Apologetics/Sociology Test 1

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137 Terms
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Sociology

the scientific study of human behavior, social groups, and society

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Sociological imagination

the ability to understand how history and biography influence our lives

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Sociological perspective

a conscious effort to question the obvious and to remove us from familiar experiences and examine them critically and objectively

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Macrosociology

deals with large-scale structures and processes

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Microsociology

concerned with small-scale units--how individuals behave in social situations

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Social science

has human behavior, social organizations, or society as its subject matter

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Economics

the study of how goods, services, and wealth are produced, consumed, and distributed within societies

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Political science

the study of power, governments, and political processes

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Anthropology

the study of the physical, biological, social, and cultural development of humans

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Traditional indigenous

refers to ethnic groups who are native to a land or region

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Psychology

the study of human mental processes and individual human behavior

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Social psychology

the study of how individuals interact with other individuals or groups and how groups influence the individual

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History

the study of the past

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Geography

the study of the physical environment and the distribution of plants and animals, including humans

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Social work

the field in which the principles of the social sciences are applied to actual social problems

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Applied sciences

sciences that directly use the principles of the pure sciences

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Pure sciences

sciences that seek knowledge for its own sake

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Auguste Comte

The term sociology was coined by

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Theory

a set of interrelated statements or propositions that explain a particular process or phenomenon

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Structural functionalism

theory that societies contain certain interdependent structure, each of which performs certain functions for the maintenance of society; macro-level

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Social system

a set of interrelated social statuses and the expectations that accompany them

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Manifest functions

intended and recognized consequences of a social system

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Latent functions

consequences of a social system that are neither intended nor recognized

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Dysfunctions

factors that lead to the disruption or breakdown of the social system

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Functional alternatives

other ways to achieve the intended goal

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Conflict theory

social theory that views conflict as inevitable and natural and as a significant cause of social change; macro-level

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Symbolic interaction theory

social theory that stresses interactions between people and the social processes that occur within the individual that are made possible by language and internalized meaning; most widely used and recognized interaction perspective; micro-level

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Exchange theory

a theory of interaction that attempts to explain social behavior in terms of reciprocity of costs and rewards

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Evolutionary theory

theory of social development that suggests that societies, like biological organisms, progress through stages of increasing complexity

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Karl Marx

Who came up with the conflict theory?

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George Herbert Mead

Who developed the symbolic interaction theory?

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Culture

a system of ideas, values, beliefs, knowledge, norms, customs, and technology shared by almost everyone in a particular society

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Society

a group of interacting persons who live in a specific geographical area, who are organized in a cooperative manner, and who share a common culture

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Ethnocentrism

the attitude that our own culture is superior to others, that our own beliefs, values, and behaviors are more correct than others

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Xenocentrism

the belief that what is foreign is best, that our own lifestyle, products, or ideas are inferior to those of others

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Temprocentrism

the belief that our own time is more important than the past or future

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Cultural relativism

the belief that cultures must be judged on their own terms and rather than by the standards of another culture

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Norms

formal and informal rules of conduct and social expectations for behavior; standards, rules, guides, and expectations for actual behavior

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Symbol

something that is used to represent something else

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Language

systematized usage of speech and hearing to convey or express feelings and ideas

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Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

the hypothesis that societies with different languages perceive the world differently because their members interpret the world through the grammatical forms, labels, and categories their language provides

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Values

ideas shared by the people in a society regarding what is important and worthwhile

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Beliefs

view that people share about what is true or what really exists

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Folkways

type of norm; customs or conventions; violations bring only mid censure

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Mores

type of norm; involve clear-cut distinctions between right and wrong; more closely associated with the moral values a society considers important; violations bring more severe punishment

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Taboos

mores that prohibit something

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Mos

the Latin singular of mores

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Laws

formal, standardized expressions of norms enacted by legislative bodies to regulate particular types of behaviors

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Pathology of normalcy

the concept that cultural norms are not always beneficial for a society, group, or individual

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Technology

the material techniques and products a society uses to maintain its standard of living

