Muscular System

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117 Terms

1

abdominal muscles

The muscles between the ribs and the pubic bone that fl ex and rotate the trunk.

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2

abduction

Movement of a body part away from the midline of the body.

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3

adduction

Movement of a body part toward the midline of the body.

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4

adhesion

Normally, the formation of a fibrous band of tissue holds two parts or surfaces together, as in the healing of a wound. In a disease condition, the formation of a fibrous band of tissue that holds two surfaces together due to inflammation or trauma.

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5

agonist

The muscle that causes the primary movement in a muscle pair.

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6

analgesic

A drug that relieves pain; includes non prescription pain relievers, such as aspirin, and prescription pain relievers, such as hydrocodone.

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7

antagonist

The muscle that works against the movement of the agonist in a muscle pair.

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8

anti-inflammatory

A drug that reduces inflammation.

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9

antispasmodic

A drug prescribed to suppress smooth-muscle contractions of the bladder, stomach, or intestine.

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10

ataxia

Inability to coordinate voluntary muscle activity; characterized by shaky, unsteady movements.

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11

atrophy

Wasting away or shrinkage of muscle size.

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12

automaticity

The ability of skeletal muscle fibers to resume their resting length when a stretching force is removed.

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13

biceps brachii

The muscle of the anterior upper arm that flexes the arm and forearm and supinates (rotates) the hand.

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14

biceps femoris

The muscle of the posterior thigh that extends the thigh and flexes and rotates the leg; also called the hamstring.

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15

biopsy

The removal of a small piece of living tissue for microscopic examination to determine the presence of disease.

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16

cardiac muscle

A type of involuntary muscle found only in the heart; pumps blood from the heart into blood vessels; also called myocardial muscle

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17

carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

A disorder marked by pain, burning, and itching or tingling due to an inflamed median nerve and tendons in the wrist.

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18

certified fitness trainer (CFT)

A professional who serves as a leader and instructor in exercise programs and helps people achieve and maintain a healthful lifestyle.

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19

circumduction

Rotation of an arm or leg (as if "drawing a circle" with the limb). This type of motion occurs in multiple body planes.

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20

computerized tomography (CT)

A process in which radiographic images of a specific section of the body are taken from multiple angles and then analyzed by a computer to identify injury or disease; also known as computerized tomography.

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21

contractility

The ability of a skeletal muscle to contract (shorten).

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22

contracture

Permanent tightening of skin, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and fascia.

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23

deep tendon reflexes (DTR)

Involuntary muscle contractions that occur when the tendons associated with certain areas of the limbs (for example, the patella, or knee) are percussed with a reflex hammer; tested during a standard neurological exam.

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24

deltoid

The muscle of the external shoulder that abducts, fl exes, extends, and rotates the arm.

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25

depression

(1) A mood disorder marked by persistent feelings of sadness, worthlessness, and lack of inter- est in daily activities; (2) The lowering of a body part.

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26

dorsiflexion

Movement of the sole of the foot upward (flexed toward the lower leg).

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27

Duchenne muscular dystrophy
(DMD)

A progressive disease that weakens the muscles of the shoulder and pelvic girdle.

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28

dystaxia

mild form of ataxia (lack of muscular coordination that produces shaky, unsteady movements).

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29

elasticity

The ability of skeletal muscle fibers to resume their resting length when a stretching force is removed.

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30

electromyogram (EMG)

A graphic recording of the contraction of a muscle as a result of electrical stimulation.

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31

elevation

Raising of a body part.

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32

endomysium

A fine sheath of areolar connective tissue around each muscle fiber; the innermost layer of connective tissue around a muscle.

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33

eversion

A dense, fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle; the outermost layer of connective tissue around a muscle.

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34

excitability

The ability of a skeletal muscle to receive and respond to a nerve impulse by contracting; also called irritability.

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35

exercise physiologist

A healthcare professional who performs exercise stress tests and evaluates a person's physical condition, focusing on cardiovascular health and metabolism.

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36

extensibility

The ability of the skeletal muscles to be stretched.

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37

extension

The straightening of a limb after it has been flexed.

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38

fascia

A band or sheet of fibrous tissue that encloses a muscle or group of muscles.

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39

fasciitis

Inflammation of a fascia.

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40

flaccidity

Condition or state in which muscles are flabby, relaxed, or have defective or absent tone.

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41

flexion

The movement of two body surfaces toward each other, as in the act of bending.

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42

frontalis

The muscle of the forehead that raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead.

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43

gastrocnemius

The prominent muscle of the posterior calf that fl exes the foot and leg.

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44

gluteus maximus

The outer muscle of the buttocks that extends and rotates the thigh.

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45

gluteus medius

The medial muscle of the buttocks that adducts and rotates the thigh.

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46

goniometry

The measurement of range of motion in a joint.

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47

hemiparesis

Weakness or slight paralysis on one side of the body.

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48

hemiplegia

Total paralysis on one side of the body.

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49

hyperextension

The act of bending a joint or limb beyond normal extension or range of motion.

