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organ

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organ

structure with discrete boundaries that is composed of 2 or more tissue types

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histology

-microscope anatomy

-the study of tissues and how they are arranged into organs

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tissue

a group of similar cells and cell products working together to perform a specific role in an organ

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how do tissues differ from each other

-types and functions of their cells

-characteristics of the matrix

-relative amount of space occupied by cells vs matrix

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matrix

-extracellular material

-composed of fibrous proteins & ground substance

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ectoderm

-outer

-gives rise to epidermis and nervous sysytem

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endoderm

-inner

-gives rise to mucous membrane lining digestive and respiratory tracts, digestive glands, among other things

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mesoderm

-middle

-becomes gelatinous tissue called mesenchyme

-whispy collagem fibers and fibroblasts in gel matrix

-gives rise to cartilage, bone, blood, and muslce

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longitudinal section

tissue cut on its long axis

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cross section

-transverse section

-tissue cut perpendicular to long axis of organ

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oblique section

tissue cut at angle between cross and longitudinal sections

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smear

tissue is rubbed across a slide

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spread

some membranes and cobwebby tissues are laid out on a slide

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epithelial tissue

-sheets of closely adhering cells, one or more cells thick

-covers body surfaces and lines body cavities

-upper surface usually exposed to the environment or an internal space in the body

-constitutes most glands

-avasular

-almost no matrix

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epithelial tissue functions

-protect depper tissues from injury and infection

-produce and release chemical secretions

-excrete waste

-absorb chemicals including nutrients

-selectively filter substances

-sense stimuli

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basement membrane

-layer between an epithelium and underlying connective tissue

-collagen, reticular proteins, glycoproteins, other proteins (carbohydrate complexes)

-anchors the epithelium to the connective tissue below it

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basal surface

surface of epithelial cell facing the basement membrane

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apical surface

surface of epithelial cell that faces away from the basement membrane

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simple epithelia

-contain one layer of cells

-named by shape of cells

-all cells touch basement membrane

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stratified epithelia

-contain more than one layer

-named by shape of apical cells

-some cells rest on top of other and don’t touch basement membrane

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goblet cells

wineglass-shaped mucus-secreting cells in simple columnar and pseudostratified epithelia

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simple squamous epithelium

<p>-sinlge row of thin cells</p><p>-permits rapid diffusion or transport of substances</p><p>-secretes serous fluid</p><p>-locations: alveoli, glomeruli, endothelium, and serosa</p>

-sinlge row of thin cells

-permits rapid diffusion or transport of substances

-secretes serous fluid

-locations: alveoli, glomeruli, endothelium, and serosa

<p>-sinlge row of thin cells</p><p>-permits rapid diffusion or transport of substances</p><p>-secretes serous fluid</p><p>-locations: alveoli, glomeruli, endothelium, and serosa</p>
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simple cuboidal epithelium

<p>-single layer of square or round cells</p><p>-absorption and secretion, mucus production and movement</p><p>-locations: liver, thyroid, mammary and salivary glands, bronchioles, and kidney tubules</p>

-single layer of square or round cells

-absorption and secretion, mucus production and movement

-locations: liver, thyroid, mammary and salivary glands, bronchioles, and kidney tubules

<p>-single layer of square or round cells</p><p>-absorption and secretion, mucus production and movement</p><p>-locations: liver, thyroid, mammary and salivary glands, bronchioles, and kidney tubules</p>
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simple columnar epithelium

<p>-single row of tall, narrow cells</p><p>-oval nuclei in basal half of cell</p><p>-brush border of microvilli, ciliated in some organs, may possess goblet cells</p><p>-absorption and secretion of mucus</p><p>-locations: lining of GI tract, uterus, kidney, and uterine tubes</p>

-single row of tall, narrow cells

-oval nuclei in basal half of cell

-brush border of microvilli, ciliated in some organs, may possess goblet cells

-absorption and secretion of mucus

-locations: lining of GI tract, uterus, kidney, and uterine tubes

<p>-single row of tall, narrow cells</p><p>-oval nuclei in basal half of cell</p><p>-brush border of microvilli, ciliated in some organs, may possess goblet cells</p><p>-absorption and secretion of mucus</p><p>-locations: lining of GI tract, uterus, kidney, and uterine tubes</p>
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pseudostratified epithelium

<p>-looks multilayered, but all cells touch basement membrane</p><p>-nuclei at several layers</p><p>-has cilia and goblet cells</p><p>-secretes and propels mucus</p><p>-locations: respiratory tract and portions of male urethra</p>

