Modules 5-8 Psychology 1000 Review

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Acquisition

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Acquisition

Period of initial learning in classical conditioning in which a human or an animal begins to connect a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus will begin to elicit the conditioned response

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Associative Learning

Form of learning that involves connecting certain stimuli or events that occur together in the environment (classical and operant conditioning)

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Classical Conditioning

Learning in which the stimulus or experience occurs before the behavior and then gets paired or associated with the behavior

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Cognitive Map

Mental Picture of the layout of the environment

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Conditioned Response (CR)

Response caused by the conditioned stimulus

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Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

Stimulus that elicits a response due to its being paired with an unconditioned stimulus

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Continuous Reinforcement

Rewarding a behaviour every time it occurs

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Extinction

Decrease in the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the conditioned stimulus

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Fear Conditioning

A type of classical conditioning that elicits a fear response

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Fixed Interval Reinforcement Schedule

Behaviour is rewarded after a set amount of time

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Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Schedule

Set number of responses must occur before a behaviour is rewarded

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Higher-Order Conditioning (or second-order)

Using a conditioned stimulus to condition a neutral stimulus

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Insight

The sudden understanding of a solution to a problem

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Instinct

Unlearned knowledge, involving complex patterns of behavior; are thought to be more prevalent in lower animals than in humans

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Latent Learning

Learning that occurs, but it may not be evident until there is a reason to demonstrate it

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Law of Effect

Behaviour that is followed by consequences satisfying to the organism will be repeated and behaviours that are followed by unpleasant consequences will be discouraged

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Learning

Changes in behaviour or knowledge that is the result of experience

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Model

Person who performs a behavior that serves as an example in observational learning

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Negative Punishment

Taking away a pleasant stimulus to decrease or stop a behaviour

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Negative Reinforcement

Taking away an undesirable stimulus to increase a behaviour

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Neutral Stimulus (NS)

Stimulus that does not initially elicit a response

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Observational Learning

Type of learning that occurs by watching others

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Operant Conditioning

Form of learning in which the stimulus/experience happens after the behaviour is demonstrated

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Partial Reinforcement

Rewarding behaviour only some of the time

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Positive Punishment

Adding an undesirable stimulus to stop or decrease a behaviour

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Positive Reinforcement

Adding a desirable stimulus to increase a behaviour

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Primary Reinforcer

Has innate reinforcing qualities (food, water, shelter, sex)

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Punishment

Implementation of a consequence in order to decrease a behaviour

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Radical Behaviourism

Staunch form of behaviorism developed by B. F. Skinner that suggested that even complex higher mental functions like human language are nothing more than stimulus-outcome associations

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Reflex

Unlearned, automatic response by an organism to a stimulus in the environment

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Reinforcement

Implementation of a consequence in order to increase a behavior

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Secondary Reinforcer

Has no inherent value unto itself and only has reinforcing qualities when linked with something else (money, gold stars, stickers, poker chips)

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Shaping

Rewarding successive approximations toward a target behaviour

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Spontaneous Recovery

Return of a previously extinguished conditioned response

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Stimulus Discrimination

Ability to respond differently to similar stimuli

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Stimulus Generalization

Demonstrating the conditioned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus

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Unconditioned Response (UCR)

Natural (unlearned) behaviour to a given stimulus

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Unconditioned Stimulus (US)

Stimulus that elicits a reflexive response

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Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedule

Behaviour is rewarded after unpredictable amounts of time have passed

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Variable Ratio Reinforcement Schedule

Number of responses differ before a behaviour is rewarded

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Vicarious Punishment

Process where the observer sees the model being punished, making the observer less likely to imitate the model’s behaviour

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Vicarious Reinforcement

Process where the observer sees the model rewarded, making the observer more likely to imitate the model’s behaviour

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Absolute Threshold

The minimum amount of stimulus energy that must be present for the stimulus to be detected 50% of the time

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Afterimage

The continuation of a visual sensation after the stimulus is removed

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Amplitude

The height of a wave

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Basilar Membrane

A thin strip of tissue within the cochlea that contains the hair cells which serve as the sensory receptors for the auditory system

