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Aaron Beck

Created the popular cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

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Albert Ellis

An early pioneer of cognitive therapy who created rational-emotive behavioral therapy

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Sigmund Freud

the founder of psychoanalytic therapy, the first “talking cure”

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Mary Cover Jones

one of the first people to apply classical conditioning techniques to psychological treatment; successfully treated a child’s rabbit phobia by pairing rabbits with a positive stimulus

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Carl Rogers

creator of client-centered therapy, the most popular humanistic psychotherapy

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B.F. Skinner

a behaviorist who believed that application of learning principles could help patients improve their functioning

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Joseph Wolpe

created systematic desensitization, now used to treat phobias

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Psychodynamic

Emphasizes behavior is determined by your past experiences that are left in the unconscious mind and childhood experiences

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Cognitive

Focuses on internal processes of the mind influencing behavior

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Biological

The influence of genetics and brain chemistry (physical  & biological processes)

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Behavioral

Focus on observable behaviors, people/ animals are controlled by their environment, positive/negative consequences

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Humanistic

Human capacity for choice and growth, motivation for people to fulfill their potential

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Abnormal Behavior

maladaptive actions or cognitive processes that defy social norms

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Deinstitutionalization

late twentieth-century movement to release large numbers of asylum patients and reintegrate them into their communities

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)

the diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association, used to categorize and diagnose psychological disorders

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Psychologist

can’t prescribe meds, supports people through psychotherapy

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Psychiatrist

can prescribe meds, identify disorders/diagnose, generally works inside hospitals

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Medical Model

maintains that abnormal behaviors are symptoms of an underlying disease

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Psychoanalytic Model

maintains that abnormal behaviors are caused by repressed memories of childhood trauma and unconscious conflicts

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Humanistic Model

views psychological disorders as temporary impediments to self-actualization that result from unsatisfied needs

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Cognitive Model

that abnormal behaviors result from faulty beliefs and maladaptive emotional responses

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Biological Model

maintains that psychological disorders result from imbalances in brain chemistry and other biological causes, including heredity and evolution

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Sociocultural Model

maintains that psychological disorders are culturally specific and caused by a variety of social and cultural factors

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Behavioral Model

maintains that abnormal behaviors are the products of learning, just like any other behaviors

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Currently, in the DSM-5, abnormal behavior is generally defined as…

Deviant, Distressing, Dysfunctional, Dangerous

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

Experience excessive anxiety under most circumstances and worry about practically anything

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Panic Disorder

Anxiety disorder marked by recurrent and unpredictable panic attacks

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Specific Phobia

Intense, irrational fear responses to specific stimuli

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Agoraphobia

Afraid to be in public situations from which escape might be difficult or help unavailable if panic-like or embarrassing symptoms were to occur

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Compound disorder of thought and behavior

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Obsessions

are persistent, intrusive, and unwanted thoughts that an individual cannot get out of his or her mind

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Compulsions

are ritualistic behaviors performed repeatedly

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Result of some trauma experienced by the victim. Victims re-experience the traumatic event in nightmares about the event, or flashbacks in which they relieve the event

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Bipolar Disorder

Mood swings alternating between periods of major depression and mania

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Major Depressive Disorder

Involves intense depressed mood, reduced interest or pleasure in activities, loss of energy, and problems in making decisions for a minimum of 2 weeks

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Paranoid Personality Disorder “Accusatory”

Pattern of distrust and suspiciousness about other people’s motives, individual thinks that others are out to threaten, betray, exploit, or harm

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Schizoid Personality Disorder “Aloof”

Characterized by persistent avoidance of social relationships and little expression of emotion

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Schizotypal Personality Disorder “Awkward”

Characterized by extreme discomfort in close relationships, very odd patterns of thinking and perceiving, and behavioral eccentricities

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Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD)

Characterized by a general pattern of disregard for and violation of other people’s rights (closely linked to criminal behavior)

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Borderline Personality Disorder

Characterized by repeated instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and mood and by impulsive behavior

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Histrionic Personality Disorder

Characterized by a pattern of excessive emotionality (dramatic) and attention seeking

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Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Characterized by a broad pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy

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Avoidant Personality Disorder

Characterized by consistent discomfort and restraint in social situations, overwhelming feelings of inadequacy, and extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation/potential rejection, humanilitation

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Dependent Personality Disorder

Characterized by a pattern of clinging and obedience, fear of separation, and an ongoing need to be taken care of

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Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

Characterized by an intense focus on orderliness, perfectionism, and control that the person loses flexibility, openness, and efficiency

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Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Disorder marked by the inability to focus attention, or overactive and impulsive behavior, or both

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Disorder marked by extreme unresponsiveness to others, severe communication deficits, and highly repetitive and rigid behaviors, interests, and activities

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Intellectual Disability (ID)

Disorder marked by intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that are well below average

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Alzheimer’s Disease

Fatal degenerative disease in which brain neurons progressively die, characterized by loss of memory, reasoning, emotion, and control of bodily functions

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Anorexia Nervosa (Anorexia)

Life-threatening eating disorder that involves intense fear of weight gain or becoming overweight, distorted perception of one’s weight/body shape, persistent restriction of caloric intake

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Body dysmorphia

increasing cognitive misperception of being overweight despite evidence to the contrary

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Binge Eating Disorder

Uncontrollably eating a large amount of food in a short period of time; after a bingeing episode a person will not purge and will feel an extreme sense of guilt