-looks multilayered, but all cells touch basement membrane

-nuclei at several layers

-has cilia and goblet cells

-secretes and propels mucus

-locations: respiratory tract and portions of male urethra

<p>-looks multilayered, but all cells touch basement membrane</p><p>-nuclei at several layers</p><p>-has cilia and goblet cells</p><p>-secretes and propels mucus</p><p>-locations: respiratory tract and portions of male urethra</p>
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stratified epithelia

-deepest layers undergo continuous mitosis

-daughter cells push toward the surface and become flatter as they migrate upward

-finally die and flake off (exfoliation or desquamation)

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keratinized

-found on skin surface

-abrasion resistant

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nonkeratinized

lacks surface layer of dead cells

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keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

<p>-multiple cell layers; cells become flat and scaly toward surface</p><p>-resists abrasion; retards water loss through skin; resists penetration by pathogenic organisms</p><p>-locations: epidermis, palms and soles heavily keratinized</p>

-multiple cell layers; cells become flat and scaly toward surface

-resists abrasion; retards water loss through skin; resists penetration by pathogenic organisms

-locations: epidermis, palms and soles heavily keratinized

<p>-multiple cell layers; cells become flat and scaly toward surface</p><p>-resists abrasion; retards water loss through skin; resists penetration by pathogenic organisms</p><p>-locations: epidermis, palms and soles heavily keratinized</p>
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nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

<p>-same as keratinized epithelium w/o surface layer of deal cells</p><p>-resists abrasion and penetration of pathogens</p><p>-locations: tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus, and vagina</p>

-same as keratinized epithelium w/o surface layer of deal cells

-resists abrasion and penetration of pathogens

-locations: tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus, and vagina

<p>-same as keratinized epithelium w/o surface layer of deal cells</p><p>-resists abrasion and penetration of pathogens</p><p>-locations: tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus, and vagina</p>
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stratified cuboidal epithelium

<p>-2 or more cell layers; surface cells square or round</p><p>-secretes sweat, produces sperm, produces ovarian hormones</p><p>-locations: sweat gland ducts, ovarian follicles, and seminiferous tubules</p>

-2 or more cell layers; surface cells square or round

-secretes sweat, produces sperm, produces ovarian hormones

-locations: sweat gland ducts, ovarian follicles, and seminiferous tubules

<p>-2 or more cell layers; surface cells square or round</p><p>-secretes sweat, produces sperm, produces ovarian hormones</p><p>-locations: sweat gland ducts, ovarian follicles, and seminiferous tubules</p>
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transitional epithelium

<p>-multilayered epithelium with surface cells that change from round to flat when stretched</p><p>-allows for filling of urinary tract</p><p>-locations: ureter and bladder</p>

-multilayered epithelium with surface cells that change from round to flat when stretched

-allows for filling of urinary tract

-locations: ureter and bladder

<p>-multilayered epithelium with surface cells that change from round to flat when stretched</p><p>-allows for filling of urinary tract</p><p>-locations: ureter and bladder</p>
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cell junctions

-connections between 2 cells

-most cells are anchored to each other or their matrix

-cells communicate with each other, resist mechanical stress, and control what moves through the gaps between them

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tight junction

-linkage between 2 adjacent cells by transmembrane cell-adhesion proteins

-in epithelia, they form a zone that completely encircles each cell near its apical pole

-seals off intercellular space, making it difficult for substance to pass between cells

-water proof velcro

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desmosomes

-patch that holds cells together (like a clothing snap)

-keeps cells from pulling appart--resist mechanical stress

-hook-like, J-shaped proteins arise from cytoskeleton

-anchor cytoskeleton to membrane plaque

-transmembrane proteins from each cell joined by cell adhesion proteins

-allow for liquid to move, is more flexible

-loose

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hemidesmosomes

-half desmosomes that anchor basal cells of an epithelium to underlying basement membrance

-epithelium can’t easily peel away from underlying tissues

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gap (communicating) junction

-formed by ring-like connexons

-connexon consists of 6 transmembrane proteins arranged like segments of an orange around water-filled pore

-ions, nutrients, and other small solutes pass between cells

-located in cardiac and smooth muscle, embryonic tissue, lens and cornea

-cytoplasm can flow

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gland

-cell or organ that secretes substances for use elsewhere in the body or releases them for elimination from the body

-usually composed of epithelial tissue in a connective tissue framework and capsule

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secretion

product useful to the body

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excretion

waste product

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endocrine glands

have no ducts; secrete hormones directly into blood

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hormones

-chemical messengers that stimulate cells elsewhere in the body

-ex: thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands

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exocrine glands

-maintain their contact with surface of epithelium by way of a duct

-surface can be external (ex: sweat & tear glands) or internal (ex: pancreas & salivary glands)