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Binaural Cue

Two-eared cue to localize sound

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Binocular Cue

Cue that relies on the use of both eyes

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Binocular Disparity

Slightly different view of the world that each eyes receives

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Blind spot

Point where we cannot respond to visual information in that portion of the visual field

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Bottom-Up Processing

System in which perceptions are built from sensory input

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Closure

Organizing our perceptions into complete objects rather than as a series of parts

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Cochlea

Fluid-filled, snail-shaped structure that contains the sensory receptor cells of the auditory system

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Cochlear implant

Electronic device that consists of a microphone, a speech processor, and an electrode array to directly stimulate the auditory nerve to transmit information to the brain

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Conductive Hearing Loss

Failure in the vibration of the eardrum and/or movement of the ossicles

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Cone

Specialized photoreceptor that works best in bright light conditions and detects colour

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Congenital Deafness

Deafness from birth

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Congenital Insensitivity to Pain (Congenital Analgesia)

Genetic disorder that results in the inability to experience pain

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Cornea

Transparent covering over the eye

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Deafness

Partial or complete inability to hear

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Decibel (dB)

Logarithmic unit of sound intensity

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Depth Perception

Ability to perceive depth

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Electromagnetic Spectrum

All the electromagnetic radiation that occurs in our environment

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Figure-Ground Relationship

Segmenting our visual world into figure and ground

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Fovea

Small indentation in the retina that contains cones

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Frequency

Number of waves that pass a given point in a given time period

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Gestalt Psychology

Field of psychology based on the idea that the whole is different from the sum of its parts

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Good Continuation (Continuity)

We are more likely to perceive continuous, smooth flowing lines rather than jagged, broken lines

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Hair Cell

Auditory receptor cell of the inner ear

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Hertz (Hz)

Cycles per second; measure of frequency

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Inattentional Blindness

Failure to notice something that is completely visible because of a lack of attention

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Incus

Middle ear ossicle; also known as the anvil

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Inflammatory Pain

Signal that some type of tissue damage has occurred

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Interaural Level Difference

Sound coming from one side of the body is more intense at the closest ear because of the attenuation of the sound wave as it passes through the head

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Interaural Timing Difference

Small difference in the time at which a given sound wave arrives at each ear

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Iris

Coloured portion of the eye

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Just Noticeable Difference

Difference in stimuli required to detect a difference between the stimuli

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Kinaesthesia

Perception of the body’s movement through space

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Lens

Curved, transparent structure that provides additional focus for light entering the eye

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Linear Perspective

Perceive depth in an image when two parallel lines seem to converge

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Malleus

Middle ear ossicle; also known as the hammer

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Meissner’s Corpuscle

Touch receptor that responds to pressure and lower frequency vibrations

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Ménière’s Disease

Results in a degeneration of inner ear structures that can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, and an increase in pressure within the inner ear

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Merkel’s Disk

Touch receptor that responds to light touch

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Monaural Cue

One-eared cue to localize sound

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Monocular Cue

Cue that only requires one eye

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Neuropathic Pain

Pain from damage to neurons of either the peripheral or central nervous system

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Nociception

Sensory signal indicating potential harm and maybe pain

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Olfactory Bulb

Bulb-like structure at the tip of the frontal lobe, where the olfactory nerves begin

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Olfactory Receptor

Sensory cell for the olfactory system

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Opponent-Process Theory of Colour Perception

Colour is coded in opponent pairs; black-white, yellow-blue, and red-green

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Optic Chiasm

X-shaped structure that sits just below the brain’s ventral surface; represents the merging of the optic nerves from the two eyes and the separation of information from the two sides of the visual field to the opposite side of the brain

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Optic Nerve

Carries visual information from the retina to the brain

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Pacinian Corpuscle

Touch receptor that detects transient pressure and higher frequency vibrations

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Pattern Perception

Ability to discriminate among different figures and shapes

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Peak or Crest

Highest point of a wave

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Perception

Way that sensory information is interpreted and consciously experienced

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Perceptual Hypothesis

Educated guess used to interpret sensory information

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Pheromone

Chemical message sent by another individual

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Photoreceptor

Light-detecting cell

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