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50

hypertrophy

Excessive growth or abnormal enlargement of a muscle.

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51

hypotonia

Loss of muscle tone.

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52

impingement syndrome

Condition that occurs when tendons of the shoulder become impinged, or compressed, by the bones of the shoulder.

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53

insertion

The attachment site of a muscle that moves during muscular contraction.

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54

inversion

The turning inward of the sole of the foot.

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55

involuntary muscles

Muscles that are not stimulated through conscious control.The muscle of the mid back and lower spine that extends, adducts, and rotates the arm.

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56

latissimus dorsi

The muscle of the mid back and lower spine that extends, adducts, and rotates the arm.

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57

leiomyoma

Benign tumor of smooth muscle, such as that found in the heart, bladder, or uterus.

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58

leiomyosarcoma

Malignant tumor of smooth muscle.

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59

ligament

A fibrous cord of tissue that attaches bone to bone.

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60

magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI)

A noninvasive scanning test that involves use of an electromagnetic field and radio waves to visualize soft-tissue structures.

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61

muscle

A type of body tissue made up of bundles of fibers (long, slender cells) that are held together by connective tissue; contracts, causing body movement, when stimulated.

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62

muscle fibers

Long, slender cells grouped and held together with connective tissue and covered with fascia; make up skeletal muscles.

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63

muscular dystrophy (MD)

Genetic disease characterized by progressive muscular weakness and skeletal muscle deterioration.

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64

muscular system

The body system that allows voluntary and involuntary body movement and produces body heat through energy generated by muscles.

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65

myalgia

Muscle pain.

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66

myasthenia gravis

A chronic autoimmune disease of the skeletal muscles caused by disruption in neural communication between the muscles and the nerves; characterized by severe weakness and fatigue.

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67

myocele

Herniation or protrusion of muscle through a tear in the fascia.

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68

myolysis

Degeneration or deterioration of muscle tissue.

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69

myoma

Tumor of the muscle.

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70

myomalacia

Abnormal softening of muscle tissue.

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71

myoparesis

Weakness or mild muscular paralysis.

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72

myoplasty

Surgical repair of a muscle through plastic surgery.

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73

myorrhexis

Rupture or tearing of a muscle.

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74

myositis

Inflammation of a muscle.

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75

narcotic

A drug that, in moderate doses, depresses the central nervous system, relieves pain, and induces sleep.

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76

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs (NSAIDs)

A drug that relieves pain, counteracts inflammation, and reduces fever; commonly used to treat arthritis.

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77

nuclear medicine imaging (NMI)

Diagnostic imaging technique in which a radioactive substance and a special camera are used to visualize structures and functions in the body.

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78

origin

The attachment site of a muscle that does not move when the muscle contracts.

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79

paraplegia

A loss of voluntary movement (motor function) in the lower half of the body, including both legs; often as a result of spinal cord injury (SCI) or disease.

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80

paresthesia

The sensation of numbness, prickling, or tingling, usually in the upper or lower extremities; caused by irritation of, or injury to, sensory nerves or nerve roots.

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81

pectoralis major

The muscle of the chest that flexes, adducts, and rotates the arm.

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82

perimysium

A sheath of connective tissue that surrounds bundles of muscle fibers called fascicles.

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83

physical therapy

Rehabilitation that focuses on restoring physical function and preventing disability.

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84

plantar fasciitis

Inflammation of the plantar fascia (the thick band of tissue in the sole of the foot between the heel bone and the toes), resulting in heel pain.

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85

plantar flexion

Motion of the plantar surface (sole of the foot) away from the mid- line of the body.

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86

pronation

Rotational motion of the forearm in which the palm moves to face downward.

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87

quadriplegia

Paralysis of all four extremities.

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88

radiography

Diagnostic imaging technique that uses electromagnetic waves to create images of the inside of the body.

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89

range-of-motion (ROM) testing

Diagnostic procedure performed to evaluate the extent to which joints can be moved in a variety of directions.

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90

range-of-motion (ROM) therapy

Exercises performed to improve or maintain joint mobility and flexibility.

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91

rectus femoris

The muscle of the anterior thigh that flexes the thigh and extends the leg; also called the quadricep.

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92

Rest Ice Compression Elevation
(RICE)

most common first aid treatment of muscular injuries

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93

rhabdomyoma

A benign tumor consisting of striated muscle that occurs on or in the smooth muscle of the heart.

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94

rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)

A malignant tumor of skeletal muscle.

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95

rigor

Stiffness that occurs in dead bodies due to chemical changes in the muscles.

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96

rotation

Movement of a body part around its longitudinal axis—that is, lengthwise.

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97

sarcopenia

Loss of muscle mass, strength, and function as a result of aging.

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98

sartorius

The muscle of the anterior thigh that flexes and rotates the thigh and flexes the leg.

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99

shin splint

Painful condition caused by muscle tearing away from the tibia.

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100

skeletal muscle

Muscle tissue that is attached to bone and works with the skeletal system to generate movement at will; also called voluntary muscle or striated muscle.

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