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Bulimia Nervosa (Bulimia)

Recurrent binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors for the intake of food, such as purging

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Somatic Symptom Disorder (SDD)

Characterized by physical symptoms including pain, and high anxiety in these individuals about having a disease

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Illness Anxiety Disorder (IAD)

Characterized by a preoccupation with a serious medical or health condition with either no or mild physical (somatic) symptoms such as nausea or dizziness that has persisted for 6 months

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Conversion Disorder

Characterized by loss of some bodily function without physical damage to the affected organs or their neural connections

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Dissociative Amnesia

Loss of memory for a traumatic event or period of time that is too painful for an individual to remember

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Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

Rare mental disorder characterized by at least two distinct and relatively enduring identities or dissociated personality states that recurrently control a person’s behavior

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Schizophrenia

Psychotic disorder in which personal, social, and occupational functioning deteriorate as a result of unusual perceptions, odd thoughts, disturbed emotions, and motor abnormalities

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Dopamine Hypothesis

High fluctuation of levels of dopamine can be responsible for schizophrenic symptoms

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Diagnostic Labels

the categories of disorders recognized by the DSM, used to diagnose patients

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Rosenhan Experiment

Experiment underscoring the way that diagnostic labels can bias people’s perceptions of patients; hospital staff did not recognize that pseudopatients with a diagnosis of mental illness were in fact health

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Confidentiality

the obligation not to disclose particular kinds of information, including mental health information, except in limited cases, Mandated in the U.S. by HIPAA

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insanity

immunity from legal responsibility due to an inability to tell the difference between right and wrong; a legal category, not a psychiatric one

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Psychotherapy

an ongoing relationship between a patient and a therapist, in which the two discuss the patient’s experiences and symptoms

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Pharmacological Treatment

when a mental health professional prescribes a drug for a patient to alleviate psychological distress

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Flooding

Exposing people to fear-invoking objects or situations intensely and rapidly

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Systematic Desensitization

Developed by Joseph Wolpe, a client makes a list of fears and then learns to relax while concentrating on these fears

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Aversion Therapy

Pairing an undesirable behavior with an aversive stimulus in the hope that the unwanted behavior will eventually be reduced

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Token Economy

Behavioral strategy relies on reinforcement to modify behavior. Clients are allowed to earn tokens that can be exchanged for special privileges or desired items

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Biofeedback

Mind-body technique that involves using visual or auditory feedback to gain control over involuntary bodily functions

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Gestalt Therapy

a humanistic therapy that maintains that psychological distress occurs when patients focus on what could be, rather than on the present moment; developed by Fritz Perls

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Cognitive Distortions

automatic and irrational perceptions of the world that contribute to feelings of anxiety or depression

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Core Belief

a deeply held belief that guides an individual’s thoughts

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Cognitive Restructuring

a cognitive therapy technique that requires patients to challenge irrational beliefs and replace them with more realistic ones

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Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists

Human emotions and behavior are predominantly generated by ideas, beliefs, attitudes and thinking

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Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)

Developed in 1950s by Albert Ellis, psychological problems arise when thoughts are irrational and lead to behavioral consequences that are distressful

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Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Therapy

Researched by Aaron Beck, based on the idea that how we think (cognition), how we feel (emotion) and how we act (behavior) all interact together

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Mindfulness

strategies to cultivate a state of conscious awareness

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Psychoanalysis

The primary focus of psychodynamic therapy is to uncover the unconscious content of a client’s psyche in order to alleviate psychic tension

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Free Association

The client spontaneously reports thoughts, feelings, and mental images that come to mind (no censorship)

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Resistance “Mental Blocks”

The patient’s conscious or unconscious attempt to block disturbing memories, motives, and experiences (sensitive material)

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Transference

The process by which a patient projects or transfers unresolved conflicts and feelings onto the therapist

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Client-Centered Therapy

the most popular humanistic therapy, which views patients as “clients” and focuses on authenticity and healthy self-concept

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Unconditional Positive

Regard, allow client to steer the direction of the therapy, clients have value

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Active listening

therapist listens to client, paraphrasing what the client says, prevents advice or judgements

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Antidepressant Drugs

Elevate mood by affecting neurotransmitters such as serotonin that are linked to depression

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SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

blocks the reuptake of serotonin

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Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT

A biological treatment in which a brain seizure is triggered as an electric current passes through electrodes attached to the patient’s forehead

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Deep Brian Stimulation

an invasive biomedical treatment that delivers electric shocks to the brain directly through an implanted electrode sometimes used for severe OCD

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Wilhelm Wundt

Structuralism ,

Father of Modern Psychology, First Psychology Experiment

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G. Stanley Hall

First president of the American Psychological Association

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Margaret Floy Washburn

First woman to complete her PhD in psychology

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William James

Functionalism, Father of American Psychology, wrote Principles of Psychology

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Charles Darwin

Evolutionary Perspective, Natural Selection/ Evolution Principles in On the Origin of Species

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Mary Whiton Calkins

First woman president of the APA, denied PhD because she was a woman

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Dorothea Dix

Historical Figure, y ill, advocate for the mentally ill, created first mental hospitals across US & Europe

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Sigmund Freud

Psychoanalytic Perspective, Father of Psychoanalysis, Psychosexual Stages, Dream Analysis

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Ivan Pavlov

Behavioral Perspective, Classical Conditioning

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