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Artifacts

physical products or objects created through human actions

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Cultural lag

the tendency for material culture to outpace non-material culture

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Institutions

a stable cluster of values, norms, statuses, and roles that develops around a basic social goal

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Subcultures

groups who share some of the cultural elements of the larger society yet also have their own distinctive set of norms, values, symbols, and lifestyles

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High culture

reflects the tastes of the wealthy, affluent, or upper classes

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Folk culture

reflects the tastes of the working class or ethnic groups

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Popular culture

reflects the tastes of the masses within a society

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Counterculture

a subculture that adheres to a set of beliefs and values that are in opposition to the dominant culture of which it is part

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Ideal culture

consists of the norms and values people profess to follow

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Real culture

the norms and values people actually follow and practice

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Cultural universals

aspects of culture that are shared by all people

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Idioculture

a system of knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and customs created through group interactions; unique to a given group

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"taste cultures" identified by Herbert Gans

high culture, folk culture, and popular culture

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the process of applying social sanctions

Social control is essentially what?

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Socialization

the process of learning how to interact in society by learning the rules and expectations of society

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Nature-nurture debate

debate over whether behavior results from predetermined biological characteristics or from socialization

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Sociobiology

the study of biological and genetic determinants of social behavior

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Instincts

patterns or reflexes that occur in animals; biological or hereditary impulses, drives, or behaviors that require not learning or reasoning

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Self

the sense of one's own identity as a person

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Role-taking

assuming the roles of others and seeing the world from their perspective

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Play

a way of practicing role-taking

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Significant others

important people in the lives of children, especially with regard to socialization

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Generalized others

the organized community or social group that provides reference for a child's own conduct

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I

the acting, unself-conscious person

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Me

the part of the self that sees self as object, evaluates self, and is aware of society's expectations of self

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Mind

the process of using a language and thinking

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Looking-glass self

three components are: how we think our behavior appears to others, how we think others judge our behavior, and how we feel about their judgments

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Self-fulfilling prophecy

a prediction that comes true because people believe it and act as though it were true

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Presentation of self

the way we present ourselves to others and how our presentation influences others

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Dramaturgical approach

interaction is compared to a drama on stage

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Account of behavior

an effort at maintaining the self by explaining the reasons for or facts surrounding the behavior

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Disclaimers

maintaining our presentation of self by denying behavior that contradicts how we wish to be viewed

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Pre-conventional stage (of moral development)

children act according to what authoritative figures expect from them; morality is external, and children are simply trying to avoid punishment

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Conventional stage (of moral development)

children have internalized what has been taught to them and begin to view right and wrong in terms of what is socially acceptable; they want to be a good person and do what is right

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Post-conventional stage (of moral development)

individuals are more concerned with the rights of others than with the laws of society

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Id

inborn drives for self-gratification

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Ego

balancing principle; mediator between the id and the superego

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Superego

our conscience

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Peer group

an informal primary group of people who share a similar or equal status and who are usually of roughly the same age

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Mass media

forms of communication, such as television, popular magazines, and radio, intended for a large audience

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Instrumental role

a role that emphasizes accomplishment of tasks and is traditionally associated more with men than with women

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Expressive role

a role that emphasizes warmth and understanding rather than action or leadership and is traditionally associated more with women than with men

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Gender identity

the social construction of boys and girls, men and women, as opposed to their biological characteristics

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Resocialization

socialization to a new role or position in life that requires a dramatic shift in the attitudes, values, behaviors, and expectations learned in the past

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Mortification of self

stripping the self of all the characteristics of a past identity, including clothing, personal possessions, friends, roles and routines, and so on

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have normal development

In Spitz's study, the children reared with their mothers in a detention center compared to those in foundling homes were found to _______.

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Deviance

variation from a set of norms or shared social expectations

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Absolutist view

the view that there is wide agreement about social norms and that certain behaviors are deviant regardless of the social context in which they occur

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Moralist view

the view that some norm violations are deviant because they are morally wrong

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Medical view

the view that deviance is essentially pathological evidence that a society is unhealthy

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