-leave the body

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unicellular glands

-found in an epithelium that is predominantly nonsecretory

-can be exocrine or endocrine

-ex: mucus-secreting goblet cells in tracea or endocrine cells of stomach

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capsule

-connective tissue covering of exocrine gland

-boundary

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septa or trabeculae

-extensions of capsule that divide interior of gland into compartments (lobes and lobules)

-either stratified squamous or dense regular connective tissue

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stroma

-connective tissue framework of the gland

-supports and organizes glandular tissue

-framework

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parenchyma

-cells that perform the tasks of synthesis and secretion

-typically cuboidal or simple columnar epithelium

-secretion

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classification of glands

-duct shape

-gland shape

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duct shape

-simple (unbranched, one tube)

-compound (branched, multiple tubes that come together)

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tubular

narrow secretory portion

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acinar

secretory cells form dilated sac (acinus or alveolus)

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tubuloacinar

both tubular and acinar portions

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serous glands

-produce thin, watery secretions

-ex: sweat, milk, tears, digestive juices

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mucous glands

-produce glycoprotein, mucin, which absorbs water to form mucus

-goblet cells: unicellular mucous glands

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mixed glands

contain both serous and mucous cell types and produce a mixture of the two types of secretions

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apocrine secretion

-lipid droplet covered by membrane and cytoplasm buds from cell surface

-mode of milk fat secretion by mammary gland cells

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merocrine secretion

-used by eccrine glands

-uses vesicles that release their secretion by exocytosis

-ex: tear glands, pancreas, gastric glands, serous glands

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holocrine secretion

-cells accumulate a product until they disintegrate

-secrete a mixture of cell fragments and synthesized substances

-ex: oil glands of scalp and skin, and glands of eyelids

-high solid content/viscosity

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membranes

may be only epithelial, only connective or a mix of epithelial, connective, and muscluar tissues

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connective tissue membranes

dura mater, synovial membranes, periosteum

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epithelial tissue membranes

anterior surface of cornea and lens of eye

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cutaneous membrane

-the skin

-the largest membrane in the body

-stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis) resting on a layer of connective tissue (dermis)

-relatively dry layer serves protective function

-compound membrane (multiple tissue types)

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mucous membrane (mucosa)

-lines passages that open to the external environment

-ex: digestive tract

-sublayers: epithelium, lamina propria (areolar tissue), muscularis mucosa (smooth muscle)

-absorptive, secretory, and protective functions

-often have mucus producing goblet cells

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serous membrane (serosa)

-internal membrane

-simple squamous epithelium resting on a layer of areolar tissue

-produces serous fluid that arises from blood

-covers organs and lines walls of body cavities

-double membrane w/ watery sloution

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endothelium

lines blood vessels and heart

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mesothelium

lines body cavities (pericardium, peritoneum, and pleura)

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viseral layer

against organ

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parietal layer

against cavity

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tissue growth

increasing the number of cells or size of existing cells

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hyperplasia

growth through cell multiplication

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hypertrophy

-enlargement of preexisting cells

-muscle growth through exercise

-accumulation of body fat

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neoplasia

-development of a tumor (neoplasm)

-benign or malignant

-composed of abnormal, nonfunctional tissue

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diferentiation

-development of more specialized form and function by inspecialized tissue

-ex: embryonic mesenchyme becoming cartilage and bone

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metaplasia

-changing from one type of mature tissue to another

-Simple cuboidal tissue of vagina before puberty changes to stratified squamous after puberty

-Pseudostratified columnar epithelium of bronchi of smokers to stratified squamous epithelium

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stem cells

-undifferentiated cells that are not yet performing any specialized function

-Have potential to differentiate into one or more types of mature functional cells

-in deepest layer of epidermis (stratum basale)

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Developmental plasticity

ability of a stem cell to give rise to a diversity of mature cell types

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totipotent

-have potential to develop into any type of fully differentiated human cell including accessory organs of pregnancy

-source: cells of very early embryo

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pluripotent

-can develop into any type of cell in the embryo (but not accessory organs of pregnancy)

-source: cells of the inner cell mass of embryos (blastocyst)

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Adult stem cells

-undifferentiated cells found in mature organs

-some are multipotent and some are unipotent

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multipotent

able to develop into two or more cell lines (ex: bone marrow stem cells)

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unipotent

produce only one cell type (ex: cells giving rise to sperm)

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induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS Cell)

-start as a multipotent stem cell, reprogrammed to mimic a pluripotent stem cell

-bypasses ethical considerations of pluripotent stem cells

-performs like pluripotent stem cells

-possibility of genetically 100% compatible organ transplants feasible

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regeneration

-replacement of dead or damaged cells by the same type of cell as before

-restores normal function

-ex: repair of minor skin or liver injuries

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