

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deprivation of attachment

children become withdrawn, frightened, unable to develop speech

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resilient children

children growing up under adversity withstand trauma and become normal adults more quickly

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self-concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?" -red dot and mirror experiment - 15 to 18 months

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authoritarian parenting

style of parenting in which parent is rigid and overly strict, showing little warmth to the child -obedience and controls child's behavior through punishment -limited communication, love, warmth

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permissive/indulgent parenting

parents who are more friends to their children and do not set any boundaries. Children tend to be selfish, immature, and dependent upon their parents. few expectations and rules, allow children to make their own decision -high levels of communication/ warmth/ love

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permissive neglectful parenting

A style of parenting that is low in both demand and responsiveness. Neglectful parents are uninvolved and distant, often unaware of their child's activities. - lack of support of their children -see own life more important than the needs of the child

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authorative parenting

A parenting style that encourages the child to be independent but that still places limits and controls on behavior. -clear limits and explanations for consequences - open communication but parents make the ultimate decision - offers child love/warmth

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gender

the socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female

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aggression

any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy -men are more

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gender roles

a set of expected behaviors for males or for females -fit into expectation of the role you take one

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role

a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave -observation/ imitation -reward/punishment

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gender identity

our sense of being male or female

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social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished -learn who we are by observing, reward and punishment, imitation and observation

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gender typing

the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role -fit into what culture says gender should behave like

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Transgender

an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex

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Gender and Power

men = dominant, forceful, independent, directive => talk assertively, interrupt, intimate stares/touch, smile/ apologize less

women = submissive, nurturing, socially connected, democratic

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Gender and Social Connectedness

Men enjoy doing activities side-by-side, talk to communicate solutions. physical, competitive, lots of friends

women are more concerned with social connections. enjoy talking face-to-face, often talk to explore relationships. talk more often and more openly.

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adolescence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

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puberty

start of adolescence -when we sexually mature (follows surge of hormones which intensify moods and triggers body changes) - sequence more predictable than timing -Menarche= 1st menstrual periodprimary

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early maturing boys

stronger, more athletic, More popular, self-assured, and independent; more at risk for alcohol use, delinquency, and premature sexual activity

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early maturing girls

Tend to have lower self-esteem, more depression, poorer body image than later maturing girls. may suffer teasing, sexual harassment

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Maturation of the brain

frontal lobes continue to develop - growth of myelin= better communication with other brain regions, improved judgement, impulse control, long term planning - hormonal surge and limbic system development explains teenage behavior - emotions drive actions

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Adolescent Cognitive Development

  • develops abstract reasoning (apply abstract reasoning skills to the world around them) - develops the capacity for true formal thought - systematic approach to problems - Morality

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moral reasoning

the thinking that occurs as we consider right and wrong -Lawrence Kohlberg

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Lawrence Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development

moral thinking develops in stages as cognitive abilities develop, with 3 levels divided into 6 sequential stages - preconventional, conventional, post conventional

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preconventional morality (stage 1 and 2)

before 9 -self-interest; obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards

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stage 1

punishment orientation= right and wrong is determined by what is punished

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stage 2

naive reward orientation= right and wrong is determined by what is rewarded

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conventional morality (stage 3 and 4)

By early adolescence, social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake. (gain social approval or maintain social order)

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Stage 3

good boy/girl orientation= right and wrong is determined ny close others' approval and disapproval

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stage 4

authority orientation= right and wrong is determined by society's rules and laws which should be obeyed rigidly

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post conventional morality (stage 5 and 6)

actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles

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stage 5

social contract orientation= right and wrong is determined by society's rules, which are viewed as falliable rather than absolute

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stage 6

individual principles and conscience orientation= right and wrong is determined by by abstract ethical principles that emphasize equity and justice

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moral intuition

Jonathan Haidt: Much of morality rooted in moral intuitions that are made quickly and automatically -quick, gut feelings or affectively laden intuitions - high empathy= do the right thing, actions are moral

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identity

our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles

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social identity

the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships

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intimacy

in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood -happiest when in relationships (romantically and friends/ family)

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emerging adulthood

for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood

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Erikson's stages of psychosocial development

  1. trust vs. mistrust 2. autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3. initiative vs. guilt 4. industry vs. inferiority 5. identity vs. role confusion 6. intimacy vs. isolation 7. generativity vs. stagnation 8. integrity vs. despair

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Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust

Infancy (to 1 year) If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust.

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Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

toddlerhood (1-3 years) - learn to exercise their will and to do things by themselves or else they will doubt their own abilities

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Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt

preschool ( 3-6) learn to innate tasks and carry out plans or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent

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Stage 4: Competence vs. Inferiority

elementary (6 - puberty) learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks or they feel inferior

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Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion

adolescence (teen - 20's) work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity or they become confused on who they are

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Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation

young adulthood ( 20's - early 40's) struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love or they feel socially isolated

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Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation

middle adulthood ( 40's - 60's) discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work or may feel a lack of purpose

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Stage 8: Integrity vs. Despair

late adulthood ( late 60's- up) reflecting on life, an older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure

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Parent and peer relationships in adolescence

as they form their own identities, they pull away from their parents, and child-parent conflicts rise, and peer influences become more important - ex: preschooler who can't get close enough to parent becomes the 14 year old who wouldn't be caught dead holding hands in public with parent - transition is gradual - more conflicts/ arguments ( greater with 1st born and mothers)

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positive parent/ teen relation

positive peer relations - affectionate relationships with mom= girls enjoy intimate relationships - feel close with parents = happy/ healthy and better in school - misbehaving teens= tense relationship with parents/ adults

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Peer influence in adolescence

teens have a herd mentality meaning they talk, dress, act more like peers than parents - do what others do - absorbed in social network and can feel excluded - exclusion = vulnerable to loneliness , low self esteem, depression

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parents influence

religious beliefs, values, manners, attitudes, politics, habits